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4 /)Ji ^^> yv5' s 



HARVARD COLLEGE 
LIBRARY 




FllOM THB FUND OF 

CHARLES MINOT 

CLASS OF 1828 



THE 



^ TRIBES AND CASTES 



Of THI 

NORTH-WESTERN PROVINCES AND OUDE // 



BT 



W. QBOOEE, BJU 

BMKQkL CITIL •BBTICI. 



■N -. I f 



nr FOUR T0LVMS9. 

Vol. II. 



f/V 



» 



CALCUTTA: 



OFnCB OF THB SnPEBIHTESDBHT OF GOYESSHBNT PBQinHQ, IBDU. 

1898. 







<^^KU/>L<7^ 



!<., 



OAicimri t 

OI^VBBVHBVT Of IVDIA OBSTBlt niVTIVA OfflOB, 

8, ■▲trncM iTBiiit. 



THE 

TRIBES AND CASTES 

OF THB 

NORTH-WESTERN PROVINCES AND OUDH. 

VOLUMB II. 



Bhar.^ — A caste of apparently Dravidian origia found in the 
eastern |>art8 of the United Provincee. 

They are also known as Bijbhar, Bharat^ and Bharpatwa. The 
word Bhar is derived by the Pandits from the Sanskrit root bM, 
to nourish, but this is improbable, and it is more likely to be of 
uon- Aryan oripn. Dr. Oppert' indulges in some curious 
speculations on the subject. He suggests their connection with the 
Barrliai of Ptolemy (VII-2-20), and with the Bharatas, a mountain 
trilie mentioned in connection with the Sabaras and with the 
Barbara, Varvara, or Barbarian. The derivation of large numbers of 
lo«*al names in Upper India from the same source, such as Bihar, 
Bahriich, Birabanki, Bareilly, Barhaj, Barhar, and even Yaranasi 
or Benares, etc., must be accepted with the greatest caution. 

2. This tribe has gi>'en rise to much wild speculation. In 

Gorakhpur they claim to be the descendants 

Tnuditionfl. 

of, and named from, an early Kshatriya 
Raja named Bhiradwija, whose sons strayed from the ancient way 
of life and took to the use of meat and wine. Their descendant 
Surha settled in the village of Surauli, and wishing to marry a 
high caste lUjput girl, was murdered by her relations, and became 
an evil spirit » who does much damage still if he is not duly propitiat- 
ed. That they claim to have been once a dominant race in the 
eastern {uirt of Oudh and the North- Western Provincee is certain. 
Thus Sir C. Elliott writes :— " The scene befoi^ us in Oudh at the 
fall of the historic curtain is an uninhabited forest country and a 



* BMtd KB inforsAtioa eolUelvd aI If inap«r »Bd boCm rtc«iv«d tbrvuffli 
If r. H E. L. P. Dap«iiMi. C. 8.. AiMifmrli* mad from MoBAhi OhhM Ul,D«ptttj 
lMp«ciur ol ^hool*, QoTAkhpsr. 

* Original imkabiimmU ^ BkofmUimnm, 17, iff. 
Vol. IL 



BHAB. 2 

large colony of Sftrajbansis occupying Ajudhya as their capital. 
When the cnrtain rises again we find Ajudhya destroyed, the 
Surajbansis utterly banished, and a large extent of country ruled 
over by aborigines, called Cheros in the Far East, Bhars in the 
Centre, and Bajpasis in the West. This great revolution seems to be 
satisfactorily explained by the conjecture that the Bhars, Cheros, etc., 
were the aborigines whom the Aryans had driven to the hills, and 
who, swarming down from thence not long after the beginning of 
our era, overwhelmed the Ajyan civilisation even in Ajudhya 
itself, drove the Surajbansis under Eanaksen to emigrate into 
distant Gujarilt, and spread over all the plain between the Himalayas 
and that spur of the Yindhya range which passes through the 
south of Mirzapur/'^ Again we read that the primitive inhabit- 
ants of Sultinpur are said to have been Bhars. '^ Their character 
is painted in the most sombre colours. They are represented to 
have been dark-complexioned, ill-favoured, and of mean stature, 
intemperate in their habits, and not only devoid of any religious 
beUef themselves, but addicted to the persecution of those who 
ventured to profess any. They are said to have possessed a few 
scattered and detached fortresses to serve as rallying points ; but 
to have been otherwise of nomadic and predatory habits, while their 
numbers are said to have barely sufficed to furnish a scanty popula* 
tion to the tract they occupied. "■ In support of these pretensions 
to have been a ruling race in the eastern part of the Province, 
numerous old stone forts, embankments, wells, and subterraneous 
caverns ^ are attributed to them« Thus the Chiraiy akot fort, in 
Ghazipur, is said to have been their work.' The same is the case 
with numerous ruins in the Basti and Ghazipur Districts.* The 
present town of Bahr&ich is said to take its name from them and to 
have been their oldest abode^ from which they spread southward 
into Faizib&d and Sultinpur. Similarly they are siud to have left 
their name in the Bhadohi and Barhar parganas of Mirzapur.* 
Two other fortresses of the Bhars are said to have been Zahurabad 
and Lakhnesar, in Ghazipur.' In Gorakhpur they are said to 
have been ousted by the Kausik Bljputs. Mr. Sherring considers 



> ChnmicUi of Unao, 27. 

s SfttUment Report, 87, »q. 

> Canninflrham, Archtodogical Survey, XXII., 107, 

4 BaohAnan, Eagtem India, 11., 879 ; Oldham, Memoir^ I*, Ift*^ 

• Ellioit. ChronicUM of Unao, 36. 

• Oldham, Memoir, I., 46. 



8 UHAB. 

their capitml in Mirzapur to hare been Pampftpora near Bindh&chal, 
where extensive mins and a ooriouB seriee of bearded stone fi genres 
are attribnted to thcm.^ In fact, thronghont Oudh and the eastern 
part of the North-West Provinces every town the name of which 
does not end in fmr, dAdd, or «ra« is assigned to them.' 

d. An attempt has been made to support these traditions by 

historical evidence. On the evidence of two 
inscriptions from Ajaygarh and Kaiugar, in 



Bandelkhand, and a passage^ from Earishta, Mr. W. C. Benett* 
argues '' that a man whose name is not given, but who is described 
as the founder of his family, possessed himself of the fort of 
Ajaygarh. One of his descendants was Malika, whose brother, 
]>alki, on the overthrow of the last Kanauj King, conquered the 
whole of the Duab; and Farishta records the utter defeat and 
destruction of Dalki and Maiki, who had royal forts at Kalinjar and 
Karra and held the whole country as far as M&lwa in their posses- 
sion, by Nasir*ud-din Muhammad, the King of Delhi, in 1246 A. D. 
The universal tradition of Southern Oudh proves thai these princes 
were really Bhars, and that the whole of the south ol the province 
as far as the Ghfigra was included in their dominions.'^ This 
theory, however, has ftuled to stand further investigation^ and the 
Princes Dalki and MaIki are identified by Oeneral Cunningham 
with the Baghel Rajas Dalaktswar and Maiakeewar.* It is pro- 
liablc that out of the same legend haa arisen the worship of Rija 
Ikii, w1k> is specially venerated by Bhars and Ahirs. His worship 
is connected with protection from snako-bite. He is said to have 
been one of two Bhar brothers who ruled at Dalmau and Had 
Hareli, and were slain by ttie Muhammadans in the time of Ibiahim 
8han]i of Jaunpur. In their memory, it is said that the Bharau- 
tiya section of Ahirs in time of mourning abstain from wearing 
anklets. Bal Raja is ciiiefly worshipped in Kid BareK, Basti, 
and Eastern Oudh« He has 76,395 followers. The evidence, then, 
fur an extensive Bhar kingdom in the eastern part of the Pro%inoe 
rests almost entirely on the so-oalled Bhar dii$ or ancient mounds 

* HinAm TriUa and Ca$U$, I., 3'*l^, «•/«;. 

« C'lmmulciu/rnao. 30; LiirJ[n'>io S^Hltmeni Rtpori, $^ 110. Fur Uber i»- 
•tAiirva •«•«• 8b«rrt&ff, lo<. €it, 1., S57, a^'/. 

* OuAh amtUtcr, lntri»dHa%vti, XXXV.,*<f.; iuJUm AmUfumr^^ 1., $ii\ «.; ; 
CUkfU 0/ Jmm Burtli, t. 

« Arthtndojifal tiurt*y, XXI., 109. C«iifitf RtpoH^ Kvfih'W^&t tf99%m€t^ IdSl, 
p.22<'. 

Vol. II. 

At 



BHAB. 4 

and forts which abound all over the country, and on the so-called 
Bhar tanks, which are distinguished from those of a later date by 
being Sui*a3bedi or longer from east to west, while modern tanks 
are Chandrabedi or lie north and south. Who may have been 
the builders of these monuments, our existing knowledge hardly 
entitles us to say with certainty. But that the identification of 
these monuments with the Bhars is not in every case to be trusted 
is proved by the fact that two buildings at Bihar, in Partabgarh, 
which are confidently ascribed to the Bhars by a writer in the 
OudA Oazetteer^ are proved by General Cunningham to be 
genuine Buddhist stupas.' Similarly, the identification of the 
Bhars with the early rulers of the country presents many 
features of difficulty. Their identification with the Ubarsd of 
Pliny and the Barrhai of Ptolemy' is little more than conjec- 
tural. As Sir H. M. Elliot pointed out*: — ''It is strange that 
no trace of Bhars is to be found in the Purftnas, unless we may 
consider that there is an obscure indication of them in the Brahma 
Purftna, where, it is said, that among the descendants of Jayadhwaja 
are the Bh&ratas, who, it is added, are not commonly specified 
on account of their great number, or they may perhaps be the 
Bhargas of the Mahabh&rata subdued by Bhimsen on his Eastern 
expedition.^' To this it has been replied by Mr. Sherring* 
that, first, Brahmanical writers generally speak of the Dasyus 
and Asuras with superciliousness and contempt, and, secondly, the 
abandonment of a considerable tract of country by the Aryans was 
dishonourable and not likely to be mentioned. It is, perhaps, 
possible that the Bhars, like the Doms, may have established a fairly 
advanced civilisation prior to their downfall. But, as Dr. Tylor 
remai'ks :— " Degeneration probably operates even more actively in 
the lower than the higher culture,^'' and we must be cautious 
in identifying the race of fort and tank builders with the existing 
Bhars ipainly on the uncertain evidence of popular tradition. 
Whoever these people were, they probably succumbed before the 
eastern emigration of the R&jput tribes contemporaneous with the 



> I., 806. 

3 ArchvtologieoX Survey, XI., 67. 

s Mr. J. W. MoOrindle, Indian Antiquary, VL, 888 ; XIII., 380. 

< Supplemenial Oloaary, ■. t. 

• Journal Royal Aiiatie Bocidy, N. 8., V., 376. On the BharatM, Me Oppert, 
Original InhaJbiianU of B^aroiavortha, 578, 9qq, 

• Frimiiiv QuUurt, I., 46. 



O BEAR. 

Call of Kananj and the invaeion of Shihabnddtn Ohori. In Azam- 
garh and Ghizipur they were driven out by the Sengar tribe, who 
reckon fifteen gcneratione since their immigration ; in Mirzapur 
and the adjoining part of AllahAbftd by the Gaharw&r ; in Bhadohi, 
north of the Ganges, by the Monas, and farther west, in Allahl- 
bAd, by the Bais, Sonak, Tissy&l, Bisen, and Nanwak ; in Eaiz&bid 
and Eastern Ondh by the Bais ; and in Gorakhpur by the Kansik. 
'* The overthrow of the Bhars was followeil by the establishment, 
mnch as we find them now, of the principal elements of modem 
Oudh society. The country was divided into a number of small 
chieftainships, ruled over by clans who, whatever their real origin 
may have been, all professed themselves to be of the ruling caste of 
Chhatris. Many of these, such as the K&nhpuriyas of Partabgarh^ 
the Gaurs of Hardoi, and their offshoot the Amethiyas of lUe 
Bareli are probably descendants of men or tribes who flourished 
under the low caste government/' ^ How far this process may 
have gone on is one of the problems connected with the lUjput 
Ethnology of the eastern part of the Province. Mr. Camegy was 
of opinion that the more respectable and influential Rajput cUns* 
men may have fled before the then dominant rulers of the serpent 
race or of the followers of Buddha; but that the mass of the 
Chhatris remained and were in fact none other than the Bhars^ 
Chcros, and the like, and that the final overthrow of these degraded 
races after the fall of Delhi was neither more nor less than the 
restoration of Rajput influence in those parts where it had been 
dormant, and the social reclamation of the Bhars.' Mr. Y. A« 
Smith ' again believes them to have been Jains, and Mr. Millett 
thinks them to be probably of Sc^'thic origin, and that the termina* 
tion of their influence was coeval with the first Aryan invasion.' 
The most probable supposition is that the Bhars were a Dravidian 
race closely allied to the Kols, Cberos, and Seoris, who at an early 
date succumbed to the invading Aryans. This is borne out by their 
appearance and physique, which closely resemble that of the 
undoubted non-Aryan aborigines of the Vindhyan Kaimiir plateau. 
4. The last Census classes the Bhars under the main sub-castes 

of Bharatlwaj, Kanaiijiya, and Rajbhar. We 
find among the locally more important sub- 



1 (K*iK iSatfUt^, lmln>dmtUQn, XXXV. 
s J9umml dtimiU SoAtfly ^ Bengal, |Sn< 



BHAK. 6 

cfuates the Hela of Benares^ the Goriym of Jannpur ; in GhUzipor, 
theBaltent^ Dhelphor, Dhongiya, Eharw&ra^ Ehutant^ Kinwir, 
Euntel^ Mannas, Pataun, Sarpos; in Ballia, the Dhelphor and 
Knlwant ; in Faizftbfid, the Bhagta, Gangoha, and B&^fts ; and in 
Bahrslich, the Patolbans. The Bhars of Mirzapnr name three 
endogamons Bub-divisionB— Bhar Bhmnhir^ R&jbhar, and Dnsadha^ 
The local P&sis represent the Bhars as merely a sub-caste of their 
tribe ; but this is denied by the Bhars themselves. The Bhar 
BhuinhAr assert that they are the remnant of the mUng race 
among the Bhars. In support of this they wear the sacred thready 
and have begun generally to call themselves Sikajbansi Bi.jpnts. 
The other Bhars, they say, are the descendants of a single preg- 
nant woman who escaped the general massacre of the tribe by the 
Turks or Muhammadans. The DusHdha Bhars are not acknow- 
ledged by the DusAdhs themselves, but the Bhars claim them as a 
regular sub-caste. 

5. Bhars have the usual rule of exogamy, that is they will not 

intermarry in their own family or in that of 

Exogamy* 

their maternal uncle and fiither's sister until 
four or five generations have elapsed. They prefer to marry in 
those families with whom they have been accustomed for genera- 
tions to eat and smoke. In Gh>rakhpur the usual sevenfold divi- 
sion is made up of the Bhar, R&jbhar, Musahar, Godiya, Chain, 
Patiwftn, and Tiyar, in whk^h we have several different, but possibly 
originally cognate tribes mixed up. In Azamgarh^ they name 
several sub-castes— Bhar, Bftjbhar,. Biyftr, Patiw&n, Bind, and 
Jonkaha or '^ leech-finders.'' Ot these the Bind and Biyir are 
practically independent castes, and have here been accordingly 
treated 'separately* In Azamgarh the Bhars are reckoned outcasts, 
but the lUjbhar are counted among Hindus. There the special 
title of the Rftjbhars is Patait, and of the common Bhars Ehuntait. 
The latter rear pigs, which the former do not. These divisions 
intermarry, but the families who do not keep pigs will not marry 
with those who do. Intercourse between the sexes is regulated by 
no strict rule. If an unmarried 'girl^trigue with a clansman they 
are married after a fine is exacted from the girl's father by the 
tribal council. A man may take a second wife in the lifetime of 
the first, with her consent, which is generally given, as it relieves 



J BtlUemtnt Ripart, 88. 



7 BHAE. 

« 

her of honschold work.^ In Azam^^rh the tendency seems to be 
towards monogamy^ and a seeond marriag^e is allowed only when the 
first wife is barren, insane, or hopelessly diseased. When a seeond 
^nfe is taken she is usually a younf^er sister or close relation of the 
first. Concnbinage is not permitted. They have a strong repre- 
sent alive council {paneHdyai), which is presided over by a chairman 
{cAaudiari), whose office is hereditary. The council deals with 
ofTcncos in connection with marriage and caste usages. Illegiti* 
mate children by women of other castes follow the caste of the 
father, but are not allowed to eat, smoke, or intermarry with legiti- 
mate Bhars. Widow marriage is permitted. Widows generally 
marry widowers. The levirate is permitted but not enforced. 

6. In the marriage of a widow by iaffdi the bridegroom, accom- 
panied by his friends, goes to the house of 
the widow, where he jiays a nominal sum 
as the bride-price. They are all entertained on i)ork, boiled 
rice, and pulse. The bride is dressed in ornaments and 
clothes provided by her suitor. Next morning he brings her 
home and announces the union by feeding his clansmen. If he be 
nf»t a widower he has to perform a special ceremony. The bride 
and bridegroom sit opposite each other, and a silver ring is placed 
l)etwcen them. The Pandit repeats some versee, during the recital 
of which the bridegroom marks the ring five times with red lead. 
He then puts on the ring, and never takes it of! during his Kfe. 
Oirls are usually married at the age of five or seven. In Aamgarh 
marriages are reported to take place usually when the girl is nine 
years of age. A girl abo\*e ten is known as rsjaiwdli, and it is a 
disgrace not to have her married. The bride-price pa}'able by the 
friends of the bridegroom is two-and-a-half rupees and a sheet for 
the bride. In Azamgarh no bride-price is paid, and if the bride* 
gloom's family is poor his friends contribute something to the 
marriage expenses, which is known as iitat. Any serious physical 
defect appearing in either party after marriage is recognised as a 
valid ground for divorce. A wife cannot be divorced exoe|it for 
adultery with a stranger to the caste. The divorce must lie with 
the leave of the trilal council, who will accept no evidence short of 
that of actual eye-witnesses. Marriage negotiations are carriinl on 
by the maternal uncle of the liov. When the match is bcttleJ the 



* 8m imUwm of thU is WciUriBMvk, HUtvr^ •/ Uummm MmnU^. 4SS. 



BHAB. - S 

bride's father goes to the boy's honee and gives him a mpee. Then 
on a fixed day he returns with some of his clansmen " to drink 
water ^' (pdni pini kd din). A square {chauk) is formed in the 
court-yard, in which the boy and his future father-in-law sit oppo- 
site each other. The bride^s father marks the boy^s forehead with 
rice and curds, and he and his party are enteitained on rice, pork, 
goat^s flesh, and wine. On this day, with the approval of the 
Pandit, the wedding day is fixed. The ritual is of the usual type. 
It begins with the matmangar^ or collection of earth, as practised by 
allied castes. Then the pavilion {mdnro) is set up at both houses, 
in which a plough-share and plantain stems are fixed, near which 
the family rice-pounder and corn-mill are placed. That day the 
Pandit makes the boy wear an amulet to keep oflf evil spirits. 
This contains some mango leaves, an iron ring, and some mus- 
tard seed. Next follows the anointing {uhtanni)^ and the sacrifice 
of a young pig to Agw&n Deva, the PAnchonpir, and Phttlmati 
Devi. At the last Census 25,069 people recorded themselves as 
worshippers of Agwsln Deva. According to Mr. Baillie the word 
means '' a leader and may be the priest (pffjdri) in any temple. 
One District note states that Agwsln is a disease godling, the son of 
Blja Ben, and, therefore, brother to the seven small-pox sisters/' 
With many of the lower castes to the east of the province he seems 
to be connected with the worship of fire {apni) in the form of the 
koma. The higher class Bhars sacrifice a goat instead of a pig to the 
P&nchonpir. As the procession starts the usual incantation cere- 
mony {panchkan) is done by the boy's mother. The rest of the 
ritual is of the usual type. At the bride's door the Pandit worships 
Oauri and Oanesa, and the pair, with their clothes knotted together, 
move five times round the centre pole of the shed. Next follows 
the ceremony in the retiring room {kokabar), where jokes are played 
on the boy by the bride's father's sister, who will not desist until 
she gets a present. The rest of the ceremonial is of the customary 
type. 

7. During pregnancy the oldest woman in the family waves a 

pice or a handful of grain over the woman's 

Birth ooromoBj. , ... 

head, and vows to offer a pig to Birtiha 
(who is regarded as a village deity, dii), and to PhAlmati Devi, if 
the confinement is easy. The Chamain midwife cuts the cord with 
a sickle and buries it in the delivery room : a fire is lighted over 
it, and kept burning during the period of pollution. After the sixth 



V 



9 BHAB. 

day ceremony {eiiatii) the barber'a wife takes the place of the 
midwife. The birth pollution ceases on the twelfth day {baraii) 
when the father offers a pig and some* wine to Birtiha Deva. On 
her first N'isit to the well the mother worships it and lays a little 
washed rice {acAAat) on the platform. The hnsband does not cohabit 
with his wife for six months after her confinement.^ The only 
initiation ceremony is the usual ear-boring {ianekiedan, Jtanbedka)^ 
which is done at the age of 6ve or six. After this the child must 
observe the caste rules of food. 

8. The dead, except those who are unmarried or those dying of 

cholera or small-pox, are cremated. The 

Death oeromoniM. .. i. • i xl • xt 

others are buned or their corpses thrown mto 
running water. Within six months they are cremated in effigy 
with the usual ritual. The dei^h pollution lasts ten days, during 
which, daily, tbe chief mourner pours water on a bunch of ima 
grass fixed in the ground on the edge of a tank as a dwelling place 
for the disembodied spirit. He also daily lays out a little food for 
the ghost. They shave on the tenth day and offer sacred balls 
{pin^a) in the usual way. On that day uncooked grain {iid^a) is 
given to Brahmans, and the clansmen are fed on pork, boiled rice, 
and wine. 

9. Bhars are hardly ever initiated into any one of the regular 

Hindu sects, llieir tribal deities are Agwftn 
De^-a, PhAlmati Bhawftni, the Pinchonpir^ 
generally represented by PariliAr, and a deified ghoot known as 
Banru Bir. The Pincbonpir are worshipped in the months of Jeth 
or Kuir with fowls and cakes {mat Ma), The other deities require 
the sacrifice of a pig or goat and an oblation of wine. In Gorakh« 
pur the tribal godlings are Kilika and Kii>hi Dis Baba, a deified 
BhAt. His platform is in a jungle in the Deoriya Tahstl. There 
they go once a year to woniiip him with an offering of cakes, rice, 
milk, and curds. Kilika b worshipped in the bouse or in the field 
when it is ready for the sowing of the spring crop. Her favourite 
offering is a young, tat pig. According to Mr. Baillie, Kishi Die 
is particularly woriihipped by Ahin in the Eastern Districts. It is 
uncertain whether in life be was a Brihman or an Abtr. His 
votaries number, according to the last Census returns, 172,599.* 
They have the usual feast to the dead in Kuir. Their religious 



I Ob tids M« WMtonMrek, HUiary of Hmm^mm MmrHm§4, 488» ff. 
> A f wtlMr mo9tmm% dlUm W sItm mm&m Bimd, •. 



BHAR. 



10 



duties are done by BrihmanB of the low village class. Thejr observe 
the festivals of the Phagoa^ Dasami, Diwili, Kajari, Khichaii, and 
Tij. A special sacrifice of a pig is made to the*>vil spirits who 
reside in the old fig trees of the village. This is done in Agfaaa. 
Some go to Oaya to perform Ae srdddka ceremony. The ptpal taee 
is regarded as the abode of Yasudeva, and women bow and cover their 
faces as they pass it. 

10. Women are tattooed on the arms. A pig or an ass is re* 

garded as a lucky meeting omen. Women 
wear gla^s bangles (ekin) on the wrist, bead 
necklaces^ nose rings, {naikiya), ear ornaments (iaranpkul), and 
anklets (pairi). Men wear a gold coin {moiar) round the neck. 
Children have two names, one given by the Pandit, which is kept 
secret, and the other, for ordinary nse, selected by the parents. Hiey 
swear on Ganges water, on the head of a son, and standingin water, 
and in the phrases Bdma irija, Bdma dukdi, Ganga mdi krifa, 
Bkawdni krifa. They believe in magic and witchcraft, but do not 
practice these arts themselves. They believe in demoniacal posses- 
sion and the Bvil-eye, and in such cases call in an Qjha to treat the 
patient. They will not kill the cow. They will not touch a Dhobi, 
Hela, Dom, or Dhark&r, nor the younger brother's wife, nor the 
wife of the senior brother-in-law. Tiiej will not call their wives by 
their name. They drink liquor freely and cat the flesh of goats, 
sheep, deer, etc-, but they will not eat the meat of the cow, crocodile, 
monkey, horse, jackal, or fowls. During the fortnight in Kuir 
sacred to the worship of the sainted dead {pUra pakfka), they ab- 
stain from meat. Among themselves they use the salutation sal dm ^ 
and address other low castes in the form Bdm ! Sdm ! which is also 
used to the feither-in-law of their daughters. Women who assist the 
men in work are treated &urly well. They eat kaehehi and pakki 
cooked by Brahmans. Like all Hindus they eat pukki cooked by 
Halwiis or Chhatris, and, in fact, all Yaisyas, except Kalwftrs, 
Doms, Dharkirs, and similar menials, eat kaeheki cooked bv them. 
10, They are usually employed as day-kbourers and plough- 
^^ men. A few are tenants without occupancy 

rights. Settle of them have rather an equi- 
vocal reputation. They are occasionally burglars and field thieves, 
and they have been known to combine for road robbery and dacoity. 
The Bhars of Bhadohi, in the Alirzapur District, arc nothing short 
of a pest to their respectable neighbours at harvest time, and much 



11 



BHAR. 



of the labour spent on field watching is due to their depredations. 
Of the Oudh Bhars^ it is 8aid«»"In appearance they resemble 
low caste Hindus, KoriS| and ChamArs ; and I have not noticed any 
Mongolian traits in their physiognomy. They have, however, one 
striking peculiarity in common with the ThArus — their hatred of 
the culti\^ted plain. When land has attained a certain pitx;h of 
cultivation they atwaj^s leave it for some less hospitable spot, and 
their lives are spent in wandering from jungle to jungle. They 
commence the struggle with nature, and after the first and most 
difficult victory over disease and wild beasts, leave it to the Kurmis 
and Alurs to gather the fruits of their desultory energy* They are 
very timid, very honest and keen sportsmen, untiring in pursuit, 
and excellent shots with their long guns. They show the influenoo 
of orthodox Hinduism in sparing the nilgai, but are fond of the 
flesh of pigs, washing down their feasts with copious draughts of 
sprits of rice or mahua.'^ They offer goats to Samai, and decapitate 
chickens before the snake god Kird Deo. Their worship of Bans* 
pati M4i is more Hindu in its character, and their pure offering 
of grain and clarified butter are handed over to be eaten by a 
Brahman. The worshippers of Banspati Mai according to the last 
Census returns amounted to 16,4S9 persons. Marriages are con- 
tracted without the intervention of a Pandit, and with the rites in 
use among other low castes, such as Koris and Chamirs. With a 
magnificent assumption of rights not recognised by our law, a 
bride's father makes over in gift {ianialap) to the bridegroom a 
■mall patch of forest to clear and cultivate.'. 

Duiribuiiim iff tke Bkar$ according io tic Ccm$mt of 1891. 



DisraicT. 


Bhind. 

wAj. 


Kaoan- 
jija. 


BAJbhar. 


Othin. 


TOTAl.. 


ftkhirmapiir 


••• 


... 


7 


es 


76 


Hoiafljiniagmr . 


... 


... 


8 


118 


IM 


MorAdAbld 


... 


••« 


.•• 


15 


16 


PUibkll . 


•*• 


••. 


... 


4 


4 



I Oudh Qaa^Utr, U UL 

> Ob tLU oBflUMi MB LBbboBk, Origin «/ CiwOU^ti^m, iU i Bod 
10. 



pBTB 



f 

/ 



BHAB. 



12 



bhAradwaj. 



Distribution of ike Bhan according to ike Cemue of 1891 ^oonold. 



District. 



Allah&bftd 

Benares • 

Mlrzapnr 

Jatinpur • 

Oh&zipar 

B&llia 

Qorakhpnr 

Baiifci 

Azamgarh 

Luoknow 

Un4o 

B&dBareli 

Hardoi 

Kheri . 

FaixAHAd . 

Gonda • 

Bahriich . 

SultAnpor 

Part4bgarh 



Bh&rad- 



••• 



86 
1,498 



2,562 



••• 



Total 



••• 



4146 



Eanan- 
jiya. 



••• 



, •• 



S8 



1,258 
14 



090 



••• 



••• 



••• 



2,800 



Bijbhar. 



5 
28,141 

2,284 
16,048 

1,965 
47,608 
19,094 
15,820 
25,094 



4 

4 

2Q,014 

714 

2 

1,041 

1 



1.77,858 



Others. 



11 

14,490 

858 

7,732 

58,021 

9,906 

53,838 

6,789 

62,711 

8 

7 

11 



5 

6,855 

9320 

608 

2,063 

1 



2,38,441 



Total. 



16 

42,631 

3,142 

23^18 

59,986 

58,860 

73,944 

22,609 

91,357 

8 

7 

11 

4 

9 

26369 

10,538 

610 

8,104 

2 



4,17,745 



|.— (Sanskrit, BU 
bearing food; a skylark.)— A 
common appellation for BrAl 



T&ja^ Bharadwija^ bringing or 
-t ~* ""^jpmti. It ia a 



•* 



h. 



bbIradwAj 



18 



BHAEBHtNjJL. 



Distribuiitm of tie Bkdradwdj RdjpmU according to ike Cemui of 

189J. 



DitTBICT. 


Number. 


DitTKXOT. 


Nomber. 


SahArmnpar • 


12 


1 

LaUtpor 


■ • • 


6 


Meerui 


5 


Benara 

1 


* • • 


14 


BuUndshahr . • • 


10 


GhAzipar 


» • • 


9 


Acpra • • • • 


85 


1 

' Gorakhpur . 


» • • 


1 


EUh . • . • 


7 


Baiti . 


» • • 


97 


MorAdabAd . 


5 


1 Atamgarh 


» • • 


82 


Cawopnr • • 


8 


Laekoow 


• • 


85 


BindA . • . • 


27 


RAdB^reU . 


• 


1 


JAlAnn m » m 


11 










Total 


299 



Bharbhftiga.'— (Santkrit biraiitra, a frying pan; binj, to 
fry.) — The caAte of grain parchers. They are also known as Bh&j^ 
Bhujua, and Bhurji. As a porely occupational tribe their sub- 
divisions are somewhat confused. At the last Census they were 
recorded under no less than three hundred and sixty-four sub- 
castes for the Hindu and forty for the Muhammadan branch. 
These are of the familiar type. Some illustrate some real or 
supposed connection with other castes and tribes, such as the 
Bhadauriya, ChaubA, Chauhin, Kanjar, Klyasth, Khatri, Lodhi, 
Rlthaur, Baddhik, Teliyabans, and the like. Others are local sub- 
divisions like Audhbisi, BAtham (of Srivasti), Bhatnigar, Desi, 
Gangai>iri, Ilamtrpuriya, Kananjiyai Jannpuriya, Mathuriya, and so 
on. The last Census classifies them under the main heads of Bhat« 
nAgar, Jagjidon, Kaithiya, KAn^ Rithaur, 8aksen% and Sribistab. 
Of these, by far the most numerous are the Kanaujiyas and Saksenas, 
The Bhatnlgar are said to derive their name from the old town of 



sftskools 



.BanttJj 



•oqoiriM al MirtRpar 
iA Affia, Mf . W. H. O'M. 



•ota by Um I>«patj laapMlor 
vs. Baflli« aad Maaaki H^As 



fe. 



BH^BBH^NJA. 14 

Bhatner in the Bikaner State ; the Jagjfidons assert a connection 
with the JMon Bajputs; the Kaithiya with Kayasths, as the 
Bhujaris of the Dakkhin say they are K^yasths from Upper 
India ;^ the Kandu is usually treated as a separate caste; the 
Bathaur claim descent from the Bajput tribe of that name ; the 
Saksena and the Sribistab are said to be derived from the two 
ancient cites of Sankisa in the Farrukhabid District, and SriLvasti 
or Sahet-Mahet in the Oonda District. But this does not 
exhaust the list of the sub-divisions. Thus in Agra, they divide 
themselves into Saksena, SrivSst&vya or Srib&stab, Kandu, Lakhau- 
tiya, Dhankuta or paddy pounders, and Sanksa, who are probably 
identical with the Saksena. In Mirzapur they are sometimes 
called Kindu ; but the two tribes are said not to be identical, as 
the real K&ndus do not parch grain at all, and distinguish them- 
selves from the Bharbhfinjas by calling themselves Madhesiya 
KUndu, or those of "the middle land.'' Here, however, Bhar- 
bhiinjas regard K&ndus as a sub-division of their caste, and say that 
they have really three main sub-divisions — Kanaujiya, Kandu, and 
Dhtmar. Kanaujiyas have again two sections, Purbiya or Eastern, 
and Pachhiwaha or Western, and to these the true Bharbhiinjas 
say they belong. These two sections admittedly intermarry ; and 
it is alleged that quite recently, or even occasionally, at present, 
Dhtmars and Kandus intermarry. But this is more than doubtful. 
In Bareilly, again, there are said to be three endogamous sections, 
Saksena, Kab&riya, and Kandiya, while in B&nda the caste is known 
as KsLndua, Benrkiita, or "pounders of the castor-oil seed,'' and 
TilbhAnja, or "parchers of sesamum," and has three endogamous 
sections— Teliya, Bhunjua^ and Dophansiya, or " two-noose men." 
It thus appears that the internal organisation of the caste is at 
present in a state of transition, and that the tendency is to break 
up into an increasing number of endogamous sections which will 
probably in time form a number of so-called separate castes. 

The sections are, as has been said, almost certainly all endoga- 
mous, and they seem generally to practise 
the ordinary rule of exogamy which bars 
the Une of the paternal and maternal uncle and aunt. Widow mar- 
riage by the forms known as sagdi, idj, or iardo^ and the levirate 
prevail. 

* Bombay aatelker, XVI., 60. 



16 bharbh<)njA. 

8. To the east of the Province they are usiially of the Vaish- 

nava eect and worship the P&nchon Fir and 
liardiya Deva or Ilardaur Lftla, the cholera 
^ling, whose worehipi^rs at the last Census amounted to 5,034 
persons; and worshippers of these two different deities are said 
usually not to intermarry. In Bareilly their tribal godling is 
Chanda Kartal, of whom nothing appears to be known* In Binda 
and Fateh(nir they are said to be generally Saktas and worshippers 
of Devi, Mahade\'a, and Malidbtr. The offerings consist of rice, 
goats, spirits, flowers, and money. Devi and Mahideva are wor- 
shipped on Mondays, and Mahabtr on Tuesdays, 

4. They eat goat's mesX and the flesh of deer and similar 

animals, except when they have been reeu« 
larly initiated or have taken the vow of a 
Bhagat. All high castes can eat paiH from their hands, and 
Kahirs and Nais will eat kacheki. They will not eat kaekeki cooked 
by any caste but their own, and will take pakki cooked by any 
Br&hman, Kshatriya, or Yaisya. According to Mr. Hoey^ there 
are in Lucknow '' three classes of grain parchcrs. The poorest are 
those who merely parch grain for those who bring it* They receive 
one paUa per itr on expensive grain and a quarter pai$a per 9er 
on cheap grain. A stage above these are grain-parchers, who buy 
grain and store it and sell parched grain. These are termed Char« 
banfarosh. Above both of these is a much more comfortable class 
who buy rice in the autumn and store iU They make Idi^ ekiura^ 
and kkUt which are in daily demand, and also in special demand at 
the Diwali and on occasion of fairs, etc. There arc some Bhurjia 
especially welUoff who have their oven in the immediate neighbour- 
hoiid of large grain markets. Merchants who import grain treat 
tlu*se very liberally, and think nothing of flinging down a couple of 
$er9 of grain and taking in exchange half a «^ of parched grain 
(ek^b^na).** The work they do, and particularly the heavy part of 
it, which oomiists in sweeping up dry leaves for fuel, tends to lower 
tlk*m in i^opular estimation. It is a favourite curse to wish an 
enemy tliat he may some day come to st4>ke the kiln of a grain- 
liareher, and a common proverb is Bkafbku^jd ki Urki ktssr kd 
iikd ^ilie grain-fiarcher's slut with saffron on her fordiead.'' 



JV<Mioyrdyfc «m TfJUs amd Mmm^|^cimfU9 Tt. 



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Vol. II 



« i 



bharsaiyAn. 20 bhAt. 

! Bharsaiyan^ Bharsiyan. — A sept of Rajputs found in Sul- 

tanpur. The word is a corruption of Bhainsauliy&n, or natives of 
Bbainsaul, whence the sept derives its origin. They are not shown 
separately in the returns of the last Census. They are said to be 
originally Chauhans of Mainpuri. Their leader into Oadh was 
Karan Sinh, who married into a Bais family. One of his successors, 
Biz Sinh, was converted to Islam in the reign of Shtr Shah, and 
received the title of Khan-i-Azam Bhainsauliy&n. His descend- 
ants are manifestly the Chauhin-i-nau-Muslim, alluded to in the 
Ain-i-Akbari as occupying the Inhauna Pargana,^ 

Bhat.*— (Sanskrit, bkatla, "lord," probably connected with 
bhartriy "a cherisher,'' "nourisher''),— A caste of family bards 
and genealogists. Traditionally they ai-e generally supposed to 
be descended from the intercourse of a Chhatri and a Br&hman 
widow. Many legends are told of their origin. Some believe them 
to be " the modem representatives of the Magadha spoken of in 
Mann as the offspring of a Yaisya father and a Kshatriya mother. 
Lassen regards this mythical pedigree as a theoretical explanation 
of the fact that the professional singers of the praises of great men 
had come by Manu's time to be regarded a distinct class. Zimmer^ 
on the other hand, seems to take the tradition more seriously and 
speaks of the Magadha as admixed class," out of which, as we 
learn by numerous passages in later writings, a guild of singers 
arose, who devoting themselves to the deeds of the Kosala-Videha 
and Kuru Panchala may have laid the foundation of the epio 
poems/" Sir John Malcolm says* : — " According to the fable of 
their origin, MahAdeva first created BhUts to attend to his lion and 
bull ; but the former killing the latter every day gave him infinite 
vexation and trouble in creating new ones. He, therefore formed 
the Ch&ran, equally devout as the Bhftt, but of bolder spirit, and gave 
him charge of these favourite animals. From that period no bull 
was ever destroyed by the Hon," By another account.—'' Onoe upon 
a time Brahma performed a sacrifice when two men appeared and 
stood before the sacrificial fire. When Mahakali saw that they were 



> SuIidnpiirSe(eitfm«n(B€pcre, 178. 

s Based on enqairies at Minapnr and notes by Pandit Baldeo Praaid, Depntj 
Collector, Cawnpor; Biba Jay Gopal Banerji, BA« Bareli. Bibn MAl Chand, 
Sabordinate Judge, Konrh, Minapnr ; BAbn Sinwal DAs, Depn^ CoUeotor, 
Hardoi. 

* Bialey, Trihtt and Caiitm, L,9S, 

« Ceniral Indw. n.. 



21 bhAt* 

dying o£ thirst she gave them suck from her breasts, and named 
them Migadha and SAta. The Migadha Brfthmans settled in the 
East and the Bhit Brihmans are their desoendants; the S&ta 
sGttle<l in the West, and from them sprang the Bhats/' By another 
legend, when Kali destroyed the Rikshasas she formed a figure 
oat of her sweat and breathed life into it, so that it might record 
her victory. 

2. Again, according to Mr. Nesfield, the Bh&ts are an ''offshoot 
from those secularised Brahmans who frequented the courts of 
princes and the camps of warriors, recited their praises in public, 
and kept records of their genealogies. Such without much variation 
is the function of the Bh&t at the present day. The ancient epic 
known as the Mahibhirata speaks of a band of bards and eulo* 
gists marching in front of Yudhishthira as he nuule hia progress 
from the field of Kurukshetra towards Hastinapur. But these 
very men arc spoken of in the same poem as Br&hmans* Nothing 
could be more natural than that, as time went on, these courtier- 
priests should have become hereditary bards, who receded from the 
|)arent stem and founded a new caste bound together by mutual 
interests and sympathies. There are several facts in support of 
this theory, that one of the sub-castes is called Baram or Biram 
Bhlt ; that some Oaur Brahmans still act as bards and genealo- 
gists ; that the Bhit still wears the sacred thread, and is addressed 
by the lower caste by the Brahman title of Mahirija; and lastly, 
that by an obvious survival of Brihmanioal titles, t he Bhit's em- 
ployer is called jajmditf " he who gives the sacrifice,'' while the 
Bhit himself is cMedJa^waJdJai or jiekak, '' the priest by whom 
the sacrifice is performed/' To this Mr. Risley objects that *' if 
the Bhits of the present day are descended solely from a class of 
degraded Brihmans, if, in other words, they are a homogeneous 
oflEshoot from the priestly cUss, how do they come to have a number 
of sections which are certainly not Brihmanical, and which appear 
rather to resemble the territorial exogamous groups common among 
the RAjputs ? Brihmans, however degraded, hold fast to their 
characteristic series of e|)onymous sections^ and I know of no case 
in which it can be shown that they have adopted section names of 
a different ty|«. On the other liand, there is nothing specially im- 
probable in the conje4*ture that Uijpats may have taken up the 
professiim of Ijard to the chiefs of their tribe, and thus may, in cuurse 
of time, have become incorporated in the Bhit cast«. It will be 

Vol. 11. • 



bhIt. 22 

teen that this solution of the difficulty in no way conflicts with 
Mr. Nesfield's view, but merely modifies it by introducing a second 
factor into the formation of the caste. Mr. Nesfield regards the 
Bhftts as a homogeneous functional group thrown off by the 
Br&hmans. I look upon them as a heterogeneous group made up 
of Brahmans and R&jputs welded together into one caste by virtue 
of their exercising similar functions. I may add, however, that the 
inviolability of the Bhftt^s person, which was admitted in Western 
India towards the end of the last century, makes rather for Mr, 
Nesfield's view than for mine; while the theory of Roth and 
Zimmer; that the first germ of the Br&hman caste is to be sought 
in the singers of Vedic times, may perhaps be deemed to tell in the 
same direction/^ At the last Census the Bh&ts were recorded under 
no less than nine hundred and oxty-eight sub-castes for the Hindu 
and one hundred and sixty-one for the Muhammadan branch. The 
analysis of the sub-castes goes on the whole to suj^rt Mr. Risley'a 
theory. We find very few distinctively Brfthmanical titles, such 
as Ach&rya, Bhftradwftja, Dikshit, Gangaputra, Oaur, Sftudilya^ 
S&raswata> or Sarwariya, but many either of purely local origin, 
such as Bhatn&gar, Dakkhinwir, Dalpuriya, Dilliwftl, Hamirpuri, 
Hastinapuri, Jaiswir, Jaunpuriya^ Mathuriya, and the like ; and 
many derived from the names of existing Rftjput or other tribes, 
such as Bargfljar, Bargy&n, Bhadauriya, Bundel, Chandrabansi, 
Kachhw&ha, Rithaur, Sakarwir, and so on. 

d. The structural division of the caste is not very well defined. 

At the last Census in these Provinces they 

internal Btrnotare. t -i i • i 

were recorded under mne main endogamous 
sab-castes : Bh&radwftja, *' the lark, the bringer of food,^' which is 
a potra title common to Brfthmans and other castes; Biram or 
Brahman Bh&ts ; Dasaundhi, of which there are at least two deriv- 
ations, either from the Hindi daaaundk, or *' receiver of tithes, ^' or 
Sanskrit dasa-pandHa, in the sense of " reader of the stars,' ' '* an 
astrologer,^' which is more probable; Oajbhtm; J&ga (Sanskrit 
falsi fa, " to be sacrificed or worshipped '') ; Keliya ; Mahap&tra ; 
Rid; and Rfljbhit. Among the sub- castes locally important we 
find in Bulandshahr the Sapahar; in Mathura, the Barwftr; in 
Etiwah, the Athsaila and Barwa; in Cawnpur, the Lahauri; in 
Allahibftd, the Oangwir ; in Ohizipur, the Bandijan ; in Azamgarh, 
t Lakhauriya : in U and Sitapur, the Kanaujiya : in RAd 
eli, the An iii; : in Faiz&btd, the Athsaila, Bandijan 



23 bhXt. 

Dakkhinwar, and Gan^pvAr ; in Gonda, the Baeoriya; in Sultftnpur, the 
(}adh, Gan^&r, Madhuriy% and Rina; in Partibgarh, the Gadhwa, 
Oangwar, and Jujhaina; in Birabanki, the Basodhiya. Sir H. M. 
Elliot has given a very oomplete aocoont of the Bhits in these pro- 
vinces :— '' By some tribes the Bh&t and Ji^ are considered synony- 
mous, but those who pretend to greater accuracy distinguish them 
)y calling the former BirmbhAt or BIdi, and the latter Jflgabhit. 
The former recite the deeds of ancestors at weddings and other 
festive occasions ; the latter keep the family records, particularly of 
Rajputs, and are entitled by right of succession to retain the office, 
whereas the Birmbhats are hired and paid for the particular occasion. 
Jagabhdts pay visits to their constituents every two or three years, ^ 
and receive perquisites to which they are entitled. After recording 
all the births which have taken place since their last tour, they are 
remunerated with rupees, cattle, or clothes, according to the ability 
t)f the registering party. Those of the North- Western lUjputs 
inenerally reside between the borders of Rajputftna and the Delhi 
territory. Many also live at Diranagar on the Ganges, and travel 
to the remote East to collect their fees ; whereas the Birmbhats are 
resident in towns and do not emigrate periodically. Both of thetsc 
crIaMies are held in the same dread for their exactions, which are 
hatisfied by their constituents for fear of being lampooned and paraded 
in effigy before the other members of the family. Several com- 
munities of Bhits reside in the north of Oudh, and a few are scat- 
teral over these Provinces. In Rohilkhand the occupation of Bhats 
aK lAfds is frequently usurped by Ganr Brihmans. There are 
hoveral HulMlivisiuns of the Bhats of these provinces, and an attempt 
iH Mimetimos made, as with many other classes, to reduce them 
to the definite number of seven, vii. — Ath8aih^ Mahlpitra, 
Koliya, Mainpuriwila, Jangira, Bhatara, and Dasaundhi. But 
there are several which are not included under these heads, as 
(?hauriihi, Gajbhim, ChungelA, Gujariwila, Sikatpuriya, Nagauri, 
Barua, etc., which shows that the classification into seven is n<it 
r«»rfwt. 

4. Thin, however, d<ies not exhaust the sul>-di visions of the 
Hhati*. Thus, in Mirza|mr, they are divided into the Jagawa or 
Jsga, Bar|iagwa, " t hone who wear a large turban/' Phulwariya, 
**iif till* ilower ganlen," Daeaunilhi, Kaviraj, or poets, Kewat 
M Hhat, (»r thoM* attai^hnl to the Kewat caste, and the MuaalmAni. 
TIr* Hindu Bhatjt ha\t*, Ijenidew, a number of goirat or sections w4iicli 



\^ 



BEAT. 24 

are identical with thoee of Brilhmans. The Dasaundhi^ agtun^ who 
call themselves Jasaundhi, and derive their name from the Hindi 
Jas, Sanskrit, yasas, " gloiy, '' are sub-divided into Ealsa, Patha;, 
and Eulin. In Hardoi they give their sub-divisions as Keliysy 
Mahapatra or ''prime minister/^ Athsaila^ Bharadwaja, Mohan- 
miirat, Bhatara, ChangelS^ and Brahmbh&t. In R&d Bareli they 
give their sub-divisions as Banswariya, Mah&p&tra, Keliya, 
Athsaila, Gajbhim, Gohorwiriwal, Jaisaii ka Bhatra, Pihaniwal^ 
Mainpuri k& Bhatra, Pitarpuri Bauwa, Senbasiya, Kattaha, 
Dospuriya^ Pipariha^ Dukanha, Oangwar^ Bhagtaha, Majh- 
gftnwiya, Sirohiw&l, Lahariwal, NagrauiyaA, Ghoraha, Nabi- 
nagar k& langota, Grai*hwap&ri, Ghaurasiya^ and Katiha. These 
are said to be exogamous sections, many of which are of the terri- 
torial type. Among these the Keliya, Mahap&tra, Banswariya, 
Athsaila, Gajbhim, Gohorwariw^I^ and Jaisari k& Bhatra are re- 
garded as superior and practise a form of hypergamy, taking brides 
from the other sections, but not giving them their daughters in 
return. In Bareilly, again^ there are two sub-divisions of the 
Jiga sub-caste who are Muhanmiadans — the SarhS ttn ghar or 
*' three and a half houses, '^ and the Das ghar or ** ten houses/' of 
whom the former practise hypergamy with the latter. 

5. Where there are exogamous sections or gotras the role of 
^, . , exofin^my follows the standard formula as in 

Marmge rmee. ^ " 

the case of the higher castes ; in other places, 
as in Mirzapur, they will not marry their sister's daughter, father's 
sister^s daughter, brother-in-laVs daughter maternal uncle's 
daughter, or any member of their own family {in I), They can 
marry a sister-in-law, but not if she be older than the first wife, 
because, by virtue of the giving away of the bride (kau^dddn), the 
younger sister is considered daughter of the elder. Marriage ig 
carried out in infancy, and it is only when the parents are very poor 
that the marriage of a daughter is deferred until puberty, and then 
it involves social discredit. It is usual for parents to give a dowry 
with the bride, which becomes the property of the bridegroom's 
parents. Some of the poorer Bhats take a bride-price; but this 
is considered disgraceful. This payment, however, appears to be 
generally given by old men or widowers who would otherwise find 
it difficult to marry. Widow marriage and the levirate are both 
prohibited. 



25 duIt 

6. All the domeetio ceremoniee are of the orthodox type. When 

a 8on is bom the Handi mukk 9rdddka Ib 

Domettio o«r«moiiiet. ... 

performed, and in marriage the giving away 
of the bride (kan^dJdn) \% the binding part of the ceremony. They 
Eollow the ordinary Ilindu law of inheritance. 

7. Those in the Eastern Districts have an absurd story that 
The MnhammadAii they were in the service of Chait Sinh and 

• were forcibly converted to I&l&m by Mr. 

Jonathan Duncan in revenge for some advice they gave to their 
master. Others to the West say that they were converted by the 
orders of Shab&b-ud-din Ghori. They pmctise a curious mixture of 
Ilindu and Muhammadan rites. At marriage they call in a Pandit, 
collect the sacred earth (matmangar), erect a marriage shed, give 
away the bride, and make the pair perform the usual circumambu- 
lations. When this is all over they send for the Qazi, and the 
nikdk is read in the usual Muhammadan fashion. They are a 
miserable sort of people, who wander about singing at lespectable 
houties. They are more violent and abusive in their language if not 
suitably rewarded than their Ilindu brethren. In Mirzapur they 
have exogamous sub-divisions, such as Jiga, Kaiijriwal, or those 
attached to the Kanjar vagrants, Khawini, R&jbhat, and Bandijan. 
In some places the title of Jiga seems to be appropriated to them. 
They circumcise their boys and bury their dead in the usual 
Muhammadan fashion, but they do a sort of irdddka and pay 
annual worship to the f^pirits of the dead as Hindus do. 

8. The Hindu Bhats are orthodox Hindus. They are usually 
Tb« r«Uffkm of Um either Vaifrhnavas or Siktas. In Mirzapur, 

Hinda bAu. ^j^ Worship, in addition to the ordinary 

gods, of whom the most venerated is Siva in the form o£ Gauripati, 
Bar« Bir, Mahibir, and Sirda. Bai« Bir, who appears to be the 
deified ghost of some worthy of the tribe, is honoured by making 
a plastered square in the court-yard and placing within it a lighted 
lamp. To Ganripati they offer a burnt sacrifice {kam) and some 
sweets {laddm) on the bat day of BaiUkh in the family kitchen. 
Mah&bir is worshipped on a Tuesday in the month of Baisikh by 
painting a representation of him on the back of a brass tray with 
red lead. This is placed on a stool, and the eldest male or female 
menilier of the family bathes, marks his or her forehead with vandal, 
and offers to the god sweet cakes (roO* U*idu sweetmeats, a 
Brihmanieal thread (;«fi^s)» gi^h^* <'f flc»wers, a small loin cloth 



boAt. 26 

(langnfi)^ and a head-dress (pdta). Then a fire sacrifice {hom) is 
made, and the articles offered are distributed among the members of 
the family. By the Census Returns only 381 persons have recorded 
themselves as exclusive worshippers of Mahibir ; but this is made up 
for by 937^493 worshippers of Hanum&n. Sarda is a corruption 
of the name of the goddess Saraswati, the patroness of learning ; 
she is not worshipped in any systematic way, but is invoked when- 
ever they commence their recitations. The Census shows that 
Saraswati has 5,3 1 1 exclusive worshippers. In common with many 
of the lower castes, they also worship Birtiya on a Wednesday in the 
month of Aghan. A ChamsLr Ojha is selected, and he in front of 
the house makes a sacrifice of a young pig and some turmeric. The 
head of the victim is buried deep in the ground, and the rest of the 
meat is taken by the Ojha, who also gets some uncooked grain and 
a few pice. Their other domestic ceremonies are done by Sarwariya 
Br&hmans. In other parts of the Eastern Districts they worship 
Bhawani and Devi, particularly when epidemic disease prevails. 
9. No account of the Bhats would be complete without some 
Th ChAra reference to the Ch&rans, though they are 

hardly to be found in this part of India. In 
Chijar4t they are Vaishnavas, and find employment in the Courts of 
Native Princes or in the families of private gentlemen. Many go 
from place to place and earn a living by reciting the pedigrees and 
family achievements of those from whom they ask alms. They 
wear on their persons a variety of ornaments, such as the earring, 
necklace, anklets, etc., and by way of arms they carry a sort of 
sword. They are cultivators and have enough money to lend at 
interest. There are not a few who stand security for a consideration. 
They are a warm-blooded and passionate people, as many acts of 
theirs in past times testify.^ They had, some years ago, a ready 
way of extorting money, or the fulfilment of a pledge made to them. 
If a man refused to keep a promise made to them they brought a 
girl or an old woman of their family to the house of the defaulter 
and threatened to kill or did actually kill her. Not a century ago 
the faith placed in the word of a Bhat was perhaps the only way of 
obtaining the feeling of security necessary to conduct business of 
any kind. All men, from the prince to the peasant, trusted to the 
Bhat or Charan that he would keep his ward or die. Soon after the 



> Fur tbo immunity r>f the Bh4U o M f* th« iMnUd in elafwioal 

litorature— /It(i(i. I.. 33i : iflHobyloi, Jfi ^siMtM] A. 




27 bhAt. 

advent of the British the use of this intermediary collapfiod, and the 
bad pointB in his character came into relief ; but his good work in 
past times should not be overlooked. By violent threats to kill some 
member of their family, the Bhits for a long time, and up to quite 
recent times, were able to extort money or the accomplishment of 
any promise made to them ; but the late Mahirija Khandd BAo 
enacted a special provision of law to meet these cases of extortion 
and put an end to them. The Bh&t women areas bold, voluble, and 
ready in retort as the men. When a Bhit woman passes a male 
caste-fellow on the road, it is the latter who raises a piece of cloth to 
his face till the woman is out of sight. 

lO. The Ch4rans,^ as they are called, still fill a large place in 
the society of Western India, though their services as bards and 
genealogists are less in demand than they were in the old days 
They are, nevertheless, consideredi from their calling, to bear a 
sacred character, and any injury done to one of them will bring 
down an anathema on the head of the e\il-doer, which no amount of 
penance will wash away. The awe they inspire is as great with 
the R&jput chief as with the ilUterate Bhil. They are also the 
principal carriers of the country, and as such enjoy immunity from 
taxation, to which the rest of the community ha>-e to submit When 
the Chiran cannot obtain what he wants, or considers he has been 
unjustly dealt with, he will resort to what is known as tragya^ or 
self-sacrifice, by cutting or wounding himself, or perhaps taking the 
life of some member of his family, in order that the blood of the 
victim may rest upon the head of his oppressor ; and so great is the 
dread inspired by even the mere threat of carrying out this act that 
a ready acquiescence is generally given to all demands. The death 
of a ChAran by his own hands would be considered by the outside 
world a sort of excommunication of * the cUef , against which the 
latter would find it almost hopeless to contend. Ili^lding sudi a 
formidable weapon over the heads of all aliki*, high or low, the 
CliAran becomes overbearing and avaricious, and consequently they 
are a riawt difficult to manage. Membi*rs' of the trilie are to be 
found travelling over the length and breadth of India, with th(*ir 
dn>ves (»f |taek-bullocks, by means of which, notwithstanding the 
increased roiUage of railways of late velars, a great part of the 
enormous trade of that vant continent is ktill transported to its 



* SvtlH InJiaA .Vu/f a iiii.l <ytirrir«, Ju^j ISKI. 



fe. 



BBAT. 28 

deBtination. It might have been thought that the railway would have 
mateiially reduced their profits, and although it has curtailed the 
sphere of their operations, it has obliged them to open up fresh lines 
of traffic, and to become feeders to the various lines of railway. 
Salt, grain, and seeds form the principal articles of transport by 
means of their caravans. The loads are carried in strong thick bags 
thrown across the backs of the bullocks without any rope or strap 
to fasten them, but merely balanced on them^ and after the day's 
march is over the bags are piled in stacks, around which the Niik, 
his family, and companions keep guard duiing the night, although 
the sacred calling of tribe and the dread of their anathema are quite 
sufficient to insure them immunity from all plunderers. There is 
no more picturesque sight than one of these large caravans wending 
its way along the high road. The men and women are invariably 
on foot and distributed along the drove of bullocks, re -loading a 
beast which may have thrown his pack^ or balancing and adjusting 
another as the case may be. The men with their large, loosely- 
folded turbans, white flowing robes, many of them with necklaces, 
generally of gold, about their |)erson, form a pleading contrast to 
the women in their brightly-coloured garments, with large couical 
caps adorned with gold and silver chains and small bells, from which 
is pendant a light richly -coloured scarf hanging gracefully over the 
shoulders. Tall and upright in figure, lithe and active, often with 
pleasing features and not an ovei-dark skin, her petticoat of one 
colour, her boddice of another, but somewhat brighter, her jet-black 
hair bound up and entwined with gold and silver coins, her anna 
encased from wrist to elbow in bracelets of white and coloured ivory, 
bangles of silver on her ankles, and the high conical cap profusely 
ornamented on her head, the matron presents a picture which once 
seen is not easily forgotten. As bard of the chief, the Chai*an occu- 
pies an exalted position, and is one of the retainers always about his 
person, and frequently the medium of communication on difficult 
and delicate missions, such as an alliance in marriage, when he is 
the bearer of the cocoanut, which is the emblem sent on such occa- 
sions, lie used invariab y to accompany him in all his expeditions 
against his enemies, in order that he might tiunscribe in glowing 
verse the deeds of prowess done by his cliief and the clan. The 
genealogy of the family is in his keeping, and he can recount from 
memory all the stirring events connected with the history of the 
house, which have been orally handed down to him by his father 



29 bhIt. 

before him. Like the Scald of the ancient Norseman, the bard 
delip^hts in narrating in open darbftr when called upon by his lord, 
some inspiring themes connected with the fortunes of the family. 
It is then, surrounded by an admiring and sympathetic audience, 
that he will launch out in the flowery language of his country, and 
with magical effect stir the hearts of his listeners with the thrilling 
account of how their ancestors fought in defence of their homes and 
their race, and fell covered with wounds, performing deeds that 
have left them deathless names, and how by emulating their 
example and treading in their footsteps they will make resplendent 
the blood of their ancient line. All this has in these days become 
utterly unreal, but the respect with which the bard is regarded when 
he recalls the most stirring memories of the race is not matter for 
surprise. 

11. In social position the Bh&t ranks fairly high, and is as 
particular in eating and drinking as a Brfthman : but he bears an 
indifferent reputation for volubility and abusive language. One 
proverb about them is,^ 

Bidt, Bkaiifdri, Beiwa, iinon fdi knjdi : 
Ale kd ddar karen ;jdi ma pdckhen hdi. 



" The bard, the inn-keeper, and the harlot are a bad lot : when 
you come they are civil ; when you go they care nothing.'' 

Bamfdk ddia, Thakmrak kin, 
Baid^ka pit byddk ma eAM, 
Bkdtak ekmPt bawak «4n7, 
Kak^n Gkdgk'^pdmekom pkmr gait, 

" A generous Banya, a mean Rijput, a physician's son who can- 
not diagnose disease, a silent Bhit« and an unclean courtcMU — all 
five, says Ohigb, are on the road to muu'^ 



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• 
• 

• 


• 


• 






• 


• 


• 


• 


• 


1 


JO 






6 

£ 

«t 


o 


fiQ 


M« 


(m 


Vol II. 







BHATHIYiRA. 34 

Bhathiyara^^ — (Sanskrit, Bhrishtakdra^ "a preparer of roaBted 
and fried meat''). — The keepers of inns and cooking-honses and 
gellers of tobacco. Their business is the entertainment of travel- 
lers, and their functions thus trench on the occupations of the 
baker {ndnbdi) ; the preparer and seller of fried meat (iabdb/arosA), 
and the tobacconist (lambdiuwdla). They trace their origin to 
Salim Sh&h, son of Shir Sh&h, who reigned between 1545 and 1552 
A. D., and one tradition makes them out to be the descendants of 
members of the household establishments of Shir Shfth and Salim 
Shfth, who, after the overthrow of their masters by Hum&yun, were 
doomed to servitude as attendants on travellers. The real name of 
Salim Sh&h was Jal&l or Islftm Shah, and both he and his &ther 
still live in the traditions of the people. One proverb about them 
is Kya legdya Skit &hdh ? Kpa legd^a Salim 8hdh /"— «' In spite 
of their greatness what has Shir Shfth or Salim Shah taken with 
him to the grave ? '\ Another is Shir Shdh kiddrki bari fd Salim 
Skdk ki ?—'' Which had the longest beard, Shir Shah or Salim 
Sh4h ? '* f . ^., " What is the use of arguing over trifles ?" The 
establishment of inns {fardi) goes, however, back as far as the reign 
of Chandra Grupta. The traveller Terry writes : — " In this king- 
dom there are no Innes to entertain travellers ; only in great 
Townes and Cities are faire houses built for their receipt, where 
any passenger may have roome freely, but must bring with him 
his Bedding, his Cooke and other necessaries/'^ 

2. In memory of their traditional origin they have two sub-divi- 

eions known as the Shirsh&bi and Salimshahi 

Tribiil organiMiion. ... ' 

who are distiguished by the women of the 
former wearing petticoats and the latter drawers. Another tradi- 
tion, which is apparently based merely on the similarity of name, 
makes them out to be in some way connected with the Bhatti tribe. 
In the east of the Province there are two sub-divisions — Bhathiyftra 
and Hariyara — which differ only in this, that the women of the 
former wear metal bangles (mdihx)y and the latter those made of 
glass or lac. The Census Returns classify them under fifty-two 
clanH, none of which are of much local importance, and display a 
curious mixture of Hindu and Muhammadon names, such as Bahlfm, 



> Bated on enqairies at Mirzapnr, and notea by Mr. E. Rose, C. S., CuUector 
of FarmkhAbAd, and Mnnahi Chboifi L411, Arobsdolofncal Snrvoy, Luckuow. 
* Fnrohas, II, 1457, quoted in Hohton Johson, s. v. Serai, 



86 bhathitAra. 

Bhll, ChauliAn, Chiryamar, Jalkhatri, Madariya^ Mokeri, Sadiqi, 
NlnbAi, Shirizi, and Salaim&ni 

d. They pro&es to follow the ordinary Muhammadan laws of mar* 
MazrbM tuim. ™^ ^' which the niidA is the binding portion. 

The two divisions, Salimsh^and ShirshAhi, are 
nid to be endoganumsi because the women of the latter bear an 
indi&rent reputation ; in £aot it is alleged that they are prostituted 
both before and after marriage. Dr. Buchanan^ says :^*" Maoy of 
their women, but by no means the greater part, refuse no favour to 
a liberal customer ; *' and Forster writes* :«»'' The stationary 
tenants of the serauee, many of them women, and some of them very 
pretty, approach the traveller on his entrance, and in alluring 
language describe to him the varied excellencies of their several 
lodgings, '' The levirate prevails, but is not compulsory on the widow. 
They follow the usual Muhammadan rules of divorce and inheritance. 

4. They are Muhammadans of the Sunni sect. To the east 
saIm^vi ^' ^^^ Province they reverence Ghizi Miyin 

and the Pinchon Pir, to whom sweetmeats and 
garlands of flowers are ofEered on the first Sunday in the month of 
Jeth. They bury their dead and offer to the spirits of deceased 
anoeators vermicelli {$iwaifdm)^ and bread on the ' Id and the kalwm 
bweetmeat on the Shab-i-barit. In former times, it is said, they 
used to consult Br&hmans in fixing an auspicious day for mar- 
riages»-a piactice which appears now to be abandoned. They do 
the usual third day (iifa) and fortieth day (ckMam) ceremony for 
the repose of the spirits of the dead. 

5. Besides their special business of entertaining travellers they 

a so catch 6sh, and are hence in the west of the 
Province, known as Mahigir or ** fithcatcher.'' 
Their women are known as Mchtar&ni, a sort of mock honorific title. 
Of the Grand Trunk Road Dr. Buchanan writes' : — '' On the great 
road more attention is shown to the real- convenience of travellers 
jlfii in any part of India which I have yet \isited ; and regular 
inns (sarii, bhathiy&rkhana) are kept at convenient distances. 
Each inn consists of a number of distinct chamliers, which arc let 
by the night to any traveller or company, eight or ten persons 



I Katitm imdia, I/., 989. 

3 Tr.ttsi», I., 86, Ui»6$*m Jol»9n, 615. 

* tiatUm Jhdtaf U(. at. 

Vot. II. c i 



BHATHIYARA. 



36 



travelling together often occupying one chamber. The chamber 
usually consists of a wretched straw hut^ seven or eight cubits long 
and five or six wide^ and is in general totally destitute of furniture ; 
a few only afford a little straw or a mat to sleep on ; but some 
kept by obliging nymphs have bedsteads^ where favourites are 
received. The Bhathiyaras or keepers are low Muhammadans^ such 
attention to strangers being incompatible with Hindu reserve. 
Each keeper^ according to his means^ has a number of chambers, 
which are usually disposed in a row [alang) ; and in most inns are 
several keepers whose rows of chambers surround squares or wide 
lanes^ in which the cattle of carriages of the travellers stand* 
Hindus pay from one to two pice a nieht for each chamber, and 
Muhammadans pay double because the Bhathiy&rin cooks for them. 
The keeper generally retails fire-wood, tobacco, and the charcoal 
balls used in smoking, and purchases for his guests whatever other 
article they want. Some of them also retail earthen ware and 
shoes. Hindus of the highest rank can sleep in such places, when 
no pure person will give them accommodation ; but they, of course, 
can receive little or no assistance from the keeper, who cannot bring 
water that his guest will use, nor can the Brihnmn cook in the inn. 
He must go to some pure place, and for that purpose usually selects 
the side of a river which in this country is the most common 
abode of Cloacina.^^ In these inns the Bhathiyftra women are said 
often to act as go-betweens {naparda). Some add to their income 
by keeping pony or bullock carts {ekkay bahli). 

Distribution of the Bkdthiydras according to the Census of 1891. 



DiBTBtCT. 


Number. 


1 

1 DiSTBIOT. 

1 


Nam bar* 


Dera Diia 


10 


! 




SablLranpnr . 


280 


Mathnra . • • 


668 


Muzaffarnagar 


396 


Agra .... 


1,688 


Meernt . • • 


802 


Farrnkb&b&d 


861 


TSiilandsbahr . . 


884 


Mainpnri . • • 


1,186 


Aligarh 


i,984 


Lt&wab 

1 


947 



bhathitIra. 


37 




BHATITA. 


DiMtrihution cfike BhdHijfdroi according to the Census of 1891 — oonold. 


DiSTBIOT. 


N amber. 


DlBTBIGT. 


Namber. 


BUk . . . . 


1.844 


Ballk .... 


78 


Bartillj ... 


4,488 


Goimkhpnr . 


• • 


112 


Bijnor .... 


729 


BMti . 


• . 


160 


Bndian 


2,m 


Atamgarh 


• . 


401 


Mor4d4b4d . 


1,147 


TarAi . 


• • 


51 


81iAbjfth4a|mr 


1,801 


Luekoow 


• . 


548 


Pilibhit 


860 


Ud4o . 


• . 


311 


Cawopur • 


760 


RA^Bareli . 


> 


138 


1 

Ffttebpfir • 


834 


81Upar 


• . 


215 


B4odA .... 


58 


Hardoi 


. 


493 


HaiDtrpiir 


57 


Knon • . 


■ 


128 


AUakibAd . 


1,542 


FaiiAbAd 


• 


228 


Jkinti .... 


24 


OoDda . 


. 


135 


JAkoD . 


88 


Bahriich . 


» 


84 


1 

BtOATM 

1 


793 


SnltAopnr 


» • 


284 


Mimpor 


243 


PtHAbgarh . 


• • 


34 


Jsiinpar 


450 


Baribaoici . 


• 
1 


404 


Ohixipnr 


254 


1 

1 










1 


T*iTiL • 30.658 



Bhatiya.^ A tribe of money -dealers and traders found in 
these Pn>vin<*es only in Mathura. Of those in the PanjAb Mr. 
Ibbetson writes :' ^'* Tiie Bhatiyas are a class of Rajputs, ori|]^nally 
eoming from Bhatner, Jaysalmer, and the KajputAna Desert, who 



I RDttrely \MW9d on ft noU by Muoahi AUn* Hkm, lla*d MMt«r, Hiffh School. 



BHATITA. 38 

have taken to domeetic pnrsaits. Tlie name would Beam to sbow 
that they were Bhatis (called Bhatti in the Panj&b) ; but be that 
as it may, their Rajput origin seems to be unquestioned. They 
are numerous in Sindh and Gujar&t, where they appear to form tiie 
leading mercantile element, and to hold the place which the Aroras 
occupy higher up the Indus. They have spread into the Panjftb 
along the lower valleys of the Indus and Sutlej, and up the whole 
length of the Chenftb as high as its debouchure into the plains, 
being indeed most numerous in Sialkot and Grujar&t. They stand 
distinctively below the Khatri, and perhaps below the Arora, and 
are for the most part engaged in petty shop-keeping, though the 
Bhatiyas of Dehra Ismail Kh&n are described as belonging to a 
widely-spread and enterprising mercantile community. They are 
often supposed to be Khatris, and in Jahlam they are said to follow 
the Khatri divisions of Bhari, Bunjahi, DhSighar, Charziti, etc. 
They are very strict Hindus, far more so than the other trading 
classes of the Western Punj&b ; and eschew meat and liquor. They 
do not practise widow-marriage.*' 

2. The Bhatiyas of Mathura claim to be descended from a 

Tribal tradition of th personage called Bhati Sinh, f rom whom 
Mathura Bhatiyas. they take their name. He was the founds 

of the city and kingdom of Jaysalmer. It is related that the 
Yaduvansis, or descendants of Yadu, engaged in a deadly intestine 
quarrel, and of them only two escaped the general destruction— Odhu 
and Bajam&bh. The latter lived at the time at the house of his ma- 
ternal g^nd father, Raja Bftnisura. In return for the services which 
Sri Krishna, himself a Yaduvansi, had once rendered to BAja Pa- 
rikshit, in protecting him while still in his mother's womb, the latter 
brought Bajamabh from Banasura's house and delivered to him 
the kingdom of Mathura and Indraprastha. Bajam&bh ruled wisely 
and protected his subjects, and raised a temple in honor of Sri 
Krishna at Dwarika. Eighty of his successors ruled in succession 
at Mathura ; but during the reign of the last. Raja Jay Sinh, R4ja 
Ajayp^l of Biy&na invaded Mathura, and, in the battle which ensued, 
Jay Sinh was killed, and his three sons, Bijaypftl, Ajfty Rij, and 
Bijay R&j, fled to Karauli. BijaypftI, the eldest of the three, gained 
the kingdom of Karauli, but he quarrelled with his brothers, and 
they retired to a forest in the neighbourhood of Karauli, where they 
devoted themseives to the worship of Ambam&na Devi. At the end 
of a year of devotion, when they failed to propitiate the goddess 



39 BHATIYA. 

they determined to g&in her favour by olTerlng their heads to her 
in a furnace {hkaUi), Pleased with this final act of piety the deity 
appeared to them and desired them to crave a boon from her. They 
answered that as Kshatriyas they needed a kingdom. Whereupon 
the Devi ordered Ajay Bij to go towards the West and found a 
kingdom in the Rajputlina Desert, and henceforth to call himself 
fihflti Sinh, as he had been saved from the burning fiery furnace. 
He followed her orders and founded the kingdom of Jaysalmeri and 
there established his tribe under the name of Bhattis or Bhatiyas. 

8. Here it may be noted that the Jaysalmer tradition is differ* 
ent from this.^ " PiJ&g or Allah&bAd was the cradle of the race, 
after which Mathura remained the scat of the Yaduvansi power for a 
k>ng period. On the death of Sri Krishna, the deified leader of the 
JAdons, from whom the Bhatti R&jputs claim descent, the tribe be- 
came dispersed ; many of them abandoned Hindustan, among them 
two of the sons of Krishna, who proceeded northward along the 
Indus^ and settled there. Some time after this one of their descen- 
dants being defeated and killed in a battle, the tribe was driven 
southward into the PanjAb, where SAlivihana, son of Oaj, founded a 
town called after his name, and conquered the whole region. His 
grandson was named Bhatti ; he was a great warrior and conquered 
many of the neighbouring princes, and from him the patronymic 
waschanged, and the tribe was henceforth distinguished by his name. 
Shortly after this the tribe was again driven southward by the King of 
Ghami, adA crossing the Sutlej found refuge in the Indian Desert, 
which was henceforth to be their home. This traditional account 
may represent in outline the early migrations of the Bhatti tn\ye, 
which may be supposed to have entered India from the north* 
west under heroic leaders now deified as the sons of Krishna, and 
to have settled for some time in the PanjAb. One of the grand 
expeditions of MahmAd of Ohaseni was against the city of Bhattia, 
also called Bhera, which place is now said to ba\'0 been on the left 
bank of the Jahlam, opposite the Salt Range. Mr. E. Tliomas 
considers that the four last Hindu Kings of Kabul, before the Ohai* 
navis, may have been Bhatiya R&jputs.'' 

4. The Mathura story runs that when the Bhatiyas left their 

Western home and (*ame to Mathura they 
had considerable diflSculty in finding allian* 



i:''jrui^Hi Honitnr, II 170 



BHATITA. 40 

ces for their children, because having by this time taken to trade 
the Edjputs of the neighbourhood were unwilling to intermarry 
with them. They accordingly convened a meeting of the caste at 
Multan, and there consulted learned Brihmans and the books of the 
law, and it was after great discussion decided that a man might 
marry within liis own tribe in a family removed from himself by 
forty-nine degrees, and that the families thus removed should each 
form a nuih or exogamous group. These nuHs were designated 
after some person, village, or occupation, such as the nutk Bleha- 
riya was named after RaS Hari Singh ; USA Gajariya after the 
village Gajariya, and EAe Tambol after a Tamboli or seller of betel. 
This story describes in a very interesting way the manner in which 
new exogamous and endogamous groups are formed. 

5. The following are the names of the Mathura gotrai with the 
nukhi which each includes : — 

(1) Par&sara gofra including twenty -three nukhs • —Bid GFaja- 
riya ; Rid Panchloriya ; Rad Palija ; RaS Gagla ; R&£ Sar&ki ; Raft 
Soni ; R&£ Suphia ; Ri£ Jiya ; Rag Mogaya : Ra£ Ghaga ; Ri« 
Rika; RftS Jaydhan; Rid Korhaiya; Rid Kova; R&S Rariya; 
Ra6 Kajariya; RtlS Sijballa; Rsie Jiyftla; R&S Malan; Rafi Dhava; 
Ra£ Dhiran ; Rag Jagta ; RaS Nis&t. 

(2) Sanras goira containing eleven nukht as follows : — Ri£ 
Dutaya ; Rftd Jabba ; UiA N&gobabia ; Rid Su&ra ; RftS Dhawan ; 
Rad Danda ; Rftd Dhaga ; Ra£ Kandhiya ; Ri£ Udesi ; Ri« BAr 
dhdcha ; RaS Bal^yS. 

(3) Bh&radw&j gotra with the following eighteen nukks:^^RSA 
Hariya; RaS Padamshi ; Rie Maidaya ; Rid Chandan; Rid Khiy&ra 
Rid Thula ; Rdd Sodhiya ; Rad Bora ; Rad Mochha ; Rid 1 imbol 
R&d Lakhanbanta ; Rad Dhakkai* ; Rid Bhudariya ; RUd Mota 
Rid Anghar ; Rid Dhadhal ; Rdd D^gchanda ; Rid Asar. 

(4) Sudharvans gotra with the following eight «aiii<.-»Rid 
Sapta; Rad Chhachhaiya ; R&d Nagara; R&d Githababia; Rid 
Parmala ; Rid Potha ; Rid Ponrdhagga ; Rftd Mathura. 

(5) Madhobadhas gotra including the following eleven nukkt ;— 
Rid Yed ; Rae Surya ; Rid Gugalgandhi ; Rad Nadgandhi ; RiS 
Panchal ; Rid Phur&S((Sndhi ; Rad Pardgdndhi ; Rid Jujarg^ndhi; 
Rad Praima ; Rid Bibal ; R&d Povar. 

(6) Devdfis gotra including the following nine nukht ; — Rid 
Ramaiya; Rde Pawar; RILd RAja; Rdd Parijiya; Rl^ KapOr; 
RAd Gunigulab ; Rad Dhadhar ; Rad Kartari ; Bid Kukaur. 



41 BHATIYA. 

(7) Rifihivans fotra coDBiBting of the following fonr nukks :— 
' ViiA Mult&iii ; Ili« Chamuja ; R&S Daiya ; B4£ Karangona. 

6. The Census Returns supply them with a set of sections most 
pf which are of the Banya type, such as AgarwAla, Belw&r, Bh&lA, 
Bhorir, Bhudi, Bohra, (3aur, Jaysalmer, Kain, Madkul^ Mahes- 
wari, M&rwftri, OswAl, Palliw41, Rahtn, Sahasri. 

7. Marriages may take place between members of the same 

goira^ but not of the same nnkh. There is 
no exact formula of exogamy ; but a man 
cannot marry among his near relations on the father's or mother's 
side, and the same rule applies to women. Differences of religion, 
provided both parties are followers of some form of Hinduism, and 
changes of occupation, are not a bar to intermarriage ; but differ- 
ences of local or geographical position are a bar. Thus intermar- 
riages between Bhatiyas of Bombay, Kachh, and Gujar&t, and those 
of the PanjAb, Sindh, and the North- Western Provinces, are not 
permitted. Thus Bhatiyas may be divided into the following two 
endogamous groups based on geographical position : — The first group 
consists of Kichhis, Hal&is, Prijas, KathiAwSris, Gujarfttis and 
Bhatiyas of DhAfanginw. 'Ihe second group consists of Bhatiyas 
of Jaybalmer, Sindh, the Panjab, and the North- Western Provinces. 
As a rule no Bhatiya can take a second wife in the lifetime of the 
first, unless she be barren or unfaithful to her husband, in which 
ease she will be expelled from caste. In no case can the number 
exceed two, and that limit is seldom reached. When a Bhatiya hap* 
pens to have two wi^^e^ they live under the same roof and enjoy the 
same privileges in ever}- rcbpect. In the case of girls marriage must 
be performed before the age of twelve : there is no time fixed in the 
case of males. Marriage is arranged by the friends in both sides, and 
there are no marriage brokers. The children of both marriages, should 
a man have two wives, rank equally for purposes of inheritance. Wi- 
dow marriage is not allowed, and the offspring of an illicit connection 
are not admitted into the caste, and do not rank as hi*irs to the 
estate of their father. An unfaithful wife is exeommunieated, and 
so is a man who "openly keeps a concubine. 

H. At the betrothal the father of the girl semis what is called the 

isgun^ conbibting of one' nit>«v, a eoei>anut, 

autlsome coarse bugar, for the b»y, which is 

given to him in thcprebcnce of tht* brethten, who are inviteil to be 

in attetulttiice, and the betiotlial is thus complete. The ceremony 



BHATITA. 42 BHATTF. 

presupposes the mntnal consent of the parents of the parties. 
Betrothal is pfcnemlly not reversible, and is not annulled except on 
the discovery of some very serious physical defect in either bride or 
bridegroom, and, if annulled, the expenses are repaid hy the party 
breaking the engagement, though there is no distinct rule on the 
subject. Betrothal may take place any time before marriage. The 
marriage ceremony is of the orthodox type, and the binding part 
of it is the giving away of the bride {kanpdtfdn) and the perambula- 
tion {pheron phirna) round the sacred fire. The marriage is complete 
and irreversible when the fourth circuit is finished. Pokhame 
Brahmans act as priests at marriage and other ceremonies. 

9. The chief occupation of the Bhatiyas is money-lending, and 

to this they add trade of all kinds-^agricnl- 

Oconpation. , 

ture, landholding^ and Government service. 
Many of them go on expeditions to Ai*abia, Kabul, Bokh&ra, and 
other distant places on business. Many in Bombay carry on 
trade with Zanzibar, Java, and the Malay Peninsula. Their religion 
continues to be mainly Vedik; but some have become followers of 
Vallabhacharya. The Bhatiyas of these Pix)vinces in appearance, 
customs, and dress, strongly resemble Khatris ; but between the two 
castes there seems to be no real connection. 

Dutribuiion of the Bhatiyai according to tke Censui of 1891. 





DiVTBICT. 




Number. 


Matharft 






264 


CawnDiir . ....... 


1 






Total 






S65 



Bhatti— (Sanskrit, bAdtta, " lord'')-— A RAjput sept. Of the 
Panj&b branch Mr. Ibbetson' writes : — " Bhatti, the Panjftb form of 
the Rajputina word Bhati, is the title of the great modem representa- 
tives of the ancient Yaduvansi Royal Rajput family, descendants of 
Krishna, and therefore of Lunar race. Their traditions tell that in 
very ancient times they were driven across the Indus ; but that, 
returning, they dispossessed the Langah, Joya, and others of the 
country south of the Lower Sutlej, some seven centuries ago, and 



• PanjAl Ethnography, section IkS. 



43 BHATTI. 

founded Jaysalmer. This State they still hold, though their territory 
has been greatly circumscribed since the advent of the Bithaur ; but 
they still form a large proportion of the Rajput subjects of the 
Rithanr RAjas of Bik&ner. At one time their possessions in those 
parts included the whole of Sirsa and the adjoining portions of HissAr 
and the tract still known as Bhatiy&na. The story current in Iliss&r 
is that Bhatti, tbe leader under whom the Bhattis recrossed the 
Indus, had two sons, D&sal and Jaysal, of whom the latter founded 
Jaysalmer, while the former settled in Bhatiy&na. From DAsal 
sprang the Sidhu and Barftr J&t tribes, while his grandson Rajp&i 
was the ancestor of the Wattu. According to General Cunning- 
ham the Bhattis originally held the Salt Range Tract and Kashmir, 
their capital being Gajnipur, or the site of the modern Rawalpindi, 
but about the second century before Christ they were driven 
across the Jahlam by the Indo-Scythians, and their leader, the 
Rija Ras&lu, of Panjdb tradition, founded Sialkot. The invaders, 
however, followed them up, and dispersed them and drove them to 
take refuge ir. the country south of the Satlaj, though their rule 
in the Kashmtr valley remained unbroken till 1589 A« D. 

2. " The Bhatti is still by far the largest and most widely 
distributed of the RAjput tribes of the Panjib. It is found in 
immense numbers along the lower Satlaj and Indus, though on the 
former often, and on the latter always classed as J&t. It is hardly 
lees numerous on the Chanib, the Upper Satlaj, and on the BiyAs ; 
it is naturally strong in BhatiyAna ; there is a large oolony in the 
Delhi District, while it is perhaps most numerous of all in the 
seats of its ancient power ^ in SiAlkot, GujarAt, and the Salt Range 
country. And if we reckon as Bhatti the Sidhu and Barar JAts of 
the MAlwa, we shall leave no portion of the PanjAb in whiidi a large 
Bhatti population is not to be found. 

S. '* Yet it is strange if the Bhatti did hold so large a portion of 
the PknjAb, as General Cunningham alleges, how almost universal- 
ly they trace their origin to Bhatner in BhatiyAna, or at least to 
its neighbourhood. Either they were expelled wholly from tbe 
Upper PanjAb, and have since returned to their ancient seats, or 
else the glory of their later has overshadowed that of their earlier 
dynasties, and Bhatner and BhatiyAna have become the city and 
country of the Bhatti from which all good Bhatti trace their origin. 
Tlie subject population of BikAner is largely composed of Bhatti, 
while Jaysalmer is a Bhatti State ; and it seems impo^ible tliat if 



BHATTI. 44 

the Bhatti of the higher Satlaj are immigrants^ and not the des- 
cendants of the old Bhatti who escaped expulsion^ they should not 
have come largely from both these Statesi and moreover, should 
not have followed the river valleys in their advance. Yet the 
tradition almost always skips all inteimediate steps, and carries as 
straight back to that ancient city of Bhatner on the banks of the 
long, dry Ghaggar, in the Bik&ner territory bordering on Sirsa. 
The Wattu Bhatti of Montgomery, while tracing their origin from 
Rslja S&livslhana, the father of Raja Rasftlu of Si&lkot, say that 
their more immediate ancestors came from Bhatner; the N&n 
Bhatti of Mult&n trace their origin to the Delhi country, while the 
Bhatti of Mnzaffargarh, Jhang, Gnjr&nwtlla, Si&lkot, Jahlam, and 
Pindi, all look back to Bhatner as the home of their ancestors. It 
is possible either that Bhatner is used merely 'as a traditional 
expression, or that when the Ghaggar dried np or the R&thaiir 
conquered Bik&ner, the Bhatti were diiven to find new homes in 
the plains of the Funjdb. Indeed, Mr. Wilson states that in Sirsa 
or the old Bhatiy&na, the term Bhatti is commonly applied to any 
Musalman J&t or Rtljput from the direction of the Satlaj as a 
generic term almost synonymous with Rath or PachhSda /' 

4. In these Provinces' they are also known as Jaisw&r. They 

Bhattu of these Provin- ^^^^^ ^ ^ Jadous who returned from 
^^' beyond the Indus in the seventh or eighth 

century. A large number of them became Muhammadans in 
the time of Qutb-ud-din and Ala*ud-din. They say they came 
to Bulandshahr under Kansal, or as others say, Deo and KM, 
in the time of Prithivi Rftja, having ejected the Meos. They 
are divided into two clans — Bhatti and Jaiswir. The former 
is the superior of the two, the latter having intermarried with 
spurious Rajputs. A majority of the clan are now reckoned as 
G&jars. Another story is that they are descended from Rija 
Dalip, son of Jaswant Rao of Ndna Man, near Bithiir. He had 
two sons, Bhatti and Ranghar; their descendants settled in 
Bhatiyana ; the branch converted to Isltlm was called Ranghar. 
The national dress is not trousers and waist cloth, but a broad 
sheet of coarse cloth, plain or checked, which reaches from the 
neck to the ankle and is tied at the waist. The wife of Tuglaq 
Shah and mother of flroz Sh&h was a Bhatti woman. The 

* Hija Lachman $^inh, Bulandshahr Memo : 162. 



45 



BHATTI. 



MnhAmznadmn Bhattis along the Kftli Nadi in the Etah District 
are a tnrbalent, idle set, much dreaded by their neighbours. 

5. In the Upper Du&b they are reported to give brides to the 
Chanhln, Oahlot, Tomar, Panw&r, Kachhw&ha, and other high class 
Rijpats, and to marry their sons in the Bargujar, Chauh&n, Kaohh- 
wftha^ Pandir, and other high and middle class septs. 



DiilrUuiiom of ike Biatti BdjpuU according to Ike Censwe of 189 L 



DitTBICT. 


HindiM. 


diuis. 


Total. 


Osliia Ddo 


> • • • 


••• 


39 


39 


Sahiraiipiar 








87 


443 


480 


MunfcifarnagT 








80 


343 


423 


Msenii 








180 


••• 


180 


BulADdihahr 








8.482 


8,465 


6.937 


Aligarh 








6 


676 


681 


MaUmia . 


• 






••• 


40 


49 


Agra 








• • • 


1 


1 


Fsmkhibid . 








10 


1,177 


1,187 


Mainpari • 








t«t 


8 


8 


Stab 








80 


8,671 


8.761 


Bbivfllj . 








••• 


3.768 


8.762 


Badion • 








687 


••• 


687 


]forAd4b4d 








••• 


614 


614 


fibAlgabAopor < 








83 


••• 


88 


Gswnpiir • 








••• 


26 


26 


Alkb4b4d. 








••• 


41 


41 


Ob4sip<ir . 








••• 


864 


864 


Gotakkpiir 








IM 


66 


191 


AttBgarh. 








••• 


86 


86 


IMI 








• •• 


86 


86 



BUAITI. 



46 



BHIKHA filHIB. 



DiHrilmtion of Ike BkaiU RajpuU aecardimg to ike Oemews of ifi9i— eoneU. 



D18TBICT. 



Mnhiiinin>- 



I 



Lucknow . 

UdAo 

Sttapur 

Hardoi 

Kher 

Faiz4bftd • 

Gonda 

Hahmkh . 

8n1t&npar 

Fartlibgarh 

B^abaDki . 



Total. 



Total 



4,619 



75 


76 


112 


112 


10 


10 


198 


198 


195 


196 


8 


2 


34 


84 


267 


267 


187 


137 


1,652 


1,652 


1.353 


1;I53 


17,170 


21,789 



Bhikha Sahib. — A sect among the Rajputs of Ballia, oE which 
the following account is given in the Dtttriet Gasetieer :— " There 
was a devotee in Delhi whose name was Shah Muhammad Yiri. 
In his time a certain zamindar of Bhirkura, named Mardan Sinh, 
was arrested for default of payment of revenue^ and sent by the 
Viceroy (Subahdar) to Delhi^ where he was imprisoned. A senranti 
who had attended Mohan Sinh, paid visits in his leisure hours to 
Muhammad Yari Shah. One day the devotee enquired what he 
was and where he lived. On this the servant narrated the circum- 
stances of his mastei-'s imprisonment and of his own presence there. 

* Go and tell your master, ' said the devotee, ' that he will be set free 
to-morrow by the order of the Minister of State^ and that he should 
then present himself to me ? ^ Mardan Sinh was actually released 
the next day, and, as directed, attended on Muliammad YAri Shih. 
After several days' attendance and devotion, the devotee expressed 
himself satisfied, and directcnl Maixlan Sinh to proceed to his own 
country, and there worship the Atma, and show mercy to the 
)»oor and hungry. 



BHIKH4 SllIlB. 47 BUtLT 

2. He also gavo him a seli or necklace of black nlk, worn as a 
distinguishing mark by the Chief, who sits on the cushion ijaddi) 
when he has occasion to go to his disciples. Mardan Sinh was 
further instructed by Muhammad Yari bhih to observe the follow 
ing ceremony. At the time of making a disciple, a iantki, or sacred 
garland, is to be put round his neck, and the disciple is enjoined to 
repeat constantly the invocation Udm f Rdm I and never to take life 
or tyrannize over any one. Mardan Sinh on his return to Bhirkura 
made one Bhikha his disciple, and the latter finally settled in Bara- 
gAon. This happened some four hundred years ago, and the Bhikha 
Sihib pmddi or seat was thus founded. It may be noticed in regard 
to the above acoount that a Muhammadan Faqtr is represented as 
enjoining the repetition of the strictly Hindu formula Rdm I Bdm I 
If the legend is a correct statement of fact, the circumstance is an 
interesting illustration of the partial amalgamation of Muhammadan 
and Hindu forms, which we know is the aim of some of the 
Vaishnava reformers/' 

8. At the last Census the sect of Bhikha Sihib included 1,227 
votaries. 

Bhil— (Sanskrit, Bkilla), — We have in these Provinces only a 
few fragments of the great Bhil race of Central India. Professor 
Lassen identities them with the Phyllitso of Ptolemy, whom Cokmel 
Yule classes with the Pulinda, a general term for various aboriginal 
races. According to Dr. Caldwell the name Bhilla (9t7| M^ means 
*' a buw.'^^ There is a curious early Hindu legend, which, however, 
is not found in the Mahabhirata, which tells how Drona, the pre* 
u*ptor of the Vk ndavas, was jealous of the skill of the Bhil RAja in 
archery, and directed him and his subjects to cut off the forefinger 
of the rifi^t hand.* Another story tells that Mahideva was one 
day reclining sick in the forest, when a beautiful damsel appeared, 
the first sight of whom efFected a cure for all his pain. The result 
uf their meeting was the liirth of many children, one of whom, 
distinguishad for his ugliness, slew the favourite bull of MahiUleva, 
for which crime he was ex|)cllod to the woods and mountains, and 
his deM»ndants have been the outcast Bhils. They sUll call them* 



I Indutn Anii>iwtry^ XII I., 881. Ovnerml Caottinghaai iakm PhyUitiD to 
eorreainnd to parna and to moikn *' Xomi oUd " liko iho Jiuuiic* ap to ^hm pr9««ai 
day. Dr. l^>|irrt P«*einM to coDiidvr PbjUitB •« dcrivrd from Dhtl. Ori^iiial 
inkmhiianUot Hharataviir§a, 80. »</. 

> WbtfcUrr. Uist»ty of Imha, I., 81, i/ . IWslmituUr Krrur» ISiS, psf* 3S7. 



BHtL. 48 

selves '' thieves of Mahftdeva/' ^ There oan be Httle doaU thit 
they are a branch of the great Dravidian race which is found 
along the mountains of Central India^ and are aidn to the 
Gonds^ Kharw&rs, MtLnjhis, Cheros^ and Sant&ls^ who live fnrtha to 
the eastward. Sir J. Malcolm' thinks that they have emignted 
from Jodhpur and Udaypur to their present territory^ and as a 
proof that they were originally lords of the land, he points to the 
fact of their giving the tUa to some'of the existing BAjpnt piinoei. 
The most solemn form of oath among them is mixing oowdnng, SBk^ 
and the jawdri millet^ and lifting the mixture over their heads.' 
They have^ like many of the indigenous tribes^ some relationB with 
the local gods^ and are priests to one of the most ancient temples in 
Omkar. According to Sir A. Lyall* they are divided into a 
variety of distinct groups, a few based on a reputed oommon descent, 
but most of them apparently muddled together by simple ccmti- 
guity of habitation, or the natural banding together of the number 
necessary for maintaining and defending themselves. Sir J. 
Malcolm says that the Bhil women are invariably the advocates of 
the cause of good order. They have much influence^ and the prin- 
cipal hope of an enemy's escape lies in the known humanity of the 
women. They worship peculiarly Sitak, the smaU^pox goddess, and 
Mahadeva, from whom they claim descent.' The chief historical 
tradition regarding them in these Provinces is that ihey were 
formerly rulers in Rohilkhand, whence they were expelled by the 
Jangh&ra Bijputs.^ The clans recorded at the last Census in these 
Provinces were the Gruranawa, Jaisw&r, Kariwai, MajhAiaya^ 
Munaharbh&l, Rtlma, and Rslwat. 

2. The best available account of the manners and customs of 

the real Bhils is that given by a writer in 

Ifaimers and ouBtoms* ^ c? tr 

the Rajputdna Oa$etteef -P—'' All Bhib go 
about armed with the tribal weapons, bows and arrows ; excqrt the 
headmen and others of consequence, who carry swords. They are a 
dirty race. The men wear their hair long, and hanging in uncombed 



I Captain Hnnier, Journal Royal AMxaiie Society, VIIL, 181 : Maloolm* Ctnlral 
India, I., 526. 
s Ibid, L, 519. 

> Forsyth, Highlands of Central India, 172. 
« Atiatic Studies, 160. 

• Ibui, II., 180, «<}. 

• Bareilly Settlement Report^ 19 : Qateiteer, North-Weil Provinces, V., 578, §q, 
» L, 177, JW ; III., 64, lU. 



49 bhIl. 

from their Bhoulders. Their women are small and ugly, 
those of rank being digtingaishable by the number of brass rings on 
their legs, often extending from the ankle to the knee. They kill 
and eat kine and are muoh addicted to spirits^ vast quantities of 
which are consumed on festive occasions, which frequently end in 
quarrels and bloodshed. Fond of fighting, they resort to their 
weapons on the slightest provocation, but their most serious affrays 
arise out of cattle-lifting and the abduction of women. If a Bhil 
run away with a betrothed girl^ a feud will frequently ensue, which 
will not end till the village of both sides have been burnt and 
many lives lost. As a rule they keep tolerably quiet in the winter 
and the rainy season ; but in the summer, between the gathering in 
of the last harvest and the sowing of the next, they begin raiding 
on each other ; and even the richest think this time, which hangs 
heavily on their hands, favourable for paying off old scores. There 
are sixty different sections of the Bhil tribe in B&nsw&ra. 

S. " Bhil children are not betrothed by their parents in their 

childhood. A Bhtl eirl is often unmarried 
up to the age of twenty or twenty- five. 
Her Cither can take no steps of his own accord for his daughter's 
marriage ; were he to do, suspicion would be aroused that there was 
something wrong with the girl. His friends can take steps on his 
behalf, but he himself must wait for a proposal from the father of 
some eligible lad, which he can entertain or not as he pleases. 
Should he accept the proposal, the lad's father, having provided 
himself with a couple of pots of liquor, will return to complete the 
oeremony of betrothal {safari), sitting down under some large tree 
or other cool spot in the village. The girl's father and his friends 
join them, and the question as to the amount of money to be paid by 
the father of the lad to the father of the girl is there and then 
disposed of. This amount varies according to the means and status 
of the parties concerned from thirty to sixty rupees. When this 
is settled, the father of the boy makes a cup of leaves of the DkJi 
tree (Bui^a/randota), and placing it on the top of the pot of liquor, 
puts inside it two annas worth of copper coins. The girl's brother 
or soma other boy among her relations then takes the coin and 
turns the cup of leaves upside down. The betrothal is then 
complete ; and nothing remains but to drink the liquor, which is 

done on the spot. The girl's father then kills a goat and gives a 
Vol II. i> 



bhIl. 60 

feast to bis future sonnu-law and his father^ after which the \tUm 
return home. 

4. " Some four or six months after the betrothal arrangements 
for the wedding are set on foot. The boy^s father takes a present 
of clothes, a sheet {sdri), a petticoat, and a corset for the girl, 
who at once puts them on. Her father, if well ofE, kills a bo&llo, 
if poor, a goat, and gives a feast to all the village, and to the boy'i 
father and all his friends. On this occasion a Br&hmaii is called 
in, and on receipt of four annas from each &therj fixes some auspi- 
cious day for the wedding. Half the amount previously fixed upon 
is now paid to the girPs father in cash, and the remainder in kind, 
in the shape of a bullock, etc. On the day fixed by the Brihman 
for the wedding, the boy, after being well annointed with pU, a mix- 
ture of turmeric, flour, etc., proceeds to the girl's hous^ accom- 
panied by all his friends and relations. They halt at the borders of 
the village, whither the girl's father, with all his friends, and 
accompanied by drummers and women singing, proceeds to meet 
them ; and after performing the ceremony of tilai, that is marking 
the boy on the forehead with safEron^ escorts them into the village^ 
and settles them down under some large tree or in some other con- 
venient spot. The girl's father then returns to his bouse, and the 
boy's father pays certain customary dues. 

5. ** On the evening of the wedding day a great feast is given 
by the bride's father ; and the bride and bridegroom are provided 
with a separate hut for the night, while their friends get drunk* 
Next morning the bride's father presents his daughter with abullook 
or a cow, or with any other worldly goods with which he may 
wish to endow her, and after presenting the boy's father with a 
turban gives him leave to depart. 

6. " The following are the ceremonies said to be performed bf 

the Bhils on occasions of deatk When a man 
dies a natural death, his corpse is covered with 
white cloths, and a supply of food in the shape of flour, clarified but- 
ter and sugar, uncooked (called sdra), is placed by his side for use on 
his journey to the next world. Tliey are afterwards thrown into 
the water by the side of which he is burnt. A small copper coin 
is also thrown on the ground when the corpse is burnt, apparently 
as a eort of fee for the use of the ground for the purpose. Three 
days after the body has been burnt, the ashes are thrown into the 
water, and a cairn is raised on the spot by the people present, who 



61 BHtL. 

wring out their clothes over the Btones after bathing. On the 
twelfth day after death, all friends, far and near, assemble for the 
idia or mortnary feast, for which the heir of the deceased, if 
well-to-do in the world, will have provided some two hundred rupees 
worth of spirits. In the morning the ceremony of the arad is 
aommencedy and lasts generally throughout the day. 

7. '' The Bhopa, or witch-finder of the village, is seated on a 
wooden platform, and places near him a big earthen pot with a 
brass dish over the mouth of it. A couple of Bhils beat this with 
drum sticks, at the same time singing funeral dirges. The 
spirit of the deceased is now supposed to enter the heart of the 
Bhopa, and through him to demand whatever it may want. Should 
the man have died a natural death, the spirit will call for milk, 
gfai, etc., and will repeat through the Bhopa the words he said 
just before his death* Whatever is demanded is at once supplied 
to the Bhopa, who smells the articles given to him and puis 
them down by his side. Should the deceased have died a violent 
death, the Bhopa generally calls for a bow and arrows, or for a 
gun, whichever the deceased was killed with, and works himself 
up into much excitement, going through the motions of firing, 
shouting the war cry, etc. The spirits of the ancestors of the 
deceased are also called up by the Bhopa, and the same ceremonies 
are gone through with them. In the evening the Bhil Jogi 
appears on the scene and goes through various ceremonies. He 
is first of all provided with twelve sers of wheat flour and five 
f#ff maize flour, which he places in front of the bier of the 
deceased. The Jogi then plants his brass image of a horse on the 
top of the flour and sticks an arrow in front of it, and also some 
small copper coins. Two empty jars, the mouths tied up, one 
with red and the other with white cloth, are also placed by him 
in front of the horse. A rope is next tied round the horse's neck. 
The Jogi then calls out the names of the ancestors of the dcceasedi 
at the same time signifying to the heir that now is the time 
for him to give alms or religious grants to the memory of his 
father or ancestors, which appeal is generally responded to ; and 
a oow is given to the Jogi. The heir after this directs the Jogi 
to provide the deceased with foal. The Jogi cooks some rioe 
and milk and pours it into a hole he has dug in the ground. lie 
also pours in an ewer full of liquor and drops in a copper coin 
and then fills up the hole again with earth. Other mystic ritea 

Vol. II. p f 



bhIl. 62 

follow; the heir makes presents to the Jogi, and the Eamity 
friends give presents to the heir. The ceremonies conclude with 
some hard drinking. The next day the relatives of the deceased 
give a feast to the village^ each relation providing something 
towards this f east^ — one rice^ another gU^ and so forth. The honour 
of providing a buffalo belongs to the son-in-law of the deceased, 
and failing him, the brother-in-law and the brother. 

8, ''The widow of the deceased, if young, is now asked bjr 

all the relatives whether she wishes to 

remain in her late husband's house or to 

be married again-*a ceremony called ndtra. If she, as she 

generally does, wishes to be married again, she replies that she 

will return to her father's house. If the deceased has a younger 

brother, he will at once step forward and assert that he will 

not allow her to go away to any other man's house ; and going 

up to her he throws his cloak over the widow, who thus 

becomes his wife, and is taken away by him to his house 

there and then. Eight days afterwards, when she is supposed 

to have done mourning for her late husband, her new husband 

supplies her with a set of armlets in the place of those given 

by her former lord, which are taken off. The nMra is then 

complete. The younger brother is not, however, compelled to 

keep his brother's widow should he not wish to do so, but 

it is such a point of honour that a boy even will daim and 

exercise the right. Should the deceased have no younger brother, 

then the widow is taken away by her father or relations eight 

days after the idta. She will remain at her father's house for a 

month or two, when either she will be given away in ndira to some 

man with her Other's consent or she will run off and take up her 

quarters in some man's house without his consent. The man die 

flies to may not wish her to come, and may have no idea of her inten* 

tion to do so ; but nevertheless, once she has placed herself under his 

protection he is in honour bound to keep her^ and she remains as his 

wife. The widow can go to any man she pleases provided he be of a 

different section to that of her &ther. 

0. '' Should the father have given his widowed daughter awqr 
in ndtra, her late husband's heir will at once pick a quarrel and demand 
satisfaction from him. As a preliminary step the h^ generally 
attacks the widow's father and bums down his house, after which, in 
course of time, a committee {jpaneidynt) is generally appointed to settle 



C3 BUtL« 

ihe dispute, when a sum of money, varying from fifty to two hundred 
rupees, aooording to the means of the parties, is awarded to the heir 
in compensation. The father will then in his turn demand repay- 
ment from his son-in-law, and should the latter refuse to pay up, 
he proceeds to bum down his house and make himself otherwise 
objectionable till his claim is satisfied. Should the widow run off, as 
she generally does, without her father's or relatives' consent, her 
deceased husband's heir will at once attack the man to whose pro- 
tection she has gone. 

10. *^ Should some unmarried and unbetrothed girl take a fancy 
to and run off with some young man, her father and brothers, as 
•oon as they have found out where she has gone to, at once attack 
and bom his house, or in the event of their being unable to do that they 
born any house in the village which comes handy. This most 
probably is resented and retaliated, and the quarrel may be prolonged 
for some time, but, as a rule, a panehd^/ai is sooner or later appointed to 
settle the dispute. The compeusation awarded to the girl's &ther 
never exceeds one hundred rupees. A hole is dug in the ground and 
filled with water. The girl's father and his son-in-law then each 
drop a stone into it, and their quarrel is finally settled. The /mi«- 
ekdfoi and party then consume some liquor at the son-in-law's 
expense, and depart in peace. 

11. '^ Should an unmarried and unbetrothed girl refuse to run off 
with a man when asked to do so, the man will generally shout out 
in the village that he has taken so-and-so's daughter's hand, and woe 
to him who dares to marry her. A panchdfat is then assembled, 
and the father generally gives his daughter to the man, receiving 
doable the compensation that would have been awarded had the girl 
consented to marry him in the first instance. Should a girl unmar- 
ried, but who has been betrothed, run off with somebody else, the 
man to whom she was betrothed at once attacks and possibly kills 
the man whom she has run off with, and burns both his and the girl's 
father's huts. The quarrel often goes on for years, and leads to 
retahation, till the entire village community on either side are drawn 
into the' quarrel and turn out and attack each other. 

12. '' Should a wife run away from her husband to somebody else, 
the injured husband and his friends often burn the whole of the 
village in which the recipient of the faithless wife's favours lives 
Eventually, when a pantkd^ot is formed, the wife is often given up 
and taken back by her hunhand, any children that she may have 



bhIl. 



64 



Death cnstoms. 



borne in the meantime being left with their &ther« Should the man 
refuse to give her up^ then some two hundred rupees is awarded to 
the husband in compensation by the paneAdyat, not to mention the 
liquor required by the latter during their consultation. 

IS. ^^ The Bhils erect stone tablets in memory of their male dead 

(never to deceased women) and, as a role, the 
figure of the deceased is carved on the stone. 
He is often represented on horsel^k with sword, lance, or shield, 
sometimes on foot, but invariably clothed in the best of long clothes 
and armed with a sword and 6hield,<»a style of dress he was quite 
unaccustomed to in the flesh. Tablets are also erected to boys who 
have died while still minors ; but instead of a figure of the deceased, 
a large hooded snake is carved on the stone. 

14. '^ Bhils will eat the flesh of all animals, even that of a dead 

camel. Bhils and Minas having no order of 
priesthood, resort to the Gum of the Chamars. 
These Gxirus assume the appellations and badges of Brahmans. They 
do not adopt disciples ; but the office is hereditary, descending from 
the father to all the sons. The minstrel of the Bhtls is called Kamriya. 
The principal deities of the Bhils and Minas are M&t&ji and DerL 
They also worship Agru* The Chauhan warrior-saint Oiigaji is 
much worshipped in Sirohi as a protector from the bite of the 
ndff idnp or cobra.^ He is worshipped under the form of a 
warrior on horseback and also imder the form of a cobra.'^ 



Disliibufion of the BhiU according to ike Cen$us of 1891» 



DiSTBICT. 


of umber. 


DiSTBIOT. 


Nmiibe?. 


Muzaffarnagar • 

Agra .... 

Farmkb&bU . 


1 

17 

1 ; 

5 
1 

87 


MorAd&b&d 

Jhiosl • • • • 

Tar&i .... 

Total 
Males . • . • 
Females . ^ • • . 


6 

109 
14 


Mainpnri 


190 


EtiLwah .... 
Etab .... 


117 
78 



1 Some aooonnt of OAga. known also as Zibir Diwin, will be found In tlM 
Jntroduetion to Popular Religion and Folklore, 138. At tbe last Censoa 122,991 
persons returned themselves as his Totaries. 



55 BDOKSA, BHUSISA. 

BhOkBa^ Bhokia.*— A tribe akin to the Thirns who are found 
in the Tar&i and Bhabar from Pilibhtt District on the East to 
Chindpor on the Ganges on the West. There are a few scattered 
«o1on]fi6 in Dehra DAn. There are three main sections of them, the 
P(bmbi or " Eafitem^' which lies east of the Ramganga and as &r 
west as the Gt>la or Sirda, where the Thirus begin ; the Pachhami 
or ** Western '' which inhabits the Path Diin and Bijnor between 
the BAmganga and the Ganges; and a section reaching still 
further west from the Ganges to the Jumna. Between the East- 
ern and Western (sections there is no friendly intercourse; each 
shuns the other, and the usual fictions are repeated about eating 
6ogB and lizards.' 

2. Dr. Stewart thus describes them in Bijnor.' — '' The mem- 
bers of the tribe are of short stature and 
very sparse in habit, in both respects some- 
what ezoeeding the ordinary Hindu peasant of the District, from 
whom, howoTeTy they do not differ much in general build or in 
oomplexion. The eyes are small ; the opening of the eye lids being 
narrow, linear and horizontal (the inner angle not inclining down- 
wards 80 far as observed) ; the face is very broad across the cheek 
bonesy and the nose is depressed, thus increabing the general 
flatness of the face : the jaw is prognathous and the lower lip thick 
and the moustache and beard are very scanty .'' Some of these 
peculiarities are more marked in some indinduals than in others, 
bat one Bhoksa will always recognise another, though a Kum&uni 
Miys he only recognises them when they speak. The features of the 
women are similar to those of the men. 

d. Some of them claim to be Panwar Rajputs, and ''assert that 

their chief Udayjit was driven from house 
and home in a quarrel that he had with his 
brother Jagatdeo, the Raja of Dharanagar, and came to dwell 
with a few followers at Banbasa on the Sanla, Udayjit 
had not been there long when his aid was solicited by the 
Raja of Kumaun, whose territories requited defence agaiubt 
some of the neighbouring powers. Success attended the efforts 
of the Panwar, and the gratitude of tlie Rsja induced him 



1 For tbt M&kr» BhakiM nuunly bM«d on doIm oi41«cUm1 tbroorh Mr. 0. A. 
Twmdj, 0. 8 , D«hm D&n. 

* AtkiBMB, Himmlayan Oas^Uetr, 11., 371 : J. C NmEwU. CuUutU fi«*Mii, 
:.,41. 

* Jownml AfUUic S^eUty «/ Bengal, XXXIV.. IL. 180. 



BnOKSA, BHUK8A. 66 

to offer his defenders an asylum in his territorieB* Upon tUi 
they are represented to have left Banhasa and to have taken 
up their residence in their present abodes/^ ^ But their tradi- 
tions are very vague; some say that they came from the 
Dakkhin ; others^ from Delhi ; others, that they were expelled from 
the Dakkhin by the Marhattas. The Mahra or Dehra D&n branch 
say that they came into the District from beyond the Gkuiges at 
the invitation of Rdja Sukh Dfts Sfth of Tehri, who used them as 
guides through the jungles on his shooting expeditions, Tbey fix 
their emigration into the Dfin at some five generations lErom the 
present day. 

4. The last Census returns give the septs of the Bhnkaas, as 

Jadubansi, Panwftr, Partuja, B&jbansi, ani 
Tun war. Sir H. M. Elliot deeoribes themaa 
having fifteen septs {ffotra), of which twelve are of superior and three 
of inferior rank. Hie superior, according to his list, are Barg&jar, 
Tabari, Barhaniya, Jalwar, Adhoi, Dugugiya, BAthaur, Negauriy% 
Jalal, Upadhya, Chauhan, Dunwariya. The three inferior are the 
Dimar — R&thaur (descended from a Teli woman), Dhangra (from a 
hill woman), and Goli from a woman of the barber caste. '' The 
names of these tribes indicate considerable mixture with other classes, 
both Bajput and Brahman. Bhoksas are prohibited marrying m 
their own potra ; but may select any other ^o^ra they choose. Those 
who reside in Kilpuri and Sabna are said occasionally to intennanj 
with the ThSrus. TheBhatsof the Bhuksas, who are descended 
from a follower of Udayjit, reside still at Banbasa, and pay oeoa- 
sional visits to their constituents. The priests {pmroHi) of the 
Bhuksas arA Kanaujiya Br&hmans, who are also descended from one 
of the followers of Udayjit.'' 

5. The meaning of the word Mahra is not certain. The same 

title is applied to Kah&rs when it means ** a 

The Mahra BhQksaa. n^ ,» i i ± ^i^ • 

confidential person who enters the mner 
apartments '' (Sanskrit mtiilla, *' a woman ^'). This name is appHed 
only to the Dehra D&n section, and fresh immigrants are known 
as Bhoksa. Marriage in a man's potra and in the family of the 
maternal uncle for two generations is prohibited. Hey may marry 
as many wives as they please, but two is usually the limit. If a girl, 
prior to marriage, is detected in an intrigue with a man of her own 
tril)e, her parents have to pay a fine, which generally amounts to five 



* Elliot, Supplemental Qloaary, f.v. 



67 BHOKSAi BHUKSA. 

rupees, to the tribal ooancil, and then she is reetored and allowed to 
marry in the tribe ; but if her lover be a man of lower caste than 
herself she is permanently excommunicated. If her lover be a man 
of higher caste than herself the offence is condoned on payment of a 
fine of ten rupees. Boys are generally married at the age of twelve. 
No money is paid by either side. If the marriage be subsequently 
annulled and the girl marries again, her second husband has to refund 
the expenses of the first marriage. The only valid grounds for 
annulling a marriage are infidelity on the part of the wife or the 
impotence of the husband. If either leave the other for any reason 
other than the above they will be fined by the council. When a 
man divorces his wife all he does is to turn her out of his house 
and inform the council. Widows can marry again by the form 
known as iafdo. Children, the fruit of such union, are regarded 
as legitimate, and inherit on the same footing as the offspring 
of a regular marriage* It is asserted that the widow may marry 
the elder as well as the younger brother of her late husband ; but 
this is so much opposed to the usual custom regelating such cases 
that it must be received with caution. When the widow mar- 
ries outside the family of her late husband the guardianship 
of the children of the first marriage passes to her husband's 
brothers. There is no trace of the fiction by which the children 
of the seoond marriage are attributed to the late husband. 

6. Of the tribe in the DCin Mr. Baillie writes^ :— '' The Mahras 
are the aboriginal inhabitants and occupy all the unhealthy villages 
in the Eastern DAn, where no one else can live. These are also 
Rajputs, and are closely allied to the Bhoksas of the Rohilkhand 
TarAi, and Thirus of the Ondh TarAi. They are clearly all one and 
the same race. The Mahras have few traditions, except that their 
ancestors were Rijputs. They present many points of resemblance 
to the Bhoksas, though neither will acknowledge any connection 
with the other. They are of settled habits, dwellers in swamps and 
cnltivatorB of rice, and are proof against malaria. They do not 
admit outsiders into the caste. They are timid and averse to inter* 
course with strangers. They generally marry on attaining puberty. 
They are in their habits and customs Hindus of the ordinary k)w 
caste type, and Gaur Brihmans are employed by them as priests for 
marriage and funeral ceremonies. Remarriage of the widows is 
permitted. The widow is not obliged to marry her husband's elder 



> CcMttf Report, N&rih'Wui Pr9vim€0$, I^ 9tl. 



BHOKSA, BHUE8A. 68 

or younger brother. They eat pork and fowls, and drink spiriti 
like most of the dwellers in the Tarai swamps. Some of them are 
hunters^ and catch game, and others are good fishermen. '' The 
traditions which point to a Rajput origin are, of course, as baselesf 
as those of the Tharus and the allied races. 

7. There is no ceremony during pregnancy. The caste sappliee 
Mabra Bhokaaa— midwivcs to the higher castes ; so they attend 
Birth oeremonies. each other at their confinements. On the 

sixth day is the worship of Bihai, who causes children to laog^ or 
cry in their sleep. A ball of cowdung is made and wrapped up in a 
cloth. The widwife brings this ball to the mother and she worships 
it. On that day the entire house is plastered, and a dish of cuny 
and rice is made and distributed among the clansmen and friends. 
The next day the mother gets some Oanges water from a Brah- 
man, and, mixing it with ordinary water, takes a bath. This is the 
only purification. After a month the shaving (milndan) is perform* 
ed, and on this occasion the clansmen are fed. There is no adoption 
ceremony. When a man marries a widow and has no issue it is 
very common for him to adopt one of his stepsons. 

8. The betrothal is done in the usual way. At the marriage a 
Mahra Bhoksaa— ^^^ {mdnro) is erected in the courtyard, and 

Marriage. beneath it the nine planets are worshipped. 

After this the sacred fire is lighted, and the pair walk five times 
round it. 

9. The dead are cremated, if possible, at the Ganges, and in 

Mahra Bhnksaa— Dis- ^"7 ^^^c the ashes are deposited in the sacred 
posai of the dead. ^^^^ rjc^ ^^^^ jg shrouded in a peoe of 

white cloth, five yards long, to which a yard of red cloth is attached. 
There is no ceremony at the cremation, but thii*teen days after 
they give some grain, cloth, and vessels to a Brahman, and tins 
purifies them. On every day up to the thirteenth the moomers 
give a cake to the cow before they eat themselves. Every year, in 
the month of Kuar, they feed the relatives of their daughters in 
order to propitiate the ghosts of the dead — possibly a survival of the 
matriarchate. 

10. The Easteni section are very closely connected with the 
Eastern Bhok«wi- Tharus. " Both tribes,'' says Mr. E, 

ManneraandcuBtoiiis. Colvin,* *'are superstitious, and, as a rule. 



> Cen$UM Beportf N,'W. P., 1S65, 1., Appendix 60, iqq. 



60 BH0K8A, BHUSISA. 

truthful, much given to intoxicating drink and not very chaste ; both 
more or less migratory, onl^ continuing to cultivate the land until 
it is exhausted, and then moving on to fresh grounds ; both utterly 
reckless with water with which they inundate their fields. They 
bear a good moral character ; are inoffensive and peaceable, as well 
as intensely ignorant and indolent. They have no arts and manufac- 
tures, and live on the chase and a scanty cultivation. They are parti- 
cularly foiA of wild pig, and this may be one of the reasons why 
they change the site or their villages every two or three years. In 
some places they collect the wild jungle produce, but in no systematic 
way. They also engage in gold washing, extracting gold dust to the 
value of a few hundred rupees a year from the auriferous sands of 
the Sona Nadi. They are slowly but surely dying out, and now 
number only a few thousands. " Mr. Colvin says that they are less 
intelligent than the Th&rus. " To this day neither the Bhoksas nor 
the Thirus build even earthen walls for their houses, which are 
made of posts driven into the ground with beams resting upon 
them. They employ hill or plainsmen as blacksmiths ; all which 
tends to prove that they never possessed knowledge sufficient to 
admit of their erecting the buildings or sinking the masonry wells, 
ruins of which still exist in the Tar&i. '' Of their villages in 
Bijnor Dr. Stewart says : — '' All are built on the same plan of one 
straight street, generally of consiilerable width ( in some cases as 
much as 40 or 50 feet ) and kept very clean — in both respects dif- 
fering remarkably from the villages of the plains. The huts are 
placed end to end, with intervals after every group of three or four, 
and the walls are for the most part built of wattle and dab, but 
sometimes of thatch [ekkappar), of which latter the roofs are also 
constructed. The houses are windowless, but each has a door in 
front and another behind, the latter affording access to the shed for 
cattle^ etc. The doorways and roofs are very low, and the floors of 
beaten earth are considerably raised above the general level of the 
grounds. Those Western Bhoksas do not at any time live in houses 
built on Doles, as is stated to be the case with those opposite 
Kumaun. *' 

11. This division of the Bhoksas has been so far Hinduised 

EaHot^ BhoksM— ^^^ ^"^^ ^ ^^^^ employ Gaur Brihmans 

^•^*«**^* in their marriage and funeral^ ceremonies. 

Some are Sikhs, and the wife follows the religion (p^tk) of her 

husband, and the children that of their father. One of the Tarii 



BKOKSAi BHUK8A. 60 

Farganas is called Nftnakinatha, after the great Sikh Gam, and 
there is a Sikh sbrine there as well as at Dehra and Srinagar. 
But they have their own indigenous medicine men {padkdn). 
They pay special devotion to the death goddess known as Bhawani 
or Devi^ whose functions are the same as those of the Thim 
goddess, K&lika. They have also two local saints, Sarwar Lakhi 
and Kalu Sayyid, of whom Dr. Stewart could learn nothing. 
Sarwar Lakhi is evidently the famous Sakhi Sarwar Sultin, also 
known as Lakhdita or the giver of lakhs. His real name was 
Sayyid Ahmad, and he flourished about the middle of the twelfth 
century. His principal shrine is at Nagaha, in the Dehra Ghizi 
Elh&n District. He is said to have been a disciple of B&ba Nanak : 
he is the patron of athletes, and especially of wrestling.^ Kiln 
Sayyid may have some connection with K&li Sinh, the Panjftb snake 
godling.' But he is more probably identical with the deitj 
known to the Baheliyas as Kalu Btr, to the Banj&ras as K&lu Deo, 
and to the Eah&rs, as Kftlu Kahar. One story is that he was bom 
of a Kahir girl, who by magical charms compelled King Solomon 
to marry her, with the result that she bore a son, Kalu B&ba, who 
is worshipped extensively by Eahars, Cham&rs, Sainis, Oadariyas, 
and other low castes in the form of a fetish stick decorated with 
peacocks' feathers. The last Census shows 266,191 votaries of 
this godling. Sarwar Lakhi has a shrine at the entrance to the 
main pass through the Siwalik hills into the Path D iin, and ail 
wayfarers, as they pass, of whatever race, tribe, or creed, make 
offerings to his shrine. 

11. Like many isolated jungle tribes, they have acquired a 
EMtern Biiok««t- wpitatiou for sorcery and witchcraft. In 
Witohoraft.. fact, Bhogsa or Bhoksa, is the name for a 

sorcerer in Garhw&K " Some are even said to be able to assume the 
form of a wild animal, and thus accomplish the destmction of an 
enemy. Sudarean S&h rid Garhw& of sorcerers in the following 
manner, — He called all the Bhogsas together under pretence of 
needing their assistance in some ceremony, and promised them all 
sorts of rewards should he succeed, and so induced them to come 
themselves and bring all their books with them. When all were 
assembled that had any pretensions to power as sorcerers, he caused 



> IbbeUon, Panjd^ EihnograTphy, IMi C. F. Oldh&m, Conttfrnporary R$titim, 
XLVII., 412, §o, : Pallida Votu and Qu«Hef , U., 181 uq : 
t IblMtoon. /oc. ciL^ 114. 



f)l SHOT, SOT, IIKOTIIA. 

ud i(u«w« nut 4lHtr book* imI 



BHOKSAj BHUKBA. 



61 



BHOT, BOT, BHOTIYA* 



them to be bound hand and foot, and thrown with their books and 
implements into the river. '^^ 

Diitribution of the Bkokiot according to the Census of 1891, 



■ T~r 

DiBTBICT. 


Ifahra. 


BhokMU 


Total. 


Dehrt DAn .... 
Moridibid .... 

AlUhAbAd 

Tvii 


699 

8 

92 

... 


... 
••• 
• .. 
1.208 


599 

8 

92 

13U8 


Total 


699 


1»208 


1,907 



1. Shot, Bot, Bhotiya'— (Sanskrit, BhotaY^K tribe 
originally of Hill origin. In the Panjftb, those who in the Spiti 
and LahAl Districts returned themselves as Bot, merely imply that 
they are Tibetans. The proper name of the tract of Chinese terri- 
tory, which we call THbet, is Bodyul, or Bod land, and the people Bod- 
pas, corrupted by the Indians into Bhotiyas — a name now applied 
to the Tibetans living on the borders between India and Tibet, 
while the people of THbet Proper are called Huniyae, and the country 
Hundes. Boti is the name for the language, and Bot for the people ; 
but they rarely apply it to themselves. " If they did,'' says Mr. 
Diack, ''it would be like a Panjftbi describing himself as an 
Asiatic.'' There they consist of four classes — Jocho, Lonpa, Chha* 
zang, Loban.' In these Provinces a tribe of the same name is found in 
small numbers in the Kumaun Division. There they usually call 
themselves Raghubansi Rijputs, and trace their origin to Bbutwal 
in NepiK 1 hey fix their emigration into Northern Oudh in the 
reign of Nawib Asaf-ud-daula (1775—1797). They now present a 
curious instance of a tribe of non- Aryan origin, who have in a very 
short time become completely Brihmanised. Among some of them 
the rule of exogamy is that they do not marry their sons into fami- 
liea to which, within the memory of man, they have given daughters 
as brides. But others have adopted the complete Hindu law of 
exogamy, and the creation of a full set of Brihmanical gUrns is 
probably only a question of time. 



> AikiiMOB, lot. cii. II., 6S3. 

* CiUfly bM«d on DotM by Monaki Badri KAtk, Dtpoty ColUctflr. KH«ri, acd 
MvMia lUhMUo Pr»Md. HMd U*mUt. ZUIak HohtxA, Pilibyt. 
' f^njAh CmMUS B0pari, H91, pao »5, #9. 



BHOT, BOT, BHOTITA. 62 

2. These are of the usual Hindu type. When the bride's palan- 

quin arrives at the house of her husband the 

Marriage oeremonies. ^ ,. . .,, i.^., 

gods are worshipped, and then she is admitted 
into the house. Some rice^ silver, or gold, is put in the hands of the 
bridegroom, which he passes on to the bride. She places them in a 
winnowing fan, and makes them over as a present to the wife of the 
barber. This ceremony is known as Karja bharna. A man can 
have three wives and no more. The wife of the first marriage is 
the head wife, and she receives by inheritance a share one-tenth in 
excess of that given to the other wives. Marriage is generally per- 
formed under the age of fifteen, but no special age is fixed. No 
price is paid on either side* Concubinage and the levirate are 
allowed. There is no form of divorce, and though a man or woman 
is excommunicated if detected in illicit intercoursei they can be 
restored to caste on giving a tribal feast. 

3. The marriage ceremonies are in the standard form. Bespec- 

table people marry by the common eharhana 

Marriage oeremonies. ... i . i t • -^i .i 

ritual, which begins with the oeremomes 
at the door of the bride^s. house {darwdza ekdr ordudr ekdr). 
When they come to the marriage shed (mdnro)^ the officiating 
Brahman does the usual worship. The bride^s younger brother 
sprinkles parched grain over the pair, and receives from the 
father of the bride a sheet, which is known as Idi hhujua^ 
or the remuneration for parching rice. Then the bridegroom 
rolls a stone over the pai*ched rice on the grotmd, and this is 
known as the ^' line of the stone ^^ (patthar ki laiir)^ which is the 
bindingjpart of the ceremony. Then follows the tying of the clothes 
{ganth bandhan)^ and the circumambulation of the fire (bhauMMiri). 
Next comes the ^dsa sdr^ where the bride and bridegroom 
exchange jewels — a survival of the gambling custom which 
appears in the standard ritual. Then follows the feeding of the bride- 
groom (bdsi iAildna), and the usual feast to the clansmen. After 
the marriage is over, on an auspicious day, the grass used as thatch for 
the wedding shed and other things are thrown into a river or tank 
by the women. This is called maur terwdna^ '^ the setting afloat of 
the marriage crown.^^ The lower kind of marriage iscalled pair 
pUjna, in which all the ceremonies are done at the house of tha 
husband. The last form, ^^araua, is simple concubinage. Persons 
who have not been married till they are of advanced years very 
often keep a woman in this way. 



63 BHOT, BOT, BHOTITA. 

4. ThotBe who die of cholera or snake-bite^ and yonng children, are 
^. , * X,. :. ^ buried ; others are cremated. There is no 

DispoMl of the d«ad. 

fixed burial-ground, and no oeremonies are 
performed at the time of burial. Richer people keep the ashes for 
removal to some sacred stream ; others bury them* After the 
cremation a stalk of iuia grass is fixed in the ground near a tank, 
and water and sesamum is poured upon it for ten days so as to con- / 
▼ert it into a refuge for the spirit until the rites are completed* 

6. They employ Br&hmans as priests. Their chief object of 

worship is Devi, to whom goats are sacri- 
ficed. Young pigs are also occasionally 
offered to her. 

The worshippers make the sacrifice and consume the meat 
themselves. They observe the usual festivals. On the Barsati 
Amiwas, on the fifteenth of Jeth, women worship a banyan tree 
by walking round it and tying a thread round the trunk. This 
they do to increase the life of their husbands. Women &8t on 
the 'Hja, or third day of Bhidon. At the Oodiya^ on the fifth of 
Kftrttik, they worship the dragon, N&g Deota, and girls offer 
dolls to Devi and MaUideva. The care of malignant spirits 
is the business of the exerciser (ndwat). Women reverence the 
hargtid or banyan tree, because its name (bargad) is supposed to 
be oonnected with their husbands {bar), 

6. They do not eat the turnip (skalgiam). They will not 

touch a Dhobi, Bhangi, Chamir, or Kori. 

They eat the flesh of goats, sheep, hare, 

deer, water-birds, and fish ; they will not eat the monkey, cow^ 

pig, fowl, crocodile, snake, lizard, rat, or other vermin. In* 

toxicating liquors are forbidden ; biang and gdnja are used, but 

is reprobated. 

7« Their occupation is agriculture ; they do not hold land as 

samtndirs but as tenants, and some work as 
Oeeopatkn. g^j^ labourers. Tlioy practice no handicraft 

JHtifribntion of tk$ Bhotiyai according to (he Censm of If^Ot. 



DttrmtcT. 


Nomtter. 

1 

6 

7.270 


DlHTSICT. 


< N amber. 


lliuaifaniagtr 
O^iakbpur . • • 


Gmrhwil 
T»r4i 

Total 


Ifi 
6 


Kqbuiqb 


7.457 






BHUtMHlK. 61 

Bhninhar— (Sanskrit Bhami, "land," idra, "miket "V—Kn 

t 

important tribe of landowners and agrioaltnrists in the 
Eastern Districts. They are also known as B&bhan, Zamindtr 
BrUhman^ Grihasth BrsLhmani or Paohhima, or ^^ Western " 
Brahmans. They must, of course, be very carefully distinguished 
from the Dravidian Bhuinh&r or Bhuiy&r tribe, of whom some 
account has been given in a separate article. 

2. One story of their origin is that when Parasurima destroyed 
_ . . ., the Kshatriya race, he set up in their place 

Origin of trib«. v * * r 

the descendants of Brdhmans, who, after 
a time, having abandoned their priestly functions, took to 
land-owning. Another story tells that a King of Ajudhya 
being childless, sought to obtain an heir by the sacrifice of a 
Brahman, and purchased the son of the Rishi Jamadagni for 
that purpose. The imcle of the child, the sage- Yiswamitra, 
procured li child for the R&ja, and the sacrifice was rendered 
unnecessary \ but the Br&hman boy having been sold was oon« 
sidered degraded, and was forced to take to agriculture, and 
became the ancestor of the Bhiunh&rs. This, as Mr. Risley 
says, is the famous legend, of Sunahsephas in another form.' 
^^A third legend, perhaps the best known of all, traces the 
Babhans back to a sacrifice offered by Jarasandha, King of 
Magadha, at which a very large number of Br^mans, some say 
a lakh and-a-quarter, were required to be present. Jarasandha'^ 
Diwan, a Kdyasth of the Amisht or Karan sub-caste, did his 
best to meet the demand, but was driven to eke out the local 
supply by distributing sacred threads among members of the 
lower castes, and palming them off on the King as genuine 
Br&hmans. Jarasandha' s suspicions being roused by the odd 
appearance of some of the guests, the Diw&n was compelled to 
guarantee their respectability by eating the food which they had 
cooked, while the Br&hmans thus manufactured had to set np a 
caste of their own, the name of which (B&bhan or B&hman)vis 
popularly supposed to mean a sham Bi&hman, just as in some 
districts an inferior Bijput is called a R&wat, the oomqption 
of the name betokening the corruption of the caste. ''' 

3. It has been suggested' that the legend that they were Brih- 



1 Trihe$ and C<uU$, I,, 28. 

s Ibid. 

• CaUuiia Review, LXXVI, 82. 



65 BHLtsHAa. 

mans degraded at the feast of Jarasandha points to the fact that 
after the downfall of Buddhism, the Babhans were thoFe Brahmans 
(with whom thero was possibly some admixture of lUjputs) 
who were either converted to the Buddhistic faith or chose to Uve 
under the Buddhistic system with a changed status. Of this^ 
however, there is no enJence. 

4. vOn their relations to Brahmans and Bffjputs a competent 
observer, Mr. J. R. • Reid, writes ' : — " Their Brahman and Chhatri 
neighbours generally insinuate that they are of mixed breed, 
the offspring of Brihman men and Chhatri women, or of Chhatri 
men and Br&hman women. By other castes they are regarded as a 
kind of Chhatri, and are spoken of, and indeed often speak of them- 
selves, as Bhuinh^r Thakurs. Their ckns {golra)' are the same as 
those of the Brahmans, and, like the latter, the Bhuinhars wear a 
thread (janeu) ninety-six hands breadth {chaua) in length, the 
Chhatri's thread being eighty only. They do not perform priestly 
offifces, nor receive oilorings given from a religious motive (ddn, 
fiaiiHna) ; but they arc saluted with the prandm, or jjdeiagi, and 
return the salutation with a blessing {a$irbdfi). Physically they are 
of the same type as the Brahman or Chhatri. /In character tliey 
resemble the former more than the latter ; and the following pro- 
verbs are in vogue : — 

yaJi kai bkdnwak, 
• Bkuinkdr iui ghdnvak, 

Sahie chatur Banjia, tete ckatur Sundr ; 
Laii lute Idlke iehi tkdge Bkuinkdr. 

'' The Bhuiuhar is as uncertain as the current of the rivulet. 
Cutest of all is the Banya ; cuter than him is the goldsmith ; but 
the Bhujnh&r with his wiles tricks them both/' 

*' Br&hmans do not eat with them, nor do Rajputs. Possibly 
the existence of the Bhuinhar class is also evidence of the time when 
the bonds of caste, as we know them, had not been forgiMl, or, if forg* 
ed, were not worn by those who puhhcd forward into new settlements 
beyond the old. It lias Ijcen |)ointed «mt that to the non-Ar}'an in- 
habitants of the count n' all Ar>'ans were of one caste, — al! BrAhmaus. 
Within the Aryan body the excliange of pricbtly for military employ- 
ment was not imp>ssib!e, and did not involve degradation. It is un- 



Aaimgarh SfttUmtnt Rwport/17, •«/. 
Vot. II. 




BHUtNHlR. 66 

necessary^ therefore^ to believe that all Bhuinhdfs are Brfthmans of 
inferior^ because illegitimate stock. They may be as true bom as the 
Brahmans or Chhatris who surround them, and many of whom they 
possible preceded in the occupation of the land. Further, it seems 
probable that many so called Kshatriya tribes are Br&hmans who 
have fallen from their former status/' 

5. Dr. Oldham,^ speaking of the Gh&zipur branch of the tribe, 
says that in popular estimation they share something of the sacred- 
ness which attaches to Brahmans. Their divisions are very often the 
same as those of well-known Rajput tribes, such as the Kinwar, 
Gautam, and Kausik Bhuinh&rs; and the corresponding Bajpat 
tribe sometimes names the same city or country as the first home of 
the race. In one case *^ a Bhuinh&r and RSjput tribe both claim 
descent from a common ancestor, and each admits that the preten- 
sions of the other are well founded. The Bhuinhir tribes all inter- 
marry on terms of equality and eat together; on the other hand 
Rajputs marry their daughters into what they consider superior, and 
their sods into inferior tribes, and are very chary of eating together. 
There is consequently a much closer bond of sympathy between the 
various Bhuinh^r tribes of the district than between the Rljpats.^' 

6. Sir H. M. Elliot' thinks that ''we perhaps have some indica- 
tion of the true origin of the Bhuinh&rs in the names Garga Bhflmi 
and Yasta Bhftmi, who are mentioned in the Harivansa as Elshatriya 
Brahmans, descendants of Kasya princes. Their name of Bhfimi and 
residence at Kashi are much in favour of this view ; moreover, there are 
to this day Garga and Vatsa goiras among the Sarwariya Brihmans/' 

7. The theory that they are a mixed race, derived from a con- 
geries of low caste people accidentally brought together, is disproved 
by the high and uniform type of physiognomy and personal 
appearance which prevails among them. This, as Mr. Bisley says 
would not be the case '' if they were descended from a crowd of 
|0W caste men promoted by the exigencies of a particular occasion, 
for brevet rank thus acquired would, in no case, carry with it the 
right of intermarriage with pure Br&hmans oi Rajputs, and the 
artificially formed group, being compelled to marry within its 
own limits, would necessarily perpetuate the low caste type of 
features and complexion. As a matter-of-fact, this is what happens 



1 QhntipuT Memo. I., 48. 

3 SuppUmtnlary Qlottafy, s. r. 



67 bhuIniiAr. 

with the sham Hfijputs whom we find in most of the outlying 
Districts of Bengal. They marry among themselves^ never among 
tha true Rfljputs, and their features reproduce those of the parti- 
cular aboriginal tribe from which they may happen to be sprung/' 

8. The next supposition is that they may be Brahmans who 
for some cause Qn this case it is said to have been because they 
took to agriculture) have been degraded. There are, of course, 
many so-called Brahmans, like the MahabrShman, Ojha, or Dakaut, 
who are of a degraded type; but many of these arc almost cer- 
tainly derived from the lower races, and have little or no Aryan 
Uood in their veins. Further, many true Brahmans hold land 
and cultivate, and are not necessarily degraded by so doing. 

9. Further, Mr. Risley seems to be certunly right in dwell'ng 
on the fact that while they have sections both of the terri- 
torial and eponymous class, the former regulate the exogamy of 
the tribe, and not the latter. Many lower castes have adopted 
Brihmanical ^o^roi ; but it is unreasonable to suppose that if the 
Bhuinhirs were originally Brahmans, and as such necessarily 
provided with a set of real Brahmanical ffoirax, they would deli- 
berately have discarded them and adopted a tril)al organization of 
the territorial type. On this ground he regards them as more 
probably a branch of the Rajputs. 

10. The question then of the origin of the Bhiiinhars is not 
oapable of exact determination. Their traditions, customs, and 
appearance point all to a Brahmanical origin ; their tribal organic 
sation seems to show that they are not, as is asserted by some, 
Brilhmans, who for a reason obviously inadequate, have been degrad- 
ed from their original position. They may be a real branch of tiie 
Aryan stock, who in very remote agi's colonised tlie |)art of the 
country which they occupy at present, and being reduced by tiie 
exigencies of their position to abrogate tlunr sacerdotal functions, 
took to a life of war and agriculture, and in consequence of this 
organized their tribe in a manner analogous to those of the early 
K^batriya settlers. 

11. As has been already iiid, the tribal divisions of the Bhuin- 
^ . . hirs are ornninnl on bc»th the territorial 

and qx)nyniou» syHtems. Of the former the 

chief sub-divisions in the eastern jiart of these Provinces are 

the Kinwir, Donwar, SAarwar, Ba^hochhiya, Bemuwar, Karcn- 

awa, Kotraha, Karm&i, Kolltaniyio, Athariya, Jaithariya, 

Vol. II. I 2 



BUUtNHlR. 68 

Chaudhari, Kotaha^ Subratiiy&D, Belhariya^ Domkatir, Bak- 
sariya^ Eksariya, Gautamiya, Titiha, fihaiwadh^ Kolaha, Sor- 
haniya^ Biniar^ Surohau^ Birramiya^ Kahatwar, Mirzapari, Raikwdr 
and Pai-asiya. Besides these are a number of sub-divisions of 
the Brahmanieal type^ such as Dikshit^ Garga, Gautam^ San« 
dilya, Panr6, Dubd, Tiwari, Upadhya, Pathak, ShukI, Kapilgotri, 
Kausik^ Bharadw&ja^ and Payasi Misr. They further enumerate 
eighty-four of the regular Brahmanieal goirat, such as Kasyapa, 
Yasishtha, Parasara, Bhargava, Vatsya, Katyiyana, Gargya^ 
Gobhila^ Angiras^ and eo on. But in carrying out the rules 
of exogamy the fnul or territorial 'section is alone taken account 
of; and not the Brahmanieal gotra. With this exception the 
prohibited degrees follow the standard Br&hmanical formula. 
Some of these sections are possibly to temistic^ suchas the Bagbo- 
chhiya or 'Higer '' (bdg^)-, Domkatar^ "Dom's knife/' Belhariya, 
from the lei tree ; and these sections carry with them some degiee 
of inferiority, which results in a form of hypergamy. The Cen- 
sus returns give no less than four hundred and fifty-eight Bhuinhar 
sections : but here the territorial sections and the Brahmanieal 
gotrai are mixed up together. The most important local sections 
according to these returns are the Chaudhari^ Grautam, and Kolaha, 
in Benares : the Gautam in Mirzapur : the Bh&radwaja, Bhrigu- 
bansi; Dichhit, Donwar, Gautam, Kausik, Kinw&r, Kistwir, Sakar^ 
war, Sonwar, in Ghazipur : the Asiiriya, Bhagata, Domkatir^ Kin- 
war, Manchaura^ Nanauliya, and BemwSr, of Ballia : the Bagho- 
chhiya, Baksariya, Gautam ^ Kausik, and Sakarwar, of Grorakhpur : 
the Barasi, Birhariya, and Kausik, of Basti : and the Barwir 
Bharadwaja, Bhrigubans, Denwdr, Gargbans, Gautam^ Purw&r, 
Sakarwar, and Sandil, of Azamgarh. 

12. The Bhuinhjirs of this part of the 

Domestic ccremonietf. . <» n • ^ a\ . % % 

countiy follow m every respect the standard 
Bnihmanical rules. 

IS. BhuinliArs are usually Saivas or Saktas, and worship the 

deohdr or community of village godlings and 
^ **''*°"' local demons or ghosts, such as Gh>raivik 

Ilardiya, Bundi Mai, and the like. 

TerntoriuUuhMlui- ^^' ^[^'"^ mcount may be given of the 

«»*•""• chief territorial sulxlivisions.^ 



* Old bum, 1^1 (f. I., 68, tqn* 



69 BHUtNHlR. 

15. The KinwAr BhuinhAre claim an orifs^n from Padampar, in 

the Gametic, like the Kinwir RAjpnts. They 
have in Ghazipur three snb-sectionB — lUkjdhar, 
Makand, and Pithaur Sad. 

16. The Bemwir Bhuinhdrs say they came from Bempur and 

settled in Narwan in Benares. They are 
respectable, welUto-do jieople. 

17. The Sakarw&r Bhuinh&rs are closely connected with the 

Rajput sept of the same name, and like them 
their le^nds connect them and their name 
with Fatehpnr-Sikri. In GhMpur they are generally rich, and have 
retained the greater part of their ancestral property. 

] 8. The Donwir sub-division say that their original home was 

near Fatehpur-Sikri. When they settled in 
Azamgarh they were known as Bhath. Tliey 
derive their name from their parent village Donauli, which took its 
name from Dona Achdrya, a Panid Brahman. Dr. Oldham says 
that they are frugal and industrious. The ancestor of the Donwars 
of two or throe villages was in the military sernceof one of the Delhi 
Emperors, and received from him for his valour the title of Khin, 
which is borne to the present day by all his descendants. 

19. Of the Chkutam Bhuinhiirs one tradition runs that about 

the year 30i Hijri (SS2 A. D.) a Brahman 
of the Gautam ^otra, name«l Khattu Misra, 
came to Benaree. Every day after he had bathcvl he use^l to |X)ur 
some water at the root of a maddr tree {/ise/fjjiai gigamiea) in 
which lived a R&kshasa. One day he had forgot to make the 
aocQstomed offering, and the Rakshasa ap])eared and implored him 
to relieve his thirst. lie complied with the re(|uest, and the 
Rikshaea offered him any boon he chose. Kliattu replied that he 
was much inconvenienced by having to dry his wet loin cl«)th over 
hiB shouklers whenever be went to l>atho So the demon gave 
him the power of throwing the cloth into the air, where it was 
miraculously su!«])ended until it dried. Tlie Rakshai^a then 
introduced him to Vyal4^ who was living in Bcnaren, antl the 
fame of his mirai*le!( rajndly brought him reputation and wealth. 
So he built a tank at Benareit, which is ntill known aii J/i srj ia 
pokHara, and planted trees on its liank. Benares was then ruie.l by 
Raja Banir ; and one day an elopliant Ijelonging to the Raja injured 
one of the trees of Kliattu Misra, whereat he was wroth, and the 



BHtUNUAR. 



70 



Raja was forced to take the worthy into his £avour. One day the 
Rftja gave Khattu a packet of betel on which he had written a deed« 
of-gift of twenty-eight villages. Khattu unwittingly swallowed 
ine betel^ and being considered to have thus lost status by accepting 
a gift, he henceforth lost the power of drying his loin cloth in the air. 
This estate was the present Grangapur^ which belongs to his descen- 
dant, the present Maharaja of Benares, who belongs to the Bipra 
branch of the Gautam gotra^ with the title of Misra. According 
to Mr Sherring^ it is " of the Kauthumiya sdiAa, or branch of 
Brahmans following the ritual of the S&ma Veda. It has three 
Pravaras, distinguished by the number of knots in the Brihmani- 
cal cord — the Gautam, Angiras, and Anthatiya. The clan in- 
termarries with the Bhutnhars of the Madhyandina idiia of 
Brahmans, obsei-ving the ritual of the Yajur Veda* It is tradi- 
tionally allied to the Sarwaiiya Brahmans of Madhubani beyond 
the Ghagra. '' 

20. The Bhuinhars of these Provinces claim to observe a high 

Occupation and social standard of personal purity and carry out all 
status. |.j^g j^]gg ^f ^jjg Brahmanical ritual. Thqr 

are in the \allages at least quarrelsome and litigious ; but they ar^ 
on the whole, a fine body of sturdy yeomen, and turn out excellent 
crops, though they will not plough with their own hands. To agri- 
culture they very generally add dealing in grain and money-lending. 

Diitrihntion of the Bhuinhd^s according to the Censnt of 1891.^ 



DiSTBICT. 


Number. 


DiSTBIOT. 


Number. 


Bulandshahr 

Benares 

Mirzapor 

Jaanpar 

Gh&zipnr 

Ballia 


1 

21,272 

9,385 

4,202 

54,606 

25,777 


' Basti . « . . 

Azamgarh • 

Lncknow 
JFaizab&d . 

Gonda 

Partabgarh • • 

i 


12,744 

61»426 

86 

124 

1 

iii 


Gorakhpur • 


31,202 


1 

Total 

! 


221,027 



» Hindu Tribes, 1 , 41, sq. 

' These probably include a few cf the Dravidian BhutnhArs who 
separately tabulated. 



w«T« noi 



71 BHUITA. 

Bhuiya. — A Dravidian tribe found in the bill country of South 
Mirzapur' to tbe number of 839. 

t. Their legend in Mirzapur runs that two ancient sages, Moma 
1 At ^^- Rishi and Kumbha Hishi, had each a son 

Legend 01 ongin. ' 

known respectively as Bhad or Bhadra and 
Mahesh. Bhad practised austerities in the forests of Magadha or 
Bihar, and his cousin Mahesh attended on him« Bhad once eat ^ 

between two nim {melia azadiraekta) trees, and when he felt hungrj 
ate the bark. The Bhuiya8~¥ehce know him as the N!m Rishi. 
Mahesh went into the forest every morning to collect roots and 
fruits. Half he used to eat himself, and half he kept for his cousin. 
When Bhad had spent twelve years in these austerities, the Lord 
tempted him by sending to him one of the nymphs of heaven. She 
used to make some halwa out of flour, butter and sugar and stick 
it on the bark of the tree beneath which Bhad sat. Bhad knowing 
nothing of this used to eat it with the bark which formed his daily 
food. Finally his ej-es were opened and he saw the lady. lie fell 
in love with her and took her to wife, and had seven sons, from 
whom are descended the Magahiya, Tirvak, Dandwdr, Dhelwdr, 
Musahar, and BhuinhAr or Bhuiyar septs. From their descent from 
the Rishi the Bhuiyas often call themselves Kishflsan Bhuiyas. 
The fruits and roots which Mahesh collected he sowed in the Mirza- 
pur jungles, and since then they have begun to grow there. This 
legend is very different from that recorded by Colonel Tickell, which 
would make the Bhuiyas def^oended from shell fish, and of kindred 
origin to Kols, Santals, and Ghasiyas.' The Mirzapur legend asserts 
their kinship with the Musahar and Bhuinhar, who claim to be dis- 
tinct tribes, and disclaim anv connection with the Bhuivas. 

Mr. Risley, remarking on the wide area over which the name 
Bhuiya has spread, thinks we should '' hesitate and demand some 
independent e\'idence of affinity before we pronounce it to be an 
original tribal designation, and aoceirt the conclusion that all tribes 
which bear the name at the present day are f>pnmg from a 
common stock. '* He adds tliat " the ailvance«l guard of the Ar}'an 
immigrants, pressing forward in quest of land, and seeking a name 
for the alien races whom they found in fkHM^biiion of scanty clearings 



1 Fitr an arooant cif tbe tminrh <■( the trib« who hare lateljr b«e'>oi9 Dr.torioo* m 
Bengal, nee Hnntrr, (>ri««(i, II., 114. 
' Dalioo, KihnQloy^, IS6. 



BBIJITA. 72 

in the forest-clad tract of Central India^ whither they had themselves 
been diiven^ would naturally ignore the tribal names of the groups 
with which they came in contact, and would call the strangerst 
Bhuiyas or children of the soil ''^ {b/'U'ui). 

3. Colonel Dalton describes the Bhuiyas of Ghingpur and Bonai as 

*' a dark brown, well proportioned race, with 

Physical chaxacterUtics. 1,1 i»i. i- i^«i»i ^it -it. 

black, straight hair plentiful on the head but 
scant on the face ; of middle height, figures well knit, and capable 
of enduring great fatigue, but light framed like the Hindu, rather 
than presenting the usual muscular developemeut of the hillman. 
The features are very much of the same cast throughout. The 
cheek and jaw-bones are projecting, so as to give a breadth and 
squaieness to the face. The nose is but slightly elevated, still neither 
so depressed nor so broad at the root as the generality of Turanian 
noses, and rather of a retrousse type : mouth and teeth well formed, 
and the facial angle generally good. The eyes well shaped and 
straight, but never very large or deep set/'* On the other hand he 
describes the Keonjhar Hill Bhuiyas ^^ as rather of an exaggerated 
Turanian type : very large mouths, thick and somewhat projecting 
lips, foreheads narrow and low, but not receding ; eyes dark but 
well shaped, hair plentiful on the head, though rather frizzly and 
generally scanty on the face ; but to this there are notable exceptions. 
Short of stature, averaging about five feet two inches, round shoul- 
dered^ and many of them with a lump that is produced by the dis- 
placement of the muscles in carrying loads bhangy &8hion. The 
colour of the skin varies fiom a deep chocolate, the predominating 
tint, to tawny/'* This last description seems to answer more 
closely than the former to the tribe as found in Mirzapur. They 
are distinguibhed with very great difficulty from the Bhuiyar, with 
whom they are doubtless very closely connected, but are much less 
robust and active than the Korwas or Parahiyas. 

4. Ihe Mirzapur Bhuiyas have not the intricate and confusing 

internal structure characteristic of the Bengal 

Internal Btroctnie. _ , , 

tribe. They describe themselves as divided 
into^ght s^pts — Tir\'ah, Magahiya, Pandwar, Mahatwar, Mahthek, 
^lusahar, and Bhuinhar or Bhuiyar. Of tlie^e the Dandwir, 



1 Tribes and Castes, I,, lQ9,sq. 

' Descriptive Ethnology, 140. 

' Ibid, H7; aleo sec Ball, Jungle Li/e,\267. 



73 BHUIYA. 

Magahiya, iMahatwar, Tirvah^ appear in the Bengal libts from 

Lohardaga and the Mu8ahar in Manbhum.^ Some of these 6ub- 

divisions are totemistic, some local, and eome occupational. Thus the 

Tirvah say they take their name from the fact that their original 

ancestor was thrown when a baby into a river. One of the Dand- 

war sept rescued and brought him to the bank (fir). Another 

version of the story is that the ancestor of the sept was bom on the 

river bank, fell in accidentally, and was rescued by a Dandwar. '1 he 

Magahiya is a local sept derived from Magadha or Bihar, their place 

<»f origin. The Dandwar^ again, is apparently an occupational sept. 

They take their name from dand, athletic exercises^ in which like 

Nats they are said to be proficient. The Mahatwar derive their 

name from the fact that they were formerly leaders (mahto) of the 

tribe. The Musahar are so called because they eat mice and rats 

{mui). They say that they were originally natives of Magadha or 

BiL^r, and emigrated into Mirzapur only some three or four genera* 

tions ago. They have no«^ no connection with their original seat in 

the way of marriages, pilgrimages, or deriving their priests, barbers, 

or tribal officers from there. The septs of the Tirvah, DandwAr, and 

Mahatwar intermarry', and the Magahiya, Mahthek, Bhuiy&r or 

Bhuinhir, and Musahar intermarry'. But these rules appear to Le 

in a very uncertain state, because there seems no doubt that they also 

marry within tlieir own sept, but not with a family with whom an 

alliance has been contracted within two or three generations, which 

is as far as memory runs. The internal structure of the tribe is, in 

fact, in a state of transition. The Musaliar and Bhuinhar or 

Bhuiyir septs have practically completely separated, and tliis prt> 

oess will doubtless continue until still more endogamous groups are 

formed. 

5. They have a tribal council which is known as Bhayyiri, or 

"the assemblaiit* of tlie brethren.^^ Tlie 

Tribal eooneil. , 

meetings for trilial business take place when 
the members collect for mairiages or funeralv. Thty have a fK^rma* 
nent hereditary prchident called Mahto The priucii»al cast's which 
come before the council arc charges of not feeding the brotherhiKxl 
at marriages and deaths, eating or drinking with outsiders, and for- 
nication or adulter}'. The usual punishment when an offence is 
proved is that the offender is condemneil to feed the brotherhood for 



I Biflley. Trt^«f and CaiUi, II.» Apf^tndit II. 



BHUIYA. 74 

one or two days on goat's fleshy rice^ and liqnor. If the hereditary 
president happens to be a minor, his duties are undertaken, till he 
grows up, by some other person appointed by the council. 

6. Marriages are strictly local^ and, as a rule, a Bhuiya never goes 

to a distance to find a wife for his son. Differ- 
enceof occupation, provided other conditions 
are fulfilled, is not a bar to marriage. All the sub-divisions are equal 
as far as marriage is concerned, and the custom of hypergamy is 
unknown. They may have as many wives as they can buy and sup* 
port. There is no rule of precedence among the wives, and all, if 
possible, live in different rooms in the same house. Concubinage is not 
permitted. Women ai*e allowed considerable freedom both before and 
after marriage. If an unmarried girl is detected in an intrigue with 
a man of her own caste her father has to give a feast to the brethren, 
and the girl is married to her lover. But apparently nothing short 
of actual detection in the act or the pregnancy of the girl is sufficient 
to compel the council to take aotion against her. If she is detected 
in an intrigue with a person not of her own caste she is permanently 
expelled. The usual marriage age for both boys and girls is twelve. 
The consent of the parents is essential, except in the case of pre* 
nuptial immorality, and by this means couples very often make up 
their own matches. The permanent bride-price prescribed for the 
whole tribe, whether rich or poor, is five rupees in cash, a cloth for 
the bride, four sen of rice, two sen of sugar, and one ser of turmeric. 
If after marriage either bride or bridegroom becomes idiotical, mad, 
leprous, impotent, or mutilated, the marriage is annulled. But this 
is conditional on the other party being ignorant before the marriage 
was carried out of such a defect. 

7. Habitual infidelity on the part of either husband or wife is a 

gpround for divorce, but the fact must be proved 

to the satisfaction of the tribal council, which 

scrutinizes the evidence very closely. Divorced women can remarry, 

but the feeling is against it, and only widowers or men who cannot 

afford the recognised briJe-price for a virgin will take such women. 

8. TVidows are remarried in the sagdi form. When a man 

marries a widow he has to repay tha 
Widow mam^ and the bride-pricc to the relations of her late 

husband. There is no ceremony. All 
the man docs is to give the woman a sheet {sdri) , and then takes her 
home, where he has to give a feast to the brethren. The levirate it 



75 BHUIYA. 

strictly enforoeiL It is only when the younger brother of her late 
husband abandons his claioi on the widow that she can marry an 
outsider. The elder brother ean^ under no circumstances, marry the 
widow of his yoanger brother. If she marries an outsider her 
brother-in-law has a right to the custody of all her children by the 
first marriage. If she marries an outsider she loses all right to the 
goods of her first hnsband. Her sons by her first husband are his 
heirs. In the case of the lerirate the levir takes over the goods and 
children of his late brother : if, when they come of age, they wish 
to separate, they are considered entitled to an equal share in the 
joint property with their step brothers. There is no fiction that 
the children of the levir are afiiliated to his late brother. 

9. They assert that a sonless man can adopt and pretend to have 

some elaborate rules on the subject which are 
in imitation of their Hindu neighbours. At 
any rate it is dear that there is no religious motive for adoption, and 
if a roan does adopt an heir it is one of his brother's sons. A man 
may not adopt his sister's son, but he may adopt his daughter's 
son. A bachelor, a blind, impotent, or lame man may adopt, but not 
an ascetic. The rule that the person adopted should be unmarried 
is not enforced. Girls are never adojited. 

1 0. The rales of succession do not differ from those of the cognate 

Dravidian tribes. Genealogies are not care- 

8acc«ttioii. 

fully kept. They remember generally the 
names of four or five ancestors both in the male and female line. 

11. There is no ceremony at pregnane}-. The Chamain midwife 

ofiiciates. She cuts the cord (ndr) and buries 

Birth MramoniM. • . • ^ » . i i .. i •« 

It m the exact place where the child was^born, 
and lights a fire there. On the day of her confinement the mother 
gets a decoction of flour, ginger, coarse sugar, and turmeric, mixed 
up and boiled in water. She then gets nothing to*eat for^three 
days, when slie is fed on rice and pulse. She remains secluded in 
the delivery room {iaur) fur six days, during which time the 
Chamftin attends. On the sixth day is the ckkatki ceremony. All 
the men and women of the family Imve their dirty clothes washed 
by the Dh«>bi. The men have their heails sliaved, the women get 
the barbcr'i» wife to cut their finger and toe nails, and dye their feet 
with lac dye {mahdwar), Ttie houi>e xa rep!at»tered, and the okl 
earthen \'esfce!s replaced. The Chamain bathes mother and infant. 
The deliver}' room is fir^t p!a»tercd by the Cluunain and then by 



BHUIYA. 7G 

the sister of the child's father [nanad), for which ahe gets a present 
in money, clothes or cattle. If a son is bom the Cham&in receive 
four annas and her food, and two annas for a daughter. The washer- 
man and the barber's wife get the same. The husband does not 
cohabit with his wife for two and-a-half months after her delivery. 

12. Adoption is made in presence of the brethren, who are enter- 

tained. He acknowledges the boy as his son, 

Adoption ceremony. j v i 

and the boy acknowledges him as his father. 
If this is not done the adoption is not recognised. 

13. There is no special ceremony when boys or girls attain 
„ ^ , puberty, but at the age of five or six their 

Poberty ceremony. i i « 

eats are bored (hanchhedana). The boring 
is done by a goldsmith who gets one pice and a ration of uncooked 
grain (a W^ a). No tribal feast is given, but the members of the 
household wear their best clothes and eat specially good food that 
day. Up to that time it does not matter what the child eats, 
^ but after the ear-boring he must conform to the rules of the 
caste. 

14. The selection of the bride is the business of the boy's father. 
MarriBi^e ceremonies. When he has made his choice he comes 

The betrothal. j^ome and sends his brother-in-law, the tribal 

president (Mahto), and four or five other male friends to the &ther 
of the girl. If the proposal is accepted, the envoys are entertained 
for the night. Next morning the bride's father sunmions his 
clansmen. A square is made with flour in the court-yard. Her 
father brings out the bride, who is made to stand in the square, 
and her father theij calls on the friends of the bridegioom and 
the Mahto to examine her carefully and satisfy themselves that 
she has no physical defect. When they are satisfied the Mahto 
or brother-in-law of the bridegroom's father fills the bride's 
hand with dry rice and sprinkles some grains [ackhat) over her 
for good luck. The bride then retires. Next the boy's &ther 
sends for four annas worth of liquor, and the girl's &ther for 
two annas worth. This is mixed, and the two fathers sit down 
with leaf platters (dauna) in theii* hands. These they exchange 
five times and drink the liquor.^ The bride-price is then paid over 
to the girl's father, and the betrothal is considered complete. 



This it Homething like the custom of the Hos ; but among them it it the brid« 
ana nridegroom who pledge each other. Daltcn, Detcri^iive Ethnology, 193. 



77 BOUIYA. 

15. After the betrothal the wedding day is fixed by the &ther 
The preliminary mar- ^f the bridegroom. Notice IS Bent through 

riage ceremoDiee. jjjy broth er-iu-kiw to the bride's father. 

Three days before the wedding the ma/mdt^ara or "lucky eaiif 
ceremory is performed in both families. The women of the village 
go in procession to the village clay-pit. At the head of them goes 
a Chamar playing on his drum. This drum is first worshipped by 
the women, and a mark (tika) made on it with red lead. The vil- 
lage Haiga then digs three spadesfull of earth, which the mother 
of the bride or bridegroom, as the case may be, takes in her loin 
cloth, she standing behind him with her face veiled in her sheet, 
while he passes the earth to her over his left shoulder. This earth 
in plaoetl in the marriage shed (ntdnro) which is erected in the court- 
yard of the hon£«, and on it is placed un eailhen jar (kjl»a) full of 
water, into which some mango leaves and rice stalks are -thrown. 
Next comes the anointing {tel kirdi) of the pair, which is done at 
their respective houses by five women of the family (the number 
five is selected as it is lucky) who rub them with oil and turmeric. 
A day before the wedding day the brethren are entertained at a 
feast {Bkiit'rdn). They are also feil on the morning when the pro« 
cesidon starts. Before the proccbsion starts the mother of the bride* 
groom M!&ts herself on the rice mortar {oki^iri). The bri<1egroom 
walks towards her and turns l>ack four times. The tifth time be 
comes close to her, when she seizes him bv the handkerchief which 
he wears over his shoulders, and will not let him go unti) he promises 
a present. Next e<»mei» the imligkoina or *' mixing of the tam- 
arind. '' The bridegroom's mother bits on the ground with him in 
her lap. Her brother gives him a si]> of tamarind mixed with 
sugar and water. He s]>its it out on the | aim (»f his mother, 
who licks it uj), and receive** a present for doing h) from her bn»ther. 
Then cxmes tlie parachkan ceremony -as deseriljc^l among Majh» 
warn (para 10). The bridegr(M>m then starts in proi'esbion for the 
Viride's houfe accom)ianied by his relatives and clansmen. 

16. At the bride'h houK- a niurriage shed (maHro) has been eriH^ted. 

C«r»iDotiuii attlohuuw ^he p.>ti*, nine in number, are forniwl of the 
«fiu.bria«. ^,^^1 ^,f the *i:/./i tree (W'ftiinckia btMoia), 

and roofitl with ljatiilKH»s. The l'n>t I>o^t is envted by tlie village 

Baiga, and the work tini>hetl by the male relations of the bride. 

Mango Uavi^ are hung on tli«^ pillars. At tin* same time a [lost of 

titidA w<kh1 is planted in the ground at tlie do«>r of the cook-houife 



BnuiTA. 78 ^ 

and covered with a cloth. This poet is decorated with red lead and 
turmeric, and is known as " the auspicious one'' {Kalydni). When 
the procession approaches the bride's house, her relatives and friends 
go in a body ( paghar) to receive the bridegroom. The bridegroom 
is led in and seated in the square {ckauk) in the court-yards 
opposite his father*in-Iaw, who makes a mark (iika) of rice and curd 
on his forehead. The bridegroom then with his friends retires to 
the place arranged for them under a shady tree near the village. 
This is ihtjaHKdnsa, The relatives of the bride follow them there 
and wash their feet. After this the bridegroom's father sends the 
bride a piece of stamped cloth (ckunari), which she wears at the 
wedding. Her father then incites the bridegroom to his house, 
where he enters, and, seizing the bride roughly by the hand (an ob- 
vious survival of marriage by capture^ ) brings her out into the mar- 
riage shed, and seats her on his left near a branch of the tiddk tree^ 
which is fixed in the ground in the centre of the shed. He then 
goes through the form of marrying himself to the tree by TnnrVip g 
it with red lead, and after this rubs red lead on the parting of the 
bride's hair. This done, the bride's father, or in some instances a 
Brfthman, who gets a fee of one rupee, ties the garments of the pair 
in a knot and they walk round the siddh branch five times. Each 
time as they go round when they approach the water jar [kalsa!^) the 
bride's brother pours a little rice into the bride's bosom. The bride- 
groom then with his party retires. Next morning is the ceremony 
of eating kkiehari or boiled rice and pulse. The bridegroom goes to 
the bride's house accompanied by five unmarried boys of the same 
sept as himself. It is the etiquette that he refuses to eat until he 
gets a present. After this the clansmen on both sides are entertained. 
17. That same day the bridegroon? brings his bride home in 

Ceremonies on the retnrn proccssion. When they reach his house 
of the bride. ^^^ baskets are placed on the ground 

near the door, and they both step in these as they enter. That day 
the relatives and clansmen are entertained ; and next morning dis- 
perse. A week after, the water jars (kaUa) which have been 
brought in the return procession are taken by the bride and bride- 
groom to an abjoining stream. The bridegroom fijrst^ not 



1 Amon^ the Bhuijan of Bon^l '* the bridcgrc^om acknowledges hit wife and 
threatens va\j one who attempts to take her from him." Dalton, Ethnology^ 148. 

' <>n the sacrudncst} of the kaUa^ see Campbell, }sot€s on ihe Spiril Ba$iM qf Bdief 
and i'uitotn. if. 



79 BHUITA. 

letting the bride see him, plunges his jar into the stream. She 
searches for it and fishes it out, and the bride plunges her jar 
in, which the bridegroom recovers. Both bathe and return 
to the house bearing the jars full of water, doing worship as they 
pass it to the shrine of the village gods (deokdr). When the 
'bride brings her jar into the house she pours the contents of her 
jar over her mother-in-law and asks if she is satisfied with the 
match. The old woman gives her some trifling present. 

18. The bmding portion of the ceremony is the rubbing of red 

BiBdinff portion of mar- '^ ^^ ^^^ parting of the bride's hair by 
rUee ceremoDj. ^j^^ bridegroom. If a betrothal is annulled 

the bride-price is returned : but after the marking with red lead 

the marriage is final until the parties are regularly divorced. 

19. The forms thus described are known as the ekarhauwa or 

^ offering " for virgin brides and sagdi 
for widows. Another recognised form is 

known as gmrdwaf., in which two men exchange their sisters in 

marriage.^ 

20. No one is allowed to die in the house. The bodies of the 

dead are carried on a bier to a neiehbour- 

Di«i>o«Al of the dead. , , , , 

mg stream, where they are placed on a 
pyre, the bead north and the feet south. The nearest relative of 
the dead i)erBon walks five times round the pyre, and first scorching 
the mouth of the corpse with a grass torch sets light to the pyre. 
Leaving it burning, the man who fired the pyre with his friends 
goes and bathes. When they return to the house they sit in the 
courtyard, and one man with a wisp of grass sprinkles water on 
their feet out of an earthen pot. Then they sit in silence for an 
hour round the chief mourner, and as they go away wash their 
hands in a mixture of sugar and water. The next niorriing the 
chief mourner collects the bones and ashes and consi^^ns them to a 
neighbouring stream. From that time until the tenth day be 
keeps aloof from every one, cooks for himself, and does not sleep on 
a bed. He eats only once a day. Each time bc*fore he eats he 
lays out food Cor tiie spirit of the dead along the road by which the 
corpse was carried to cremation.' On the tenth day the clansmen 



1 Thin WMt^rmarek calls the " eimpleet way t4 parchaainf a wife. " Hisfory of 
Huwutm Marriaggf 890. 

« Tylor, Primititt i nUyrt, II.. »». 




BHUITA. 

aasemble at a tank and Bhave their headg. Thenee they go to the 
house of the deceased, where a goat ie eacrificed in the name o£ the 
deceased, some liquor is prmied on the ground, and the meat is 
boiled with rice and eaten. They have no trAiliIha ceremony, and 
no Brahman or Mahabrahmau ofliciates at the funeral ceremony, 
nor ai'e any spells {laiHtra) or verses recited. 

21. The Bhniyae call themselves Hindus, and, indeed, have 

advanced coneiderably in the direction of 
Hinduibm, as eompaied with their brethren 
in Bengal, whose beliefs are almost altogether of the animistic or 
fetishistic type.' Their chief deity is the Hindu Kali, who has 
doubtless succeeded gome aboiiginal goddess, such as the Fanii or 
Pahari Devi of the Bhuiyae in Singhbhum.' Kali and Paramesar 
are worshipped in Aghan with an offering of sweet cakes and a 
burnt sacritice {horn). Kali's shrine consists of a rude thatched hut, 
outside the ^'illage, with a flag in each of the four corners. A 
round mound of earth on a raised platform in the centre of the 
fchrine represents the divinity. They worship through the Baiga 
the village gods {'lilA and the earth goddess Dharti Matain asso- 
ciation in the month of Chait. In fact a Bhuiya usually describes 
his faith, as the worship of Dih Dharti.^ Goats, young pigs, and 
fowls, are offered to these deitie.^. The Baiga receives as his per- 
quisite the head of the vii-tini, and the worshippers consume the rest 
of the flesh. Women do not join in this worship. 

22, They have a (ii)ecjal tribal hero named Nadu Bir, of whom 

the following legend is told : — " Onee upon a 
NidnBir. . , ,.,.-.,„ „-i . 

time there lived m Magadha or \ iliara a 

Bhuiya woman of exquisite loveliness. She had a son named Nadu, 

who surpassed his mother in beauty. He was accustomed to roam 

in the forest and hunt any animal that fell in his way. One day he 

went out a-hunting equipped with a bow and arrows, When he got 

into the forest he IiappeueJ to see a deer, which he pursued. He 

cha-ed it till nightfall with no success. As he had gone far into 

the forest lie tost hia way, and was quite at a loss to know what to 

do and where to go, Thirsty and tired, he wanJei-ed about till he 

reached fortunately the Kuti or hermitage of an inspired ascetic, 



I BiBley, Tiihft and Caitet 
= Daltoti. Elkntlosy, 179. 
> f . ibiJ, 148. 




81 BHUIYA. 

Koela Rishi by name. Seeing the ascetic he bowed down to the 
eaith before him and begged for water, of which he stood badly in 
want. Koela Rishi took pity on him, and calling his wife and 
daughter told them to give him what he wanted. The daughter, in 
obedience to her father's bidding, brought out a gourd full of water, 
and her mother gave him fruits and roots, the only food of the 
ascetic. The Bhuiya fed on the fruits and roots, and quenched his 
thirst with water. He passed the night there. But since he saw 
the daughter of the ascetic he was so much enamoured of her beauty 
that he became beside himself* In the morning he got up and 
went to take leave of the ascetic to go home. The ascetic saw 
through his mental eyes that the Bhuiya was enamoured of his 
daughter^B beauty, and also that his daughter was in love with him. 
He consulted his wife on the subject, and with her permission he 
married his daughter to the Bhuiya. Nadu with his sweetheart 
returned to his mother, who was named Kama] a. Kamala was 
exceedingly glad to see the wife of her son so beautiful and good. 
Nadu loved his wife so much that he could never bear to leave her. 
For a long time they lived together, but the union was unhappily 
not blessed with a child. Discouraged and disheartened, NMu ran 
away from home without giving any notice to his wife or mother. 
After many days^ journey he reached Kamaru Kamachcha. One 
day as he was taking a walk in the streets of the city the eyes of the 
daughter of the King of that city fell on him. She invited Nadu 
to dinner, and made love to him. Her name was Naina Jogini, 
After some time she began to di'ead that some other King's 
daughter would appropriate her lover. To avoid this she turned 
Nadu during the day into an ox through her magical powers, and 
at night changed him into a man, and lived with him. In this way 
some days were passed. After some time Nadu remembered his wife 
and home, and begged Naina to allow him to visit his native land, 
Naina at first refused permission, but at last finding that Nadu 
could not live long unless he was given leave, she granted him leave 
for a fortnight, and caused him through her magical powers to reach 
home within a couple of hours. He met his wife, stayed with her, 
and she became in child. Nadu, true to his promise, left home and 
reached Kamaini Kamachcha on the fixed day. But when he left 
home he wrote his address on the gate of the door. He also told 
his wife that the child, when born, would seaich him out. In nine 
months Kausaiya was delivered of a child most beautiful, and he 
Vol. 11. F 



BHUIYA. 82 

was named Tulasi Btr. Tulasi Bir was so powerful, even on the 
day of his birth^ that when he saw the light he at onoe proceeded to 
the fields and brought to the house a very heavy log that was lying 
there to be burnt in the saur, or room in which his mother was 
secluded. At the age of five he made a gufli of lead, 25 maunds in 
weight, and a danda, 52 maunds in weight, of iron. With these 
he used to play tipcat. When he attained his seventh year he read 
the writing on the gate, and having come to know that his &ther 
was a prisoner in Kamaru Kamachcha, in the iiands of Naina Jogini, 
he flew into a passion, and started immediately for Kamaru ELama- 
ohcha. Reaching there, he commenced fighting with the forces of 
Naina Jogini, He set fire to the fort, and it was in a moment 
turned into a heap of ashes . The whole army was killed, driven back, 
or burnt by Tulasi Bir. Naina used all her magical powers to defeat 
Tulasi, but in vain« Tulasi rescued his father and brought him home. 

23. Another bold adventure of a Bhuiya hero is thus des- 
cribed : — In the city of AJarang there lived two brothers, Ghmga Rim 
and Gaj&dhar. Theyhad a sister, Barij Somati by name, who was 
very beautiful, and for whose love many men from distant quarters 
fought with her brothers, were defeated, and returned home heart- 
broken. When Tulasi was informed of it he fell in love with her 
without seeing her. He started for Marang, taking leave of his 
mother and father. He first sent word to Ganga R&m and Gaji- 
dhar to give their sister to him in mariiage. But they paid no 
attention to the message. Tulasi then fought a duel with the two 
brothers, defeated them, and took their sister by force, and brought 
her home and married her. Lahang Bir was bom of B&rij Somati. 
He was a very powerful man. Bhuiyas still speak of his boldness 
and bravery in very high terms, and worship him with prayers and 
sacrifices after every two years outside the village or in the family 
kitchen. They worship him in tliis way : — 

24. They dig a hole in the ground five or six cubits deep and one 
or two cubits long. They bum fire in it, and walk on it bare foot. 
They say that the man who is possessed of the Bir does not feel any 
sensation of burning by walking on fire. They also scatter thorny 
branches of ber and kankor on the ground, and roll on them. They 
say that the thorns become blunt when a man possessed of T^hang 
Bir rolls on them. Those who are posbcssed of the Bir pronounce 
blessings on the Bhuiyas, and they believe that these blessings torn 
out true. Bhuiyas offer him sacrifices of g^ats, fowls, and hogs. 



83 BHUITA. 

26. The only Hindu festival which they obeerve is the Anant 

Chandafi (Uth light half of BhSdon). They 
fast on that day and wear a thread on the 
light arm^ over which some rode spells {mantra) are recited. Then 
they go into the forest and out a branch of the karam tree {aniho" 
eepkalmi eadamba) which they fix up in the court-yard. The men 
bow to it^ and the women decorate it with red lead. Then they get 
drunk, dance round it, and sing the karoma songs. The festival is 
an occasion of rude license and debauchery. It is understood that 
if any girl takes a fancy to a man she has only to kick him on the 
ankle during the dance, and the parents get the pair married forth- 
with. They believe firmly that persons killed by tigers become 
dangerous ghosts. They are worshipped periodically by the Baiga 
with ofEerings of fowls and liquor at a mud shrine erected at the 
place the person was killed.^ This is called the Baghaut. They 
also believe in the appearance of ghostly fires in the jungle at night. 
One of these blaases on the Juriya hill in Pargana Dudhi. It is said 
to be the fire of some holy faqir, but when any one goes near the 
place it disappears. If any one goes into the forest wearing a red 
cloth the ghosts (bhui) which inhabit old ma 4»a {bauia laiiJoUa) 
and pipal trees (fent Indica) enter into him. A person in such a 
•iate has to go into the forest and bow down before every tree of 
these species until the ghost leaves him. The field deity is Uariyari 
Devi (" the goddess of greenness '^), She is worshipped in the field 
by the Baiga with a sacrifice of fowls and liquor when the harvest 
is completed. 

26. Tlic}' dread the ghosts of the dt'ad and offer eacrifiees and 
. ^ . . lay out food for them through the head of 

AnCMtor worship. 

the houbo. If they are not finl they remain 
hungry in the next world, apjiear in dreams, and thow their dis- 
pleasure by betetting their living friends in the form of the night- 
mare, which grips their throats, sits on their breahts, and vampiie- 
like drinks their bltxxl at night. They api^ear to Iiave no kuowleilge 

I Tb« worthipp«rt c f poopU killi*d )>j tit«ra nntnbcreii 7,7"^ acrorilinff to th« 
Report uf IWO. Mr. DiiiUitf rvmarks {^*t}t 216), th^t thu wur hip it K<*nrr«l 
throoK'boutlhidh and thn Gor^ikhpur DmtrtcUi. " In (]<>rakhpar, C}oiiiU,(>r Bithhuoh, 
it miffht hav« Umb eipoet4>«i, hot it ttfemi vxtitMinlioAry tb*t auch wtirsbip h«« 
rvteioeU its huM in SullArpar. PruljaMj th« tNioipAraUTt* ranty of nuoh a drath in 
ih« SoalhiYm Dt«trict« (if Ut« yoam iiia<1o it App«Ar Uio i»>>rt» impro««iT« and pr«- 
•erred \Xm mtstotttj tho lonirer." For UatfhAUt wor«hip, e^ie lnir€hiuctio% fo /'u>|»iilar 
tUligitn ond FvUior^. 1S7. 

VuU II. t% 



BHUITA. 8l> 

of the remarkable mock haman sacrifice described by Colonel 
Dalton.i 

27. Friday is their lucky day, and Saturday is unlucky. The 
,, . .... ^ numbers three and five are lucky. The note 

Yanons BupGratitiona, ^ ^ -^ 

omens, oaths, ezoroisms. Qf the Suiya bird singing on the left is a 
favourable meeting omen. The East is the lucky direction. They 
swear on the head of their sons, and by holding the tail of a cow. 
These oaths are used for the decision of private disputes concerning 
tribal discipline. They believe in magic and witchcraft. Only 
special sorcerers {pjha) and witches (tonaki) have this power. They 
attack their victims by throwing duet on them, and making than 
eat some special food, which brings the victim under their influence. 
The Ojha prescribes in cases of witch or ghost possession. He 
names the particular bhfit which is at the root of the mischief, and 
directs an offering of a fowl or a young pi^, which he sacrifices and 
eats himself. Ojhas also pretend to be able to foretell the future. 
They do not believe much in dreams, except as an indication that the 
deceased ancestors are displeased with them. They believe in the 
Evil Eye, which is a power residing principally in persons bom on 
Saturday. There are special spells [manfra) to obviate it. Any 
member of the tribe can learn and use these. 

23. The women tattoo themselves in the way common to all 

the allied tribes. They will not touch a Dom^ 

Social obsoFTaiicos. 

Dhark&r, Dhobi, or Chamftr; nor the wife of 
the wife's elder brother, ' the wife of the younger brother^ or the 
mother of the wife or husband of their son or daughter. In the 
morning they will not mention a monkey or a tiger. They do 
not eat the flesh of the cow, buffalo, monkey, crocodile, snake, lisEard^ 
or jackal. They eat pork, fowl, fish, and rats. Women do 
not eat with men ; the men eat first and women afterwards. They 
use tobacco and liquor freely, and the latter is considered to ward 
off malaiia. But habitual drunkenness is discreditable. Younger 
people salute their elders in the paetagi form, and the elders give 
the blessing; nike raho, '* may you be happy. ^* Old men are cared 
^r, and women, who arc much used in outdoor and domestic work, 
appear to be treated with a tolerable amount of consideration. 
But if they are disobedient, wives are beaten by their husbandt. 
Doms and Dharkdrs will cat their leavings. They will eat food 



Ethnology, li6. 



»bed by BTihnuuw. Illiptrta, or UAny." 

-.a: trila- III,-..,, , .,«.. tT.,m wlu^x . 



■fliknittlin 



^|UJ 11 



>:.-<, induMriaua, ample, 



lutm « IflMl orgMnixBtion calM "tjto unity" (o^) 
•mbntfin^K group «f rilkfrn^ Whmi luijr OD* 
«Dcro«diM ■m tbeir neiit* tli«y SMrt ftuJ dW 
Ifn nnnttrr. 

Tl,.- >. ,.■.■„ „ - t.->:-rni:y d.-sDitly .lix*-.l. Th^ it,-..". .It-*. 



BHiJiYA. 85 bhtjiyIe, bhuIkhIb. 

cooked by Br&hmans^ R&jputs, or BanyaSi and Ahirs. Among the 
aboriginal tribes the only ones from whose hands they will eat food 
are the Kharwars. 

29. Most of them are hereditary serf ploughmen {AarwdAa). The 
_ usual waees are three sers of coarse grain per diem 

Occupation. i . , ▼ . i 

and ten annas m cash per me fit em. In wmter they 
get a blanket, and in the rains a palm leaf umbrella hat {khnmari) : 
at the beginning and ending of the sowing season they get a special 
dinner from their masters. Some have risen in tbe social scale, 
cultivate on their own account, and keep cattle and sheep. Some 
of the Mirzapur Bhuijas are makers of catechu {khair), and are 
hence known as Khairaha. They are quiet, industrious, simple^ 
confiding people. 

30. They have a local organization called " the unity '' {eka) 

embracing a group of villages. When any one 

Local orffazuEation. i ^. 

encroaches on their rights they meet and dis- 
cuss the matter. 

The women are tolerably decently dressed. The men's drees 

is sometimes terribly scanty. Women wear no 

Clothes and jewelry. x • .i • ^i * i.i_ 

ornament m the nose : m the ears they wear 
palm leaf ornaments [tarki) ; on the neck beads {guriya), and neck- 
laces ; on the hands maUiffa, and rings on the fingers. The men wear 
bra§s earrings and bead necklaces. 

Bhniyar: Bhninhar. — A Dravidian tribe in the hill country 
of South Mirzapur. They are also known as Beonriha from deonra, 
which is a local term for the dahya system of cultivation by which 
patches of jungle are periodically burnt down and brought under 
the plough. Mr. Jonathan Duncan in one of his reports speaks 
of them under the name of Bewariyas, and describes them as 
being in such an exceedingly wild and imcivilised state as not to have 
attended him to make their settlement.^ It is needless to say 
that they have no connection with the semi-gipsy Bawariyas. The 
tribe is also known as Baiga, because large numbers of the aboriginal 
local priests are derived from this caste. The word Bhuinh&r 
(Sanskrit, bhumi^kdra) means " land-holder,^' and is a title of some 
of the allied tribes, e. g,, the Mundas.* They are probably 
identical with the Bhuryas described by Dr. Ball.^ It is hardly 



' ColUciion of Papers relating to the 8eUlefn6*''t of South Mirtapur, pag^e 2. 
' Biflley, Tribes and Castes, 11., 102. 
* Jungle Life, 418. 



■Jt. ■ -V 



■V ■ ■ 'M ' '■ 




BHXTITA. 86 BHUirlB, BHUtNHlB. 

cooked by BrAhmans, RftjpiitB, or Banyas, and Ahirs. Among the 
aboriginal tribes the only ones from whose hands they will eat food 
are the Kharw&rs. 

29. Most of them are hereditary serf ploughmen [harwdia). The 

usual wages are three Ben of coarse grain per diem 
and ten annas in cash per meNsem, In wmter they 
get a blanket, and in the rains a pahn leaf umbrella hat {Jtinmari) : 
at the beginning and ending of the sowing season they get a special 
dinner from their masters. Some have risen in the social scalef 
cultivate on their own account, and keep cattle and sheep. Some 
of the Mirzapur Bhuijas are makars of catechu {il^air), and are 
henoe known as Khairaha. They are quiet, industrious, simple^ 
confiding people. 

80. They have a local organization called " the unity " {fka) 

embracing a group of villages. When any one 

Looal organiiation. ' i • • i -i i« 

encroaches on their rights they meet and dis- 
cufis the matter. 

The women are tolerably decently dressed. The men's dress 
_ is sometimes terribly scanty. Women wear no 

ClothM and jewelry. . 

ornament in the nose : in the ears they wear 
palm leaf ornaments (fartt) ; on the neck beads {gurijifa), and neck- 
laces ; on the hands maUi^a, and rings on the fingers* The men wear 
bn^s earrings and bead necklaces. 

Bhuiyar: Bhninhar. — A Dravidian tribe in the hill country 
of South Mirzapur. They are also known as Beonriha from 6eonra, 
which is a local term for the dahya system of cultivation by which 
patches of jungle are periodically burnt down and brought under 
the plou^ Mr. Jonathan Duncan in one of his reports speaks 
of them under the name of Bewariyas, and describes them as 
being in such an exceedingly wild and uncivilised state as not to have 
attended him to make their settlement.^ It is needless to say 
that they have no connection with the semi-gipsy Bawariyas. The 
tribe is also known as Baiga, because large numbers of the aboriginal 
loeal priests are derived from tliis caste. The wonl Bhuinhir 
(Sanskrit, bkumi'ldra) means" land-holder/' and is a title df some 
of the allied tribes, e, g,, the Mundas.' They are probably 
identical with the Bhuryas described by Dr. Ball.' It is hardly 



• C^lUeUon of Papm rAaling in Iht S*UU»h€>U o/ Soulk Minapur, pag^ S. 

• Bklej, TriUs and Cast4$, II.. lOa. 



■W: 



BHXTITA. 86 BHUirlB, BHUtNHlB. 

cooked by BrAhmans, RAjpnts, or Banyas, and Ahirs. Among the 
aboriginal tribes the only ones from whose hands they will eat food 
are the Kharw&rs. 

29. Most of them are hereditary serf ploughmen {Aarwdka). The 

usual wag^s are three sen of coarse grain per diem 

Ooonpation. . ▼ • i 

and ten annas in cash per mefnem. In wmter they 
get a blanket, and in the rains a palm leaf umbrella hat {kkHmari) i 
at the beginning and ending of the sowing season they get a special 
dinner from their masters. Some have risen in the social scalef 
cultivate on their own account, and keep cattle and sheep. Some 
of the Mirzapur Bhuijas are makars of catechu {ikair), and are 
henoe known as Khairaha. They are quiet, industrious, simple^ 
confiding people. 

30. They have a local organization called " the unity " {fk^) 

embracing a group of villages. When any one 
encroaches on their rights they meet and diB- 
cufis the matter. 

The women are tolerably decently dressed. The men's dress 

is sometimes terribly scanty. Women wear no 

Cloihat and jewelrj. . 

ornament in the nose : in the ears they wear 
palm leaf ornaments (farii) ; on the neck beails {gmriyn), and neck- 
laces ; on the hands maUi^a, and rings on the fingers* The men wear 
bn^s earrings and bead necklaces. 

Bhuiyar : Bhninhar. — A Dravidian tribe in the hill country 
of South Mirzapur. They are also known as Beonriha from deonra, 
which is a local term for the dahya system of cultivation by which 
patches of jungle are periodically burnt down and brought under 
the plou^ Mr. Jonathan Duncan in one of his reports speaks 
of them under the name of Bewariyas, and describes them as 
being in such an exceedingly wild and uncivilised state as not to have 
attended him to make their settlement.^ It is needless to say 
that they have no connection with the semi-gipsy Biwariyas. The 
tribe is also known as Baiga, because large numbers of the aboriginal 
local priests are derived from this caste. The wonl Bhuinhir 
(Sanskrit, bkumi^idra) means'' land-holder/' and is a title of some 
of the allied tribes, e. g,^ the Mundas.' They are probably 
identical with the Bhuryas described by Dr. Bail.' It is hardly 



• CoU^efion of Paprrt ttUling In tk« S€UU*'%€'^i o/ South Mittapur, paftf S. 

• BkUj, Trih4$ and CasUs, II.. lOa. 

• JmmgU lAM. 41B. 



■■«f-'«- 



BHXTITA. 86 BHUirlB, BHUtNHlB. 

cooked by BrAhmans, RAjpnts, or Banyas, and Ahirs. Among the 
aboriginal tribes the only ones from whose hands they will eat food 
are the Kharw&rs. 

29. Most of them are hereditary serf ploughmen {Aarwdka). The 

usual wag^s are three iert of coarse grain per diem 

OoonpatiOB. . ▼ • t 

and ten annas m cash per metis em. In wmter they 
get a blanket, and in the rains a palm leaf umbrella hat {kkHmari) : 
at the beginning and ending of the sowing season they get a special 
dinner from their masters. Some have risen in the social scale, 
cultivate on their own account, and keep cattle and sheep. Some 
of the Mirzapur Bhuiyas are makars of catechu (k^air), and are 
henoe known as Khairaha. They are quiet, industrious, simple^ 
confiding people. 

80. They have a local organization called " the unity " {fka) 

embracing a group of villages. When any one 

IxMMU organiiaiion. t • • i i i ^» 

encroaches on their rights they meet and diB- 

C1IS8 the matter. 

The women are tolerably decently dressed. The men's dress 

is sometimes terribly scanty. Women wear no 
ClothM and jewelry. . , "^ . , ,. 

ornament m the nose : in the ears they wear 
palm leaf ornaments (farti) ; on the neck beads (punya), and neck- 
laces ; on the hands maUi^a, and rings on the fingers* The men wear 
bn^s earrings and bead necklaces. 

Bhuiyar : Bhninhar. — A Dravidian tribe in the hill country 
of South Mirzapur. They are also known as Beonriha from beonra^ 
which is a local term for the dahya system of cultivation by which 
patches of jungle are periodically burnt down and brought under 
the plough. Mr. Jonathan Duncan in one of his reports speaks 
of them under the name of Bewariyas, and describes them as 
being in such an exceedingly wild and uncivilised state as not to have 
attended him to make their settlement.^ It is needless to say 
that they have no connection with the semi-gipsy Biwariyas. The 
tribe is also known as Baiga, because large numbers of the aboriginal 
loeal priests are derived from this caste. The word Bhuinhir 
(Sanskrit, bkumi^idra) means" land-holder/' and is a title of si)me 
of the allied tribes, e, ^., the Mundas.' Tliey are probably 
identical with the Bhuryas described by Dr. Ball.' It is hardly 



• C9lUeii9n of Papm rAaling in Iht SfUU^'^'^l o/ SouiK Minafur, pag* S. 

• BkUj, Trih4$ and Casi4$, II.. lOa. 



BHUItAb, BHUtNHlB. 86 

neoessary to say that they have no connection with the regular 
half Brahman half Kshatriya Bhninh&rs of the Gangetic valley. 

2. The Mirzapur Bhuiy&rs can name fitteen exogamons eepts {iuri). 

„ . , Five of these the Khagoriha, Snidaha, Khat- 

Tnbal oonatitation. , ., -ri i . ,^t .1 1 • ^i 

kanha, Deohanya^ Chargoriha^ are admittedly 
local septs, deriving their names from the villages in which they 
originated. They have branched off in comparatively recent times. 
The original ten septs are probably in a large degree of totemistic 
origin. These are Bhninh&r or ^' land-holder/' Nipan ''the 
measurer;'^ Bhiisar, "the chaff men;" Shall ''arrov men;*' Sisi; 
Bunbun,the bumble bee; Earwa, "bitter;'' RiS, "leader;" Daspfit, 
son of a slave ; Bhaniha, '' he that has the rays of the son/' many 
of which aie possibly nicknames. If any of these titles were origin- 
ally totemistic their significance has now been lost. 

3. These septs {iuri) are all exogamons^ and marriage within 

the septs is absolutely forbidden. This rule, 

Bale of exogamy. , . 

which obviously permits very close intermar- 
riage, is not supplemented by the complete formnla mamera, 
ehachera^ pkuphera and mautera, which bars the line of the paternal 
and maternal uncle and aunt. Here only the line of the paternal 
and maternal uncle within one generation is excluded ; and after 
this intermarriage between their descendants is allowed. 

4* Their traditions of origin are very vague. They speak oC 

a place called Bhaunradah as their original head- 
quarters, but of this they know nothing more 
than that it is somewhere to the south. 

5. They have a tribal council (paneHyai) which meets oooaeaon- 

ally . There is no permanent president (makto)^ 

Tribal council. ^ ^ . ,1 . . . . . 

but the oldest or most competent person is 
appointed at each meeting. If a man is convicted of adultery or 
fornication he is generally put out of caste for a year or two. He 
is then restored on providing a feast for the clansmen. 1 he pen- 
alty is particularly high in the cases of incestuous connection with 
women within the prohibited degrees. If proved guilty of Booh 
conduct he has to provide five goats and as much liquor ae can be 
made in one distillation from a single still (bhaUi). If the woman 
with whom he is detected in an intrigue belongs to another caste, 
the fine is one still of liquor and two goats. He must obey the 
order of the council. If he is contumacious the fine is inoreaeed : 
if he submits and pleads poverty, it is often reduced. 



87 BHUITIr, BHUliYUlB. 

6. A man may many in any of the ten eepts (the five laat being 

regarded as only offshoots from the others) , 
provided both parties are in possession of fall 
caste rights. Among these people we have a distinct survival of 
marriage by capture in the sort of wrestling or struggle which 
takes place between the bride and bridegroom, before the latter 
daring the marriage ceremony applies red lead to the parting of 
the hair of the former. This custom of applying red lead is an 
obvious survival or the original blood covenant when the bride was 
marked with blood drawn from the body of the bridegroom^ and 
thus formally united to him; A man may have as many wives as 
be can afford to purchase with the bride-price and support. The 
senior wife is held in special respect and gets more jewelry and 
bettor clothes than her juniors. She alone represents the women 
of the family at social celebrations. This appears, as Dr. 
Westermarck remarks, to indicate a transition from monogamous to 
jMlygynous hi^its, and not vice vend, as has often been suggested.^ 
If the bimily house is large the wives all live together ; if not, in 
separate rooms grouped round the common courtj'ard.' Another 
peculiarity among this tribe is the intense fear of the menstrual 
pollution.* lliere are always two doors to the dwelling house, 
one of which b used only by women in this condition. While 
impure the woman is fed by her husband ajiart from the rest of 
the family, and whenever she has to go out tihe is obliged to creep 
out on her hands and knees so as to avoid polluting the house 
thatch by her touch. Concubinage and polyandry are both prohibit- 
ed, and the latter is looked u])on with such horror by them that 
it beems impossible to believe that it could ever luive ))een a tribal 
institution.* Women enjoy a considerable amount of liberty both 
before and after marriage. If an unmarried girl is detected in 
an intrigue with a clansman, the tribal council imposes a fine on 
her paramour and marries her to him. The fine consists of a goat, 
rice, and liquor. The marriage age for girls is from ten to twelve, 
and to delay the marriage of girls to a later ])eri<)d is considered 
unseemly. As the people put it, " the brotherhood jeer *' 
{kirddart iamaf). The marriage tif a boy is arranged by hit 



I H%ilf*fy **f Human ynrriage, A^i^. 

' Ihul, 499. 

» Ibid, 4H5 : Praior. r,.,\lm Itou jh. If. yi^. ri^^. 



bhuiyAr, bedInoAr. 88 

sister's husband {ba^not). It asually takes place by arrangement 
between the psur, but love matches are allowed and are not unusual. 
The bride-price consists of a sheet (or An a) valued at three rupees, 
five inipees in cash, and fifteen sers of liquor. The bride 
receives the sheet, and the money and the liquor are used in the 
marriage feast. This is the invariable rate and does not vary 
with the means of the parties. If after marriage it turns out 
that the bridegroom becomes mad, blind, leprous, or impotent, 
her relations will withhold the bride. In this case, if the 
husband have a younger brother, the marriage is annulled 
by the council, and the bride is again married to her brother- 
in-law by the less regular form used in the case of widows, i.e., by 
sagdi. On the other hand if after marriage any defects manifest 
themselves in the bride her husband is bound to accept her, and if 
before marriage the relations of the bride were aware of any defect 
in the bridegroom the marriage cannot be broken. 

7. Adultery in the wife when proved to the satis&ction of the 

council is a ground for putting her away, but 

Divorce. , _ i ^ • i 

no evidence short of the testimony of eye- 
witnesses t^ the act of adultery is accepted. Adultery in the hus- 
band is not a ground for divorce, but if his misconduct is brought 
to the notice of the council they will reprimand him. Ill-treat- 
ment, again, on the part of the husband is not a ground for divorce, 
but the wife generally takes matters into her own hands and 
escapes to the house of her parents, who will not restore her until 
the husband gives security that the ill-usage will not be repeated. 
The cost of brides acts, it is needless to say, as a check on ill-usage 
or desertion.^ A divorced wife is allowed to marry again by the 
taffdi form with the permission of the council. 

8. Widows can marry again by the form known ae iogdi, and 

Widow marriage and ^^°^^^ /^® ^^ valuable that every young 
the levirate. widow if not taken over by her brother-in- 

law is married to some one else. If a man wishes to marry a 
widow be must secure her consent and that of her relations. When 
this is granted he takes for her a set of palm-leaf earrings (/arii), 
brass arm rings (churla), and glass bangles {chUri). These he puts 
on the widow, takes her home, and gives a feast to the clansmen 
of goat^s flesh and rice. This feast is called after the ear-ringa 

1 Wostennarok, History of Human Marriaget 532. 



89 bhuiyIb bhuIkhIb. 

farii bkdi. The levirate prevails under the usual restriction that it 
18 only the younger brother of the husband who can claim the 
widow of his elder brother. If he rebigns his claim she can marry 
an outsider: she takes with her to her new home only infant 
children of her first husband. The others are taken care of by the 
brother of their father. The widow has no right to succeed her 
late husband : his heirs are his sons, or, in default of sons, his brother* 
In the case of the levirate there is no fiction that the children of 
the second marriage are affiliated to the first husband. As a rule 
all marriageable widows are taken either in the levirate or 
remarried by 9agdi. 

9. The tribe profess to have elaborate, rules of adoption, which 

are, however, clearly derived from an imita* 

Adoption* 

tion of the praetice of their Hindu neigh- 
hours. There is no religious idea about adoption. All that is 
certain is that only a sonless man can adopt, that he must adopt in 
his own sept, and that almost as a matter of course he adopts his 
brother's son. The uncertainty of the conception of adoption is 
shown in the fact that the adopted son is allowed to retain his 
right of succession in the property of his natural father. 

10. Becna marriages by the custum known as gharjai^dn or 

gkardamdda^ when the bridegroom serves a 

period of probation for his bride are usual. 

In such a case the son-in-law has no right of inheriting from his 

&ther«in«law, but retains the right of inheritance from the estate 

of his father. 

11. The sons are the sole heirs to the estate of their fat hen 

Primogeniture is so far observed that while 

8iioo«Mion. 

the children of all wives share ecjiuUly, the 
eldest son of the senior wife gets what is called tikaiti^ or one in 
excess of each thing— cattle, cooking vessels, etc. ; but if the father 
die in debt, this right ceases, and all the sons have to contribute 
equally to discharge the debt. The father during his lifetime can- 
not nominate one of his sons to get a share superior to tliat of 
the others. 

12. There is no pregiuuicy ceremony. The mother is attended 

bv her hublmnd's sibter inanad), the Chamlr 

midwife not binng employed. The woman 

Ilea on the ground during juulurition. A fire is lit in the room in 

which she is secluded as soon as the labour pains commence. The 



bhuiyIb, bhuInhIb. 90 

umbilical coi-d is merely severed and allowed to dry, when it is 
taken out and buried in the jungle by the sister-in-law in attend- 
ance. The cord retains some mystic significance. Thus a common 
phrase in quarrels about land is i^a tuhdr ndr e men gdral gapal-^ 
" was your cord buried here that you claim this land ?" The cord 
usually bills off ; and is buried on the third day after delivery. The 
day it) falls off her sister-in-law bathes the mother and child^ who 
are again bathed on the expiry of a month from the date of delivery. 
On that day the sister-in-law cleans and replasters the delivery 
room il^aur), and receives from the child's father a sheet {flrkma)^ as 
her remuneration^ as well as a piece of cheap jewelry. On that day 
the mother is pure^ and cooks for the family and nei^ibonrs of the 
clan. The husband does not again cohabit with his wife for two or 
three months after her confinement.^ 

13. Until children are married it does not matter from whose 

hand they take food : after marriage they are 

Marriage ceremonies. ,i.n. - . , ^7- m. 

obliged to conform to caste regulations. The 
marriage negotiations commence by some old man of the tribe or 
the boy's father going to inspect the girl. Then the husband 
of the bridegroom's sister goes to her with five sen of liquor 
and two rupees^ thus concluding the betrothal^ which is known 
among them ^s puchhdwat or ^Hhe asking." If the bride's father 
accepts the proposal^ he summons his clansmen and distributes the 
liquor among them. At the same time they are given a dinner of 
goat's flesh and rice, which is provided by the boy's father. After thirf, 
on a day fixed by the girl's father, the boy's paternal uncle goes 
again with two vessels, each containing five sers of liquor, and takes 
with him three nipees in cash. This finally concludes the betrothal, 
which is known as bajardwat or "strengthening," and barrekhi^ or 
" the marking down of the bridegroom. " This liquor and money 
are used in entertaining the clansmen of the bride and the envoy of 
the bridegroom. Next the bride's father presses some oil with his 
own hands and sends it to the boy's house. This is mixed with 
turmeric, and the bridegroom is daily anointed with it by his female 
relations. In the same way the boy's father presses some oil and 
sends it for the use of the bride. After this a suitable date is fixed 
by mutual arrangement, and the bridegroom comes with his prooes- 
sion to the door of the bride. Outside the door the bride's mother 



* Wustormarck, Hittory of Human Marriage, 183. 



91 BHUITJLb, BHUtMHAa. 

standB with her feet in a basket, and holde in one hand a rice pestle 
(miiial), and in the other a brass tray {ikdli)^ containing some cot- 
ton with the seed and a lighted lamp. She moves the pestle 6v8 
times round the boy^s head from left to right and five times again 
from right to left, and pours the cotton over his head. Next she 
warms her hands twice over the lamp and presses them on the boy's 
cheeks, and kisses his lips. After this the boy does salutation 
(jpdelagi) to her. She then leads the bridegroom into the inner 
room, where the girl sits in a comer. He sits there silent for some 
time. At last some women friends who are also sitting there say,— 
'' GKve the boy what he has come for. ** Then her mother makes 
the bride stand up and seats her to the left of the bridegroom. This 
done, the boy returns to his friends, and the bride again retires into 
her corner, A couple of hours after the pair are seated on two leaf- 
mats in the courtyard, facing east. Both are stripped by the 
women, well rubbed with a mixture of oil and turmeric, and dressed 
in new clothes. After this the boy's party are fed, and liquor is dis- 
tributed. That night they spend in singing and dancing the ia- 
rama or national dance. Next day they meet again, the friends of 
bride and bridegroom sitting in a line opposite each other. The 
boy's father produces the bridegroom before the bride's people ; and 
saysy— " Look I has he any physical defect ? " The bride's father 
replies,—" No ! there is nothing wrong with him." In the same way 
the bride's father produces the bride for examination, and tlie bride- 
groom's taiher admits that she has no phynical defect. All this is 
done in the courtyard outside the nuptial pavilion {md^ro). Then a 
mock struggle commences between the bride and bridegroom. He 
tries to put a bracelet on her wrist, and hhe clenches her hand, so that 
he is unable to got it on. Her friemk shout out, — " Her hand can 
never be opened until you swear that you will take care of lu*r and 
never give her trouble. " Finally, when the bridegroom makes the 
necessary promise, the girl opens her hand, and allows the bracelet 
to be put on her wrist. Then the boy pours a little liquor on her feet, 
and after another mock btruggle marks the parting of her hair with 
red lead. There are no re\'olutions in the ]«vilion, and tiiis consti* 
tutee the marriage. The bridegroom then brings tlie briile home. 
When they reach his house his mother receives the bride in the same 
way in which the bridegroom was rocvived liy the bride's mother, 
and takes tier innide the liouse, wliere, after fettling the clani^nien, the 
clotlies of the pair are fai^eneil in a knot, an*! they ilance togvtlier in 



BHTJIYAR, BHTjtNHlE. 92 

the courtyard. The binding part of the ceremony is patting on the 
marriage bracelet^ and applying rod lead to the parting of the bride's 
hair. Even after the ceremonies already described of pucAJ^dwaf, 
bajardtoaty or barrekhi, the marriage can be stopped. If the bride's 
people break ofE the marriage they are compelled to return the bride* 
price. The form of marriage already described is known as ^ilar- 
hautoa or " the ofEering, *' as the bride is offered to the bridegroonu 
This is the respectable form ; but besides this, the form known as 
sagdi is in force. In this case the lover sends a friend to procure 
the consent of the bride's father. When this is granted, he goes to 
her house with ten rupees in cash, and five \iert of liquor, llie 
girl's friends drink the liquor, and the money is given to her father, or 
if her father be dead, to her elder brother. Then the man spreads 
out his hands over that of the woman, and her brother pours some 
water over the hands of both. This constitutes the marriage cere- 
mony, and the bridegroom goes home at once, followed by the bride. 
When they reach his house his mother comes out with a vessel 
(loia) of water, washes the bridegroom's feet, and blesses him with 
long life. Then she washes the feet of the bride, who puts her fore- 
head on the feet of her mother-in-law. The old woman tries to 
raise her up, but she will not get up until she receives a present 
known as " the sacrifice ^' (balddn). Then the old woman says, — " I 
makeover the house and all it contains to you. '' On this the bride 
releases her feet, and her mother-in-law takes her into the boose, and 
makes everything over to her. That day the young wife cooks for 
the family and friends. This sagdi form is something like the dola 
of low class Hindus, and is practised by people who cannot afford a 
regular marriage. 

14. No one is allowed to die in the house.^ People who die of 
_ . cholera and small-T>ox and unmarried persons 

Deftth oeremomes. *• 

are buried ; all others are cremated. They 
have regular cemeteries in the neighbourhood of their villages. The 
corpse is cremated on the edge of an adjoining stream. Very 
often, however, cremation is very carelessly performed, and inepidem- 
ics corpses are exposed in the jungle to be eaten by wild animals. 
Next day the ashes are collected and floated away {terMfdma) by 
throwing them into the water. On the third day the relation who 
fired the pyre goes with the clansmen to the river, and they shave 



1 Tylor, Primiiivt Culiurt, I., 453. 



93 bhuiyIb bhuIkhAb. 

one another. '1 hat day a date is fixed for tiie funeral feast, when 
they aBsemble at the house of the deceased, and a little oil and tur- 
meric are given them, which they rub into their bodies. From the day 
of the funeral the women of the family place some food on the 
road by which the corpse was removed.^ This is discontinued from 
the night preceding the date of the funeral feast. On that day a 
oppful of food and a cup of oil are taken by the oldest woman of 
the family to the cremation place and thrown into the water. 
When she comes home a goat is sacrificed in the house in the 
name of the deceased, and in the evening the clansmen are fed on 
the flesh of the victim boiled with rice. 

15. The souls of the dead, that is to say those of a dead father 

and mother, for more distant progenitors are 

A]io««tor worship. % ^^ • i * i i • 

hardly ever reoogmzed, are feared and reqmre 
propitiation. If not duly worshipped they appear in dreams, frighten 
the sleeper, and sit on his chest and throat like the nightmare. 
Most diseases and misfortunes are due to their displeasure. The 
annual sacrifice of a goat and fowl is made to them by the house 
master in the month of A^^ian (November-December). Poor people 
who cannot afford a victim wash some rice and pulse and scatter it 
in the courtyard in the name of the dead. 

16. They call themselves Hindus. Their tribal god is called 

Sewanriya and appears originally to be a deity 
of boundaries (#crtri««). Some worship Dhar- 
ti or Mother-earth, and some MahAdeva. They have a vague idea of 
a place of torment after death, a pit full of snakes and scorpions 
known as kiragarh or the ^Vorm pit -/' but it is doubtful how far 
this may not be some vague reminiscence of missionary teaching.' 
In the month of Aghan, when they worship the sainted deail, they 
offer to these deities liquor, fowls, and goats. They believe that this 
worship protects children and cattle from disease, and prevents the 
latter from straying. This worship is not shared in by the women 



* Tylor. Ptimilitt, CuUurt, II , SO. 

* At Ui« asoM tim* thm ii<»«ma to be a re*] b«Uef of Um 8aiit4b. Hunter, Rurml 
B€n9al,2\0; awl M« Tylor, trituitiv^ Cttaur^, II, 97, and Prufe«««ir Mai MiiUer 
writM :~** In the Vedic arr<nint« «*f bell a pit (karin\ le meniu»niNl into wbioh ibe 
Uwl«ee are aaid to be harlvd down (Aiy I'tdo, IX, 73, 8), and intu wbieb Indra «Mta 
tboee wbo offer no eacrificr {Kif IVa, I., 121, 13). One poet prays that the Aditjaa 
mmj pre eerre him from the d4etrc»7inf wolf and frum fnllinf into the pit (Ri^ r#4«, 
IL, V, S). In oae paeaairo we r«^ that those who l»r««k the eoauDAsdoienta of Var- 
«Ba asd wbo epeak liee are born fur thai deep place {H%^ l'e«la, IV. &, &.).** C/. 
B««or, 7. 



BHUIYAR, BHTJINHIe, 94 

and children^ and is done by the headman of the ^mily^ if a Baiga. 
They have nothing to say to Brahmans^ for whom they entertain 
contempt.^ The Brahmans, they say, were the drummers of Bima's 
army in his campaign against Riwana. As they were crossing the 
sea their di-ums {mdndar) which^ like the aboriginal drums of the 
present time, were made of baked earthy melted away in the water, 
and the strings which supported them became the Brahmans' sacred 
cord (janeu). They do not keep priests of any other tribe ; and have 
no regular temple. As already stated^ the ancestor worship is done 
by the head of the family, who if ^ as is usually the case^ he is a Baiga, 
does the worship to Sewanriya^ Dharti^ and Mahadeva. Most 
Bhuiyars are Baigas^ and officiate in their own as well as allied tribes ; 
in fact^ as already stated^ one general name for the tribe is Baiga. 
The tribal gods are usually worshipped under a pipal tree^ where a 
piece of stope represents all the deities collectively. The flesh of the 
offerings is eaten by the worshippers^ except the]head, which is the 
perquisite of the Baiga. 

17. They have two {special holidays on the tenth of the light 

half of Ku§r^ and the Phamia or Holi at the 

Festivals. - Tk, ai , , , 

full moon of Phalgun, but they do not bum 
the Holi fire, although they will attend if Hindus in the neighbour* 
hood celebrate the festival. On both these festivals they offer a 
fire sacrifice [hom)^ and worship the sainted dead with an offering of 
fowls and liquor, which they drink freely on these occasions. In 
order to provide for the dead in the next world they throw on the 
pyre with the corpse some iron implement, usually an axe, and when 
they bury the dead, they throw it into the grave. It is not broken; 
with women they place a sickle (hansua) and when they collect the 
ashes they throw some kodo and sdwdn millet over the place as food 
for the dead. They so far follow Hindu pi^actice as to have a cere- 
mony (&arsi) on the anniversary of a death. In the house worship 
a mud platform or stone is the dwelling place of the ghosts of the 
dead. Sewanriya is regarded as a jungle deity, and abides in any 
tree which is selected for the purpose. They never go on pilgri- 
mages to Gaya, and have nothing analogous to the Hindu srdddk: 



1 Thix ccndition in which thuro are no priests and the roligioas datiet are per* 
formed by the houne father is undoubtedly primeval. It was tho case among the 
Homeric Greeks where Agamemnon himself performs tho sacrifice (Iliad, III. 271, 
and compare W lis ^.n, Vrc/ace tj Vuunu Purdna,2, Virgd Aineid 111,80, QetasU, 
XIV, 17. 



95 BHUITAr, BHUtNHlB. 

18. They have a great respect for iron above all other metals. 

They hold the Ikdnja or Bister's son in great 
honour^ and make periodical presents to him as 

Hindus do to a Brfihman.^ Ihese presents always include some iron 

article. 

19. Of the tribe whom he calls Bhuinhirs Colonel Dalton says :— 

Appaarmnoe, clothM, " '^^^Y ^® ^^^^ ^^^ lowcst type of human 
tattooing. beings I have ever come across in my wan- 

derings, and I have had more opportunities than most people of 
seeing varieties of race. They are very daik, (41, about the average), 
faces, or rather heads, altogether round as bullets, projecting jaws 
and Ups, scarcely any prominence of nose, pig's eyes, large bodies, 
and small limbs, no muscular development, very short of stature, 
not one of them more than live feet, very filthy in their persons, with 
diseased skins and sore eyes. One creature, an adult male of a group 
which appeared before me at Moheri, in Sarguja, looked to me like a 
disgustingly superannuated black baby. Baby-like, his round head 
rolled about his shoulders on a very short and unnaturally weak neck. 
You could imagine his proper place to bo bundled up in a cloth slung 
from the shoulders of his black mother, his head helplessly rolling 
about after the manner of native infants thus supported. They 
speak Hindi plainly enough, but ap{)car as devoid of ideas as they 
are of beauty. They adore the sun and their ancestors, but they 
have no notion that the latter are now spirits, or that there are 
spirits or ghosts or anything. They have no veneration for a tiger, 
but regard him as a dangerous enemy, whom it is their interest to 
slay whenever they have the opportunity. They were asked to 
dance, and did so ; but it was atJngularly feeble, motiveless perform- 
ance. Men and women were s<*antily clothed, and appeared to 
take no thought for their personal ap|)earance. The hair, uncared- 
for, was nuitted and rusty oolourod. The Bhuinhirs in Palamau are 
said to be good cultivators ; but I believe this means they are very 
docile farm labourers and beasts of burden. They ap|)ear to have no 
independence of cliaracter, and are for the most part in ser\'itude or 
bondage, and content so to remain. If we have now in existence the 
descendants of human lieings of the stfme age, here I would hay are 
specimens. Tliey remind me much of the t«{iecimens I liave seen of 



1 Thin iituy |Mf«ibly b« a ■urvtval kI ibv nuitrurcLAtc , tee LubUick, Ori^imof 
CiH/wadcn. lift. 



bhuiyIb, bhtjInhAr; 96 

the Andamanese/' ^ These are certainly in every way a moie 
degraded race than the Bhutyars o{ Mirzapar who in appearance do 
not seem to differ much from the other Dravidian tribes by whom 
they are surrounded. They rather resemble the people whom Colo- 
nel Dalton calls Boyars. " In complexion,'' he says, " I found the 
Boyars generally of a dark brown colour, fairly proportioned, and 
averaging upwards of five feet in height. The features were char- 
acterised by great breadth across the cheek bones, very narrow fore- 
head^ nose broad; nostrils wide apart, but the nasal bone more pro- 
minent than in the types previously described ; the mouth so wide 
as neai'ly to equal the space occupied by both eyes, lipe protuberant, 
chin receding, but not so the brow. There was more appearance of 
hair on the face than is generally found amongst the tribes of this 
class.'^' The Mirzapur people are also much better dressed than 
theii* Bengal kinsmen. The men wear a small loin cloth, gene- 
rally have an upper sheet and a cloth wrapped round the head, the 
hair of which is allowed to hang down uncut and unkempt behind. 
The women wear the single white cotton cloth (dAoH) wrapped 
round the waist and brought over the shoulders. A few wear a 
small boddice. The women tattoo themselves in the manner com- 
mon to all these aboriginal tribes.^ There is no tribal tattoo, and 
the pattern employed is according to the taste of the wearer. 
Tattooing is invested with some religious significance ; if a woman 
is not tattooed Paramesar pitches her down from heaven when she 
dies. The women wear on their arms brass rings (tudtki^ bakunta), 
anklets {p^iiri), in the ears palm leaf ornaments {farii , with beads 
made of clay round the neck. The men have small brass earrings. 
20. Their lucky omens are the tiger and the elephant. They 
^ Av -4 u have not the Hindu prejudice a^inst the 

Omens, oatoa, wit h- * •' ^ 

craft, Evil Eye. south as an unlucky quarter. They swear 

on their sons' heads, and if they forswear themselves their sons 
die. These oaths are used in enquiries into tribal matters. They 
are much witch-ridden. The Baigas hate people with a reputation 
for witchcraft (ionaya), and expel them, if possible, from their 
villages. DigeafcC is usually cauBcd by the attacks of ghosts {b^^f) : 
these are idcntiiled by the Ojha, who places some rice (aeikai) 



» DeMcriptive Ethnology, 133. 

s Ibid, 135. 

> See Agariya, para. 22. 



07 BHriTlK, BHufKHlK. 

before him. Then he and the patient get into an ecstacy, and the 
Ojha asks the bhftt: — "What worship {pija) do you require to 
ht this man go?" Whatever he announces must be done. 
Dreams never mean anything except that one of the sainted dead 
needs propitiation. The meaning is interpreted by some oH woman 
in the &mily. They believe in the Evil Eye. Anyone bora 
on a Saturday has the power of casting it. Cases of this kind are 
made over to the Baiga, who sacrifices a victim and secures relief. 
21. They will not touch a Dhobi, a Chamir, Dharkir, Dom, or 

Ghasiya: nor the wife of the younger brether^ 
the wife's elder sister, paternal uncle's wife^ 
and a female connection through the marriage of children (iamdkin)-. 
They eat beef, but in secret they will in fact eat any meat except 
that of the ass^ the horse, the camel, snake, lusard, rat, and jackal. 
Women do not eat pork/ and they will not cook it in the cook- 
house where the sainted dead are worshipped. Men and women 
eat apart ; first the children eat, then the men^ of whom the head of 
the family eats last, and last of all the women. They always eat 
in leaf vessels. They all chew tobacco : even children five and six 
years old may be seen chewing. All drink liquor, but drunkenness 
is considered discreditable. They do not use opium or the drugs 
Mtfffy and gdnja. 

22, Among themslves they salute in the form known as 

pdSlagi. If the husband is any time absent, 
■utoa. on his return his wife touches his feet with 

her hands. Chamirs are the highest caste who will eat food 
touched by them. They carry their contempt for Brftbmans so 
far that they will not eat food touched by them, and if a Br&hman 
handle one of their water vessels they will ptt<& it out of the 
house. Their usual business b cutting wood and bamboos, and ool- 
lecting silk cocoons, lac, dyes, and other jungle produce. It is only 
quite recently that they have taken to eating anything bat jungle 
fruits. Now some of them cultivate, and as their name shows they 
are fond of the dak^ti form of cultivation, cutting and burning tha 
jungle. They have a field goddess, Khetiyir Devi, whom they pro* 
pitiate with the offering of goat or a fowl. The women are reputed 
chaste in married life as far as intercourse with strangers to the 
oaste is concerned, but there is certainly a \'ery eon^iderable amotint 



• Aaoiif tkt MahiU XaadM pork b Uboo*d. BUtoy. Trihm ««<l C««<m, II., It. 
Vol. 11. a 



BHUETIYA. 98 BIDUA. 

of intertribal immorality. They have a &ir]y etrong looal organ- 
ization which embraces some three or four villages^ and is known 
as ''the unity'' {eii). The members meet occasionally to discuss 
matters of general interest. Its influence is said now to be decreaa- 
ing. They are notorious for their laziness in field work^ and for 
their readiness to abscond and leave their village on the first signs 
of scarcity. 

23. The Bhuiyars do not appear to have been separately recorded 
at the last Census. They have apparently been confused with the 
iBrfthman Rajput Bhuinhllrs of the Gangetic valley. 

Bhnrtiya* — A small tribe founds according to the last Census, 
only in Allahabid^ but there are some certainly in the hill country 
of Mirzapur. The origin of tiie name is very uncertain. Mr. 
Nesfield without much probability derives it from biar$i karma, 
''to lend money for short periods/' They say themselves that it 
comes from bhurtij which is the same as phurti, "quickness,'' 
because one of their ancestors was once in such a hurry to go to an 
entertainment that she put her ornaments on all awry, and her 
descendants have been called Bhurtiya ever since. They claim to be 
an offshoot of the Ahirs^ whom they closely resemble in appearance 
and customs. They are very respectable, industrious people, and 
make their livelihood by cultivation and rearing cattle. 

Distribution of the Bhurtit/aM aeeording to tie Census of 1891. 



District. 



Allah&b&d 



Number. 



483 



Bidna.— A functional division of Brahmans, the consecrator of 
images and idols^ wells, tanks, and mango orchards. " His name 
seems a corruption of Yidya, an ancient synonym for Veda. The 
dol intended for consecration undergoes various forms of ablation : 
first in water from some sacred river, then in paneiamrita or ' five 
drinks of immortality '-*milk,cream, melted butter, honey, and sogar 
dissolved in holy water. No one is allowed to bathe in a tank, 
drink water from a well, or eat the fruit of an orchard until the 
above liquids have been thrown into them. Br&hmans are also 



BIDUA* 99 MHISnTZ. 

fed, and the homa sacrifioe performed. At Buch times seven places 
are assigned, — (a) for ihe navaffraka, the nine planets including the 
son and moon; {b) the asterisms (naktialra) ; {c) the seven saints 
(Sapta Biihi ) ; {d) the three hundred and thirty millions of deities 
of the Hindu pantheon ; {e) the ancestral ghosts {niiri) ; (/) the 
deities of the quarters (difyaii^ dikpdia) ; (g) the sacred rivers of 
India and of the celestial firmament. '^^ 

BihishtL^ (Usually derived from Persian hikuhi, Sansknt 
wanslHka, " Paradise ; ^' but Major Temple points out' that bikUhti 
in Persian docs not mean waterman, and suggests a derivation 
from the Sanskrit 9i#i, to sprinkle.)— The Musalmln water-carrier 
class, also known as Saqqa^ from the Arabic taqqi, " to give 'to 
drink/' The caste does not admit outsiders, and has a large 
number of exogamous sections, of which one hundred and twenty-six 
are returned in the lists of the last Census. Many of these are 
well-known Muhammad an subdivisions, such as the AbljfUi, 
Bahltmi, Bangash, fiegi, FirQqi, Ghori, Hanafi, Khurat^aui, 
Quraishi, Mughal, Path An, Shaikh, Sadfqi, ^ayyid, Turki, and Tur- 
komin, to which none of the caste can have any real claim. Many are 
the names of Hindu tribes, as Bais, Banjara, Bhatti, Chauh&n, Gaur, 
OAjar, Ouil, Jidon, Janghira, Jftt, Katheriya, MewAti, Mukeri, 
Panwir, and Tomar. Others, i^ain, are local, as Dilliwal, (i anga- 
piri, and Kanaujiya. These sections appear, however, to have Uttle 
or no effect on marriage. 

2. Their marriages are regulated by the standard MuhammaJan 

exogamic formula, and performed by the 

regular ritual. The lerirate is |)ermitted, but 

is not compulsory. Divorce is permited in the cause of proved 

infidelity on the part of the wife, established to the satisfaction of 

tbe tribal oounciL 

S. To the east of the Province they worship the PInehonpir 

with a sacrifice of a fowl, gram pulse, and 
ordinary food« They bury their dead accord* 
ing to the standard Muhammadan rules, and offer food to the sjiirits 
of ancestors at tlie festival of the Shab-i-barit. They are Mutal* 
mins of tbe Sunni sect. They worship their leathern water liag 
{wuulk) as a sort of fetish, and bum incense ( uUt) before it oa 



I NeaA«ld, BrUf fisw, ftS. Bq : C^lcuHa tUruw, CLXVI1.,2SI. 
' ind%a% Aniiquary, XI, 117. 

YoIm IL of 



BIHISHTI. 



100 



Ocoapatloo. 



Fridays. Thejr oonform to Muhammaclaii roles regarding food* 
They will eat food prepared by high class Hindus, bat not by 
menials like Cham&rs or Mehtars. 

4. Their occupation is acting as domestic senrants and supplying 

water on payment to Muhammadans and 
Christians, — a duty which Cor Hindus is per- 
formed by the Kah&r. The trade must be a very ancient one, as the 
leather bag is mentioned in the Yeda and Manxu^ There is a legend 
that the Bihishti who saved Hum&yun's life at Chausa, and was 
rewarded by sitting on the Imperial throne for half a day , employed 
his short tenure of power in providing for his family and friends, 
and caused his leather bag to be cut up into rupees, which were 
gilt and stamped with his name and the date of his reign. 
The Bihishti is very seldom before the CourtSi and enjoys with 
the Kharadi or turner the reputation of never being sent to 
jail. 



Distribution of Biiisiits according to tie Cemmi of 1891. 



DiSTBICT. 


Number. 


DitTBIOT. 


Number. 


Dehra DAn. • • 


127 


Etali .... 


4266 


8ah4raQpnr • • • 


4,203 


Bareilly . • • • 


1,9M 


Mnzafiarnagar. . 


4.920 


BiJQor • • • • 


8^6 


Meenit . . • • 


10.224 


BudAun • • • • 


%IC7 


Bnlandshahr. • • 


7.977 


MoridAbAd . 


9,380 


AliK^rh • • • . 


12.278 


SbAhjabAnpur • • 


S50 


MathoTB • • « • 


6.263 


Pilibhlt .... 


605 


Agra .... 


10,673 


Cawnpor • • • 


418 


Farrnkh&b&d . 


291 


Fatebpor . • 


S07 


Mainpuri .... 


1,111 


B&nda . • • • 


68 


£t&w»h .... 


673 


Hamlrpar • • • 


78 



IWUmu, Rig Ffda. II., 28: Mmnu, Imlitutei, 11.99. Tbero la aa iatoraaMiir 
aeeonnt ff tbe manner in, wbioh water waa sappUed and ocoled in Akbar'a Coart ia 
Bloohmann, Ain^Akhari, I., 65, $q. 



BmiSHTI, 



101 BILOGH, BALOCH, BILUOH. 



DUtMuiion qf BikUJUu aeeordimg to iks Comiui qf 1891^ooot\i. 



DifTBICT. 



AllfthibAd • 

JbAofli 

JAkmn 



Ghiiipor 



Ooimkhpiir 
Aiimgtrh 
Tarii 
Lnoknov • 



Number' 



870 

442 

99 

6 

46 

26 

865 

6 

8 

664 

1,405 



DimicT. 




Number. 


Unio . . . . 


90 


RAaBareli 






55 


Sttapar • 






819 


Hardoi • 






18 


Kheii • 






8U 


FaitibAd 






68 


Qonda • 






17 


BAbrAioh 






844 


SnltAnpar 






95 


PkrlAbgarh 


» « 




9 


BAraUaki . 


4 




878 




TOTAI 




60.147 



Biloch, Baloch, Bilach.— IdentiBed by Professor Max Mailer^ 
with the Sanskrit mleekekka^ " a foreigner, outcast, non- Aryan.''-* 
The enumeration at the last Census has failed to discriminate 
between two different though probably original ly-al bed races— 
the ordinary Bilooh and the predatory Bilooh or Rind of the 
Districts of the Upper Duib. Another theory of the origin of the 
name is given by Colonel Mockler in a paper published in the Pro* 
e$edim§i of tk$ Jiiatie Soeielf of Bengal for 1893 :— 

** This paper is mainly concerned with the Rind, one of the 
tribes or clans inhabiting BalochistAn. Their name signifies 'a 
turbulent, reckless, daring man/ They have never acknowledged 
the authority of any ruler in the country. They claim to be the 
true Baloch, and assert that they originally came from 'Alaf,' 
which is supposed by themselves and most other people to be Ilaleb 
or AleppOi in Syria. They say that they are Arabs of the tribe of 
Quraish, and were driven out from Alaf by Yeiid I., for assisting 



I L#diif«i» I^ 97, aoce. 



BILOOH, BALOOH, BILUOH. 102 

Husain^ the martyr nephew of the Prophet Muhammad in 61 Hi j rah. 
The author shows, however, from some Arab authorities that the 
Baloch were established in Makran more than a century before the 
commencement of the Muhammadan era, certainly so if , as Firdusi 
relates, Naushirwan punished them in Makran in 550 A. D., and still 
more certainly that they were located there within 22 years after 
its commencement, and that therefore, if the Rinds left Aleppo 
in the time of Yezid I., about 61 H., the Baloch were in Makran 
before that date* But it is doubtful whether the Rinds ever came 
from Aleppo, or that they are Baloch at all. It is much more 
probable that they are the descendants of a certain Al Harith Al 
^Alafi, that is of Harith of the 'Alafi tribe, and of the Kahtauic stock 
of Arabs. He was the father of two men, who, according to Tabary, 
in a blood feud killed an officer who had been appointed by Al Hajjaj, 
the Governor of Iraq, to the charge of Makran, in 65 Hijrah. They 
had come from 'Uman, and after the murder took possession of 
Makran. Subsequently, about 86 Hijrah, they retired before 
a punitive force ot Al Hajj&j into Sindh, where their name is 
conspicuous in the annals of the country for the next 200 years or 
so. This, and other facts, show that the Rinds really are of Arab 
descent, but that they did not come from Aleppo, bat are descended 
from a man of the ^Alafi tribe who came from 'Uman ; and that 
they are not of the Quraish but the Kahtan stock* On account <^ 
their undoubted Arab descent, the Rinds are held in very high 
respect by the other clans of Baluchistan who, therefore, all claim 
to be related to them, through one Jalal Kh^n, an ancestor of the 
Rinds. Among the sons of this Jal^l, Makran is said to have been 
divided after the death of Al Hajjaj. With regard to the name 
Baloch, Colonel Mcickler suggests its identity with the Gedroeii 
of the Greeks. He says that the Baloch themselves explain their 
name by the phrase ' Balovk B^idroch ' (or BaHroik). Here ^«(i 
means * evil,' and rock or roih means ' day/ In Fahlavi or Sfend qad 
is synonymous with bad ; therefore Badrosh=^/i//ro#^ or padros, 
whence the Greek Gedrosii. By the interchange x)f the liquids 
r and /, badroch would become badloch^ out of which the d must 
naturally drop leaving the BaloeA=: the Gadrosii, or on the other 
hand, the proverbial expression [Badroeh Baloch) may have been 
current in the time of the Greeks in the form of Baioch Oodrosi,- 
and the Greeks confused the epithet with the name. 



103 BILOOUi BALOCB, BILIJOH. 

The latter would then be derived from Belns, Kinp^ of Babylon^ 
m derivation which is adopted by Professor Rawlinson/^ 

£. Of the ordinary Biloch Mr. Ibbetson writes^ : — " The Biloch 

presents in many respects a very strong con* 
nary i . ^^^^ ^^^ j^.^ neighbour, the Path&n. The 

political organisation of each is tribal : but while the one yields a 
very large measure of obedience to a chief who is a sort of limited 
monarch, the other recognises no authority save that of a council of 
the tribe. Both have most of the virtues and many of the vices 
peculiar to a wild and semi-civilized life. To both hospitality is a 
sacred duty and the safety of the guest inviolable ; both look upon 
the exaction of blood for blood as the first duty of man ; both strict- 
ly follow a code of honour of their own^ though one very difCercnt 
from that of modem Europe ; both believe in one God whose name 
is Allih, and whose Prophet is Muhammad. But the one attacks 
bis enemy from in front, the other from behind ; the one is bound 
by his promise, the other by his interests ; in short the Biloch is 
less turbulent, less treacherous, less blood-thirsty, and less fana- 
tical than the Pathin ; he has less of God in his creed, and less of 
the devil in his nature. His frame is shorter and moie spare and 
wiry than that of his neighbour to the north, though generations 
of independence have given to him a bold and manly bearing. 
Frank and open in his manners and without servility, 6urly truth- 
ful when not corrupted by our Courts, faithful to his word, tem- 
pertte and enduring, and looking upon courage as the highest 
virtue, the true Biloch of the Derajftt frontier is one of the pleasant- 
est men we have to deal with in the Panjib. As a revenue-payer 
he is not so satisftu^ory, his want of industry and the pride which 
looks upon manual labour as degrading, making him but a poor 
hu&bandman. He is an expert rider ; horse-racing is his national 
amusement, and the Biloch breed of horses is celebrated through- 
out Northern India. He is a thief by tradition and descent ; but 
he has become much more honest under the civilizing influences of 
our rule. 

9, " His face is long and ovm\, his features finely cut, and his 
nose aquiline ; he wears his hair long and usually in oily curls, 
and lets his beard and whiskers grow, and he is very filthy in 
person, considering cleanliness as a mark of effeminacy. He uiiually 



> rcMJ^b Eihmogrmph^, 19i. 



MLOOH, BALOOH, BILTJOq; 104 

carries a sword, knife and shield, he wears a smock £rock reaching 
to his heels and pleated about the waist, loose drawers and a long 
cotton scarf : and all these must be as white or as near it as dirt 
will allow of, insomuch that he will not enter our army because he 
would there be obliged to wear a coloured uniform. His wife 
wears a sheet over her head, a long sort of nightgown reaching to 
her ankles, and wide drawers ; her clothes may be red or white; and 
she plaits her hair in a long queue. As the true Biloch is nomad in 
his habits, he does not seclude his women, but he is extremely jealous 
of female honour. In cases of detected adultery the man is killed,*and 
the woman hangs herself by order. Even on the war trail the women 
and children of his enemy are safe from him. The Biloch of the Hills 
lives in huts or temporary camps, and wanders with his herds 
from place to place. In the plains he has settled in small villages ; 
but the houses are of the poorest possible description. When m 
male child is bom to him, ass's dung in water, symboUcal of per« 
tinacity, is dropped from the point of a sword into his mouth before 
he is given the breast. A tally of lives is kept between the various 
tribes or families ; but when the account grows complicated it can 
be settled by betrothals, or even by payment of cattle. The rules 
of inheritance do not follow the Isl&mic law, but tend to keep the 
property in the family by confining succession to agnates ; though 
some of the more leading and educated men are said to be tr3ring 
to introduce the Muhammadan laws of inheritance into their tribes. 
The Biloch are nominally Musalm&n, but singularly ignorant of 
their religion and neglectful of its rites and observances; and 
though they once called themselves, and were called by old his- 
torians ' friends of Ali,' and though, if their acooxmt of their rejeo- 
tion from Arabia be true, they must have been originally Shiahs, 
they now belong, almost without exception, to the Sunni seot. 
Like many other Musalm&n tribes of the frontier they claim to be 
Quraishi Arabs by ori^n, while some hold them to be of Tnrkomin 
stook : their customs are said to support the latter theory ; their 
features certainly favour the former/' 

4. In the Muzaffamagar District they are also known as Bind. 

Th. oriminJ BUooh of " "^^^^ originally emigrated from the F^ib ; 
the North- Western Pro- that they are professional thieves of a dan* 

gerous character is now well established. 
They depart on their predatory tours assuming the charaotwof 
&qirs, physicians, and teachers of the Qurin, and carry on their 



106 BILOCH, BALOCHi BILUOH. 



depredations at great distances as far southward as Ajmere and 
westward as Lahore. Some few in the MozafEamagar District 
have acquired landed property ; but the rest may be said to have no 
ostensible means of livelihood and to be habitual absentees. Their 
mode of robbery is not by violence^ but by picking locks with 
needles. One thief makes an entry^ receiving two-thirds of the 
property as his share^ while his confederate^ who sits outside to 
watch, receives one-third.'' ^ The same people there called Biloeh 
are found in Ambftla and Elam&l. " Duting the rainy season the 
whole country is inundated for months. A more suitable strong* 
hold for a criminal tribe could not be imagined. They are almost 
certainly of true Biloeh origin, and still ^ve their tribal names as 
Bind, Lashari, Jatoi, and Korai. But they are by their habits 
quite distinct from both the land-owning Biloeh and the camel* 
driver, who is so commonly called Biloeh simply because he is a 
camel-driver. They are described as coarse-looking men of a dark 
colour, living in a separate quarter, and with nothing to distinguish 
them from the scavenger caste except a profusion of stolen orna- 
ments and similar property. They say that their ancestors once 
lived bcyound Kas&r, in the Lahore District, but were driven out on 
account of their marauding habits. The men still keep camels and 
cultivate a little land as their ostensible occupation ; but during a 
^^t part of the year they leave the women^ who are strictly 
fiecluded at home, and wander about disguised as Faktrs or as 
butchers in search of sheep for sale, extending their excursions to 
great distances, and apparently to almost all parts of India.'' ' 

Ditifibuiian of tie Biloeh aeeording to He Cen$ut of 1891. 



DiSTBICT. 



I)«hrm DOo 
Sahiranpar 
MmaffarDtgar. 
Ifefrnt • 
Bulandibahr « 
Aligarh . • 



Number. 



41 

1,071 

1,945 
•If 



DiSTBICT. 



Matbua • 

Agra • 

Farrnkbibid • 

Mainpori • 
EUwah • 
Blah • 



Niiinbtr« 



067 

S81 

60 

78 

«7 



1 HtpoH, /lupMloTiO^Mral c/ PoliM, VprU-ffcitoni FrMacct^ 1867 
s Ibbttooa, Uc. tiU^ paia. S8I» 

V0L.IL 



paff w% tf • 



DILOCH, BALOCH, BILITCH. 106 



BIND. 



Distribution of the Biloch according to the Census •/ 1891 ^^oncli. 



District. 


Number. 


District. 


Nomber. 


Bareillj . . • . 


11 


Ballia . 

1 




216 


Bijncr • • • • 


815 


Gorakhpnr • 




809 


BndAun • • • • 


434 

1 


Basti . 




116 


Morftd^bM . 


480 


Azamgarh • 




325 


8b4hjah&iipnT • • • 


425 


Tar&i . 




823 


Pilibhft . . • • 


231 

1 


Lnoknow. 




823 


Cawnpur • • • • 


87 1 

1 


UnAo . 




86 


B4nda • • • • 


12 


Sltapur • • , 




178 


Hamirpor 


7 


Hardoi • • , 




170 


AlUh&bfld. 


113 


Kheri . • , 




306 


JhlLiisi • • • • 


4 >! 


Gonda • • < 




95 


J&IauQ • • • • 


59 


Babr&ich • • . 




79 


Benares • • • • 


153 ; 


SulUnpnr • , 




18 


Mirzapur.. • • 


22 


Part&bgarh . 




11 


JaanpuT . • • . 


314 


B&rabanki • • 




10 


Qh&zipur* • • • 


81 


Total 


19.678 



Bind.'— A non-Aryan tribe in the Eastern DistrictB of theDivi* 
bion^ and with scattered colonies elsewhere. The name is said to be 
derived from the Yindhya ^ hills of Central India. One legend quoted 
by Mr. Risley ' tells ^^ how a traveller passing by the foot of the hills 
heard a strange flute-like sound coming out of a dump of bamboos. 
He cut a shoot and took from it a fleshy substance^ which afterwaids 
grew into a man, the supposed ancestor of the Binds. The myth 
seems to be of atotemistic character, but other traces of totemismue 
not forthcoming/' One account in Mirzapur makes Bind, Kewat^ 
Mallfih, Luniya, Faskewata, Kuchbandhiya, and Musahar the 



I The word VindKya is probably derived from the root hind or hid, " to dlTidt," 
The nMne, aa U sng^itod by the Icgcud of Agastya Muni, soema to refer to Hhm 
nafo aa the main barrier against the Brahmanical exploitation of OeatnU |Ml4 
Southern India : see Profeesor Wilbon^ Worki, HI, 332. 

* TriJbtt and Caitei, 1, 131. 



f >^¥^ 




107 BIKD. 

descendants of NikhSd, who was produced by the Rishis from the 
thigh of Rdja Vena. Another Mirzapur legend tells how, in the 
beginning of all things, Mahadeva made a lump of earth and endued 
it with life. The creature thus produced asked Mahftdeva what 
he should eat. The god pointed to a tank and told him to eat the 
fish and the wild rice {finui) which grew near the banks. Since 
then this is the food of the Binds. They have no traditions 
of emigration from any other part of the country. The exact 
position of the Binds is not easily determined. About Mirzapur 
there are two sub-castes, KharS and Dhusiya, the latter of whom 
probably take their name from Jhusi, an old town on the Ganges, in 
the AllahabtUl District.^ The KharS Binds call themselves Kewat, 
and there seems little doubt that they intermarry with other 
Kewats, Another story says Binds and Luniyas were formerly 
all Binds, and that the present Luniyas are descendants of a 
Bind who consented to dig a grave for a Muhammadan king, and 
was outcasted for doing so. Others, again, make out the Bind to 
be a sub-division of both the Bhar and Luniya.' There is, again, 
in Mirzapur, another division of them which is partly religious and 
partly local. The sub-caste of Khar£ Binds has three septs, the 
N&rayaniha, Panchopiriha, and Maiwarha. The Nardyaniha are 
worshippers of the orthodox Hindu gods, Mah^oa, Pirvati, Ma- 
hibir, or Ilanum^n, and, in particular, Satya Nirdyan or Vishnu. 
The Pinchopiriha are worshippers of the live saints of Islam, who 
ft^honld, according to orthodox belief, be Muhammad, l^li, Bibi Fati* 
ma, Hasan, and Ilusain. But most Binds name them (if they can 
name them at all), as Ghazi Miyan, Rajab Salar, SubhAn, Parihir, 
and Barahma or Barahna^ who apparently represents Ibrahim or 
Abraham. The Maiwarha themselves derive their name from the 
town of Man in the Azamgarh District. 

2. The last Census Returns show sixty-seven sub-castes. The 

progress attained in the Hinduising of the 

tribe IS shown by the use of Brahmanicai 

terms, like Garga, Kasii^gotra, and Joshi. Chain, Kewat, Mallah 

and Kharwar are side by side with Chauhin, GAjara, Jit, Maunaa, 

and Rawat. The most numerous sub-castes are the Jethm-ant or 



* Atatngarh StUnnent Ilfport^ 33, m|. 

* Jhtui waa the bMid qaartort of iho ecconirio fiija of HArbosf , for whom ••• 
EUioi, SuppUmtntal UioMury, t. «. 



BIND. 108 

*' Senior/' and the Kasipgotra. The Ehard Binds are very strong 
in Benares, Mirzapur, and Ghazipnr ; while the Eharw&r, Kanaa- 
jiya, and Maunas are found in some strength in Oh&zipar^ Ballia, 
and Gorakhpur, respectively. 

8. They have a tribal council {panehd^at) which may be som- 
^ ., , . ,. moned by any man with whom his castemen 

TnbaJ organisatioiL j. 

refuse to eat on the groimd of adultery, 
prostitution, or eating with a prohibited tribesman. It is presided 
over by a permanent president {mukkiga) who consults the 
members as assessors, but has the sole right of giving the final 
order, which consists, in case of conviction, of a sentence to give a 
certain number of feasts to the brethren. When a man seduces an 
unmarried girl, he and the father of his mistress give a joint feast, 
and the parties are then married. If a man conmiit adultery with 
a woman of a caste so respectable that high caste Hindus will 
drink water from their hands, lie is not excommunicated, but has 
to give a feast. If his mistress be of a caste from whose hands 
high caste Hindus will not drink, he is permanently expdled. 

4. In Mirzapur the N&riyaniha and P&nchapiriha septs are 

exogamous, and intermarry on equal terms: 

Marriage rules. i * • i 

they so far practise hypergamy that they 
give daughters to the Maiwarha, but do not take their daughters in 
return. This rule of exogamy is reinforced by the prohibition 
agiunst marrying a daughter into a family into which a son has 
been already married ; and it seems to be a general condition that 
marriage does not take place between families connected within the 
period of recollection of relationship, which is five or six g^neraticms. 
The two great sub-castes, Khard and Dhusiya, are endogamoos, and 
do not intermarry or eat together. The Mirzapur branch have now 
adopted adult marriages, which take place at the age of ten or twelve.^ 
Polygamy is permitted, but the tendency seems to be to restrict 
it to the case when the first wife becomes barren. Marriages 
are arranged by some of the seniors of the tribe, and the parties 
have no power of selection. No bride-price is paid, and the 
giving of a dowry , though permitted and approved, is not compnl« 
sory. Polyandry and concubinage with a woman not of the tribe 
are prohibited. Widows are remarried by the 9agdi form only to 
widowers, the match being arranged by the father or brother of the 



1 In Bengal they are in a traniition etage. Bislef, 7W6es and Cotter I., 1S1« 



1Q9 BIKD. 

The man goes to the house of the widow on an aospicioiui 
day, taking with him a yellow sheet and one or two articles of 
jewehry. These the bride puts on, and this is [the binding part 
of the oeremony. Her new husband then eats with the relations of 
his wife, takes her home next day, and feeds his clansmen. Child- 
ren by such a marriage are considered legitimate, and succeed on an 
•quality with children of a regular marriage. The levirate is 
permitted on the usual condition, that the younger brother of the 
deceased husband can claim the widow : if he declines the match 
she can marry a stranger, and in the latter case the property of the 
deceased husband with his children remains in the charge of their 
father's brother, who rears them and makes the property over to the 
sons when they attain puberty. They pretend to have a regular 
system of adoption like that of the higher castes : as a matter of 
practice, however, a sonless man can adopt only the son of his 
brother, and in preference of his elder brother. There is nothing 
peculiar about the rules of succession. Beena marriage {^kafyan^ 
mat) is recognised in the case of poor people when the son*in-]aw 
lives some time on probation in the house of his fakther-in-law. 
Intertribal infidelity on the part of husband and wife is thought 
little of, and divorce is practically unknown, except when ill-usage of 
an aggravated form accompanies adultery oh the part of the bus* 
band. A married woman detected in an intrigue with a man of 
another tribe is permanently expelled. She usually turns Muhanu 
madan or becomes a prostitute. 

5 There is no ceremony during pregnancy. The woman is deli* 

vered sitting on the ground facing any direo- 



Birth 

"^'^ tion except the south, the region of death. She 

is attended by a Chamiin widwif e, who cuts the cord, buries it in tho 
room, and lights a fire over the place, which is kept burning till 
the twelfth day. They have the usual extreme fear of pollution 
from the secretions after delivery or menstruation. The midwife 
attends till the sixth day, when the usual ekkaHi ceremony is done, 
and the woman is kept secluded till the twelfth day {d^raii) 
in charge of the barber's wife, when mother and child are bathed, 
all the family clothes washed, the house plastered, and the earthen 
vessels replaced. The mother then cooks for the family, and is pure. 
Her husband does not cohabit with her again for two months after 
her confinement. 



JBIND. 110 

6. The ceremony which marks the reception of the child into 

caste after which he or she must conform ^ 
tribal rules of eating and drinking is the ear* 

borings which is done in the fifth or sixth year. The occasion is 

marked by the use of choice food. 

7. Marriage is conducted with some pretence of observing 
the* orthodox Hindu ritual. The gii*Ps father commences the 
negotiations^ and when the question of prohibited degrees is settled, 
then comes what corresponds to the Hindu iilai, which is called 
" the day for drinking water*' ( pdni pine kd dim). The bride's 
father visits the house of the bridegroom, and sitting on a square 
(ehauk) in the court-yard, eats curds and treacle, which settles the 
match. All present are then feasted. Five days before the wedding 
day the ceremony of " the lucky earth *' {maimangara) is done in both 
families in the usual way. The drum of the Cham&r, who leads the 
procession, is worshipped, marked with red lead and oil, and on it are 
placed some betel nuts and a quarter »er of poppy-seed, which are the 
Chamar's perquisite. The earth is dug by some old female relative, 
who brings it home and places it in the marriage shed [mdHro)^ 
in the centre of which is a ploughshare (Aaru), and a water jar 
(kalsa) . After this commences the anointing of the bride and bride- 
groom with oil and turmeric, which is started by the Fkndit sprinkling 
it over them five times with a bunch of d4b grass. The anointing 
should, if possible, be done by five unmarried girls. A day previous 
to the wedding is the bhatwdn^ when the clansmen are feasted. As the 
procession starts the boy's mother waves (paraehhan karma) over his 
head a rice pounder {musar), or a water jar {kalsa), for good luck. 
When the procession arrives at the bride's house the women of the 
neighbourhood receive them with a shower of rice. The bridegroom 
then worships Gauri and Ganesa ; and the bride meanwhile bathes 
and puts on the clothes which the father of her future husband sends 
her. She then retires into an inner room, into which the bridegroona 
forces his way after a mimic struggle, a survival of marriage by- 
capture, and brings her under the shed, where her father washes the 
feet of the bridegroom. He then marks the ploughshare with red 
lead, while the Pandit recites texts {mantra), and the father taking* 
some kuta grass in his hand solemnly makes over his daughter to 
her hubband. Then follow the usual five perambulations round the 
ploughbliare, while at each revolution the bride's brother ponra 
parched rice into a winnowing fan {tup) held by the bridegroom. 



Ill BIND. 

who scaitere it on the ground. Bride and bridegroom then go into 
the retiring room (ioiadar), where the women play jokes on the 
bridegroom^ and he seizes the garment of his mother-in-law and , 
refuses to release her till she gives him a present. The wedding ^ 
feast follows, and the bridegroom takes his bride home next day, 
after his father has first shaken one of the poles of the marriage 
shed, for which he receives a present \mdnro kildi) from the bridals 
father. This done, the friends embrace all round and the proces- 
sion starts for home. Four days after the wedding festoons 
(bandanvdr) , ViXiii the water jug {kaha), are taken to a neighbouring 
stream* The festoons are thrown into the water by the married pair, 
and the jar is filled with water, which is used by the bridegroom 
in plastering a place in front of the shrine of the local gods {dik)^ 
where he offers a fire offering {kom) with treacle and butter. 

8. The dead are cremated in the usual way. After the burning 
_ the relatives chew leaves of the bitter nim 

tree, and then eat some treacle; next day 
the widow goes to a stream and washes the red lead out of the 
parting of her hair. Poorer {leople merely throw the body into a 
stream {prabdk)^ and young children are buried. For persons who 
die at a distance they do the mdrdyani bat. They make an image 
of wheat flour, with a cocoanut repret^enting his head ; seeds of 
•afflower (kmium) represent the nails and teeth; the hair of a blanket ^^ ^ 
represents the hairs on the body ; cowries for the eyes ; some ground 
drug the blood, birch bark {bkojpdira) for the skin. These are 
covered with three hundred and sixty paldsa leaves, and all is burnt. "'' 
On the third day they sliave and are pure. The Mah^|>atra is dis- 
missed on the eleventh day, and on the twelfth the soul is admitted 
to the company of the sainted dead. In the case of a person dying 
at home, on the tenth day the chief mourner offers the balls (jjiuda), 
ten in number, in honour of the dead, and daily, during the period 
of death pollution, lays out a platter {lUuna) filled with food along 
the road by which the corpse was taken to the burning ground. On 
the tenth day the oeiemony of pouring water {iarpam) on the 
ground in honour of the sun is done, and the clothes of the do(t?ased, 
with his other personal effects, are given to the Mahabrabman, who 
passes them on for his use in the world of the dead. The funeral 
feast is known as diiJA ia bldi^ bocaucc on this occasion milk is 
mixed with the pulse, and the rice is eaten unwashed. It is only on v 
this occasion that milk is 6\-er cooked with {lulsc. The Miiiapur 



/ 



\ 



BIND. 112 

Binds perform a ceremony of proptiation for the dead at the 
of Bdmgaya^ near Bindh&chal^ in the month of En&r. 

9. Binds more or less follow the Br&hmanical ritual, while the 

esoteric doctrine^ on which the whole body of 
symbolism depends, is entirely unknown to 
the votaries of the popular religion.^ In Mirzapnr their favourite 
deity is Mdhadeva, and they make annual pilgrimages to Baij- 
nftth (Baidyanath), in Shah&b&d, where they pour Ganges water 
over the lingam. Members of the Maiwarha sept act bs special 
priests of the F&nchonpir. These five saints and the local deities 
{fiik) are generally worshipped. On the eighth day of the dark 
half of Knkr, the Jiutiya, women fast. Those who belong to 
N&r&yaniha sub-division worship at Man at the Sivar&tri in the 
month of Fh&lgun, Mah&deva, P&rvati, Mah&btr and Satya Nirftyan 
or Vishnu, with offerings of cakes. Their priests are a class of low 
Brahmans of Sikari, in Mirzapur. ^' The patron deity {kuladev^ta) 
of all Binds is Kishi B&ba, about whom the following story is told : — 
A mysterious epidemic was carryii^ off the herds on the banks of 
the Granges, and the ordinary expiatory sacrifices were inetbctuaL 
One evening a clownish Ahir, on going to the river, saw a figure 
rinsing its mouth from time to time, and making an unearthly 
sound with a conch shell. The lout, condudmg that this must be 
the demon causing the epidemic, crept up and olubbed the unsus* 
pecting bather. K&shi Ndth was the name of the murdered 
Br&kman, and as the cessation of the murndn coincided with hie 
death, the low Hindust&ni castes have ever since regarded Kishi 
B&ba as the maleficent spirit that sends disease among their cattle. 
Now-a-days he is propitiated by the following curious ceremony. 
As soon as an infectious disease breaks out, the village cattle are 
massed together, and cotton seed scattered over them. The fattest 
and sleekest animal being singled out, is severely beaten with rod*. 
I'he herd, scared by the noise, scamper off to the nearest shelter, 
followed by the scape bull, and by this means it is thought the 
murrain is stayed. In ordinary times the Binds worship Kishi 
B&ba in a simpler fashion, each man in his own house, by preeent- 
ing flowers, perfumes and sweetmeats. The latter, after having 
done duty before the god, are eaten by the votary. KIsfai Biba^ 
no doubt, was an actual person, who came by his end, if not exactly 



> Bitley, Trihea and CoftM, I, 182. 



113 BINB. 

«8 told in the legend, at least in some tragic fauduon, which led to 
his being elevated to the rank of a god. In some of the other 
objects of the mral worship we may, perhaps, see snrvivals of the 
primitive animism which formed the reli;;ion of the aborigines of 
India before their insensible conversion to BrIUimanism. Some of 
the tribal deities were, as we know, promoted to seats in the Hinda 
pantheon : others, whose position was less prominent and whose hold 
on the mind of the people was weaker, got throst into the baok^ 
|px>und as patrons of various rural events/'^ 

10. In lifirzapur the Bind festivals are the PachaimyAn, Tij, and 

KajarL The last is the women's saturnalia 

in the rainy season, when women get drunk, N 

daaoe, sing obscene songs, and indulge in rude debauchery, which on 

this occasion only is condoned by their husbands. 

11. They believe in the usual omens and demonology^ and practice 

sorcery thromrh the Ojha. The women wear 
palm leaf ornaments {iarii) in the ears, 
nose-rings, wristlets (dAarkamwa), anklets {pairt). IJ^ej tattoo 
themselves on the breast and arms, and it is believed that if they 
do not come into the next world with these marks, Bhagwftn will 
pitch them out of heaven. They give children two names, one 
fixed by the Pandit, and the other selected by the parents. They 
will not touch a Chamir, Dom, or Dharkar, nor the wife of the 
younger brother, nor the mother-in-law of their children. They will 
not mention by name the dead, nor their wives, nor their religioua 
preceptors (ymm). After the close of the agricultural year they 
worship Uariyari Devi, "the goddess of greenness, '* with an offer- 
ing of sweetmeats. In Bih&r the Binds eat crocodiles and field rati 
like the Musahars, and are very fond of pork when they can get 
it.* In Mirasapur they certainly eat field rats, but not the 
crooodile, at least publicly ; and they pretend to have given up pork 
and fowls. They now do not cat beef, and rank higher in the social 
scale than Chamars for this reason. They use fish Urgely except 
in the fortnight {piiri p^tika) sacred to the dead in the month of 
Kuir. They are certainly higher in the social grade than the 
Binds of Bihir, as described by Mr. Risley, and it appears that evi«n 
Bjr&hmans and Chhatris will drink water from their hands. They 



1 BUUy. Tr%he$ and Ca§Us, I.. 133. mnd tM BJUr, 9. 
> EiaUj, Uk, €U. 1., 133. 

Vol. II. 



BIND. 



114 



will not eat food cooked in water {iaeieU) except from BriUimsnff. 
According to another accoont they will not eat kaehehi or pa Hi 
cooked bjr any other caste but their own. They Balnte in the 
fdelagi form^ and receive in return the blessing {flM) from fitrmngersw 
They salute the father-in-law of their sons or daughters in the 
form Bdm I Bdm I Women are &irly well treated, but hard worked. 
When a stranger comes into the house the wife falls on his feet and 
gives him tobacco. This is known as bAentna. 

12. Some are non-occupancy tenants ; many are hired plough- 
men (halwdka). The usual wages are two 
and-a-half mbtb of grain in the local weight 
per diem, and a special ration (sidAa) on holidays. They work, as 
in Bihftr, at fishing, well sinking, building mud walls, mat and 
basket-making, preparing saltpefcre, doing earthwork on tanks and 
roads, watching fields and villages. But in some places they have 
an indifferent reputation, particularly in Oorakhpur.^ 



Ooonpation. 



Disiribuiion of Binde according to tie Census of 1891. 











BUB-CABTXa. 






District. 


Jethwant. 


Kisip- 
ifotra. 


Othera. 


TOTAX.. 


Mathnra 


1 1 




... 


' 


84 


84 


Uamtrpur < 


> • 




• • • 




1 


1 


AUab&Ud . 


f 1 




••• 




85 


85 


Benarea 


• • 




• • • 


... 


12,499 


12,499 


Mirzapur 


> • 




••. 


••• 


10,807 


10,807 


Ghizipor 


• 1 




2,242 


53 


30,178 


32,473 


Ballia 


» ( 




6,910 


80 


465 


6^40§ 


Oorakhpnr 


• « 




10,317 


957 


2,767 


14,041 


Baati . 


■ 




• • • 


... 


552 


658 


Azamgarh , 


t 




• •• 


... 


8 


9 


LuokDOw 

» ■ ■ — 


• 1 




• • * 


... 


IS 


18 



» RepoH, IntpcctoHJeneral of Police, North- JVettem Provincst, 1868, pag« 51. 



BIND. 



115 



bisAtl 



DiMtribution of Bind $ according to the Cemus of 1891 — ooQold* 





8UB-CABTI8. 




DiSTBICT. 


Jethwant. 


Kasip- 
gotra. 


Others. 


TotaXm 


FaiabAd .... 

SnliAnpar .... 

1 


••• 

••• 


••• 
••• 


1 
137 


1 
187 


i 

Total • 1 

1 


18,469 


1,040 


67,477 


76.986 



i — {Biidi ''goods spread out for sale; Sanskrit^ vi$riiq 
'' extended '').^A small pedlar, hawker, or huckster, who sells pett/ 
goods of European manufacture, such as needles and pins, tape, 
buttons, stationery, hardware, etc. They are a purely occupational 
caste, and nearly all Muhammadans. According to the Census 
Returns they have a curious list of sectional names — Banj&ra, 
Mughal, lUjput, and Shaikh. The Bis^ti sells much the same 
class of goods as the Boxwala {" the man of the box'0> ^^^ hawks 
small ware at European houses. 



Diitrihution of ihe Biidiit aeeoriing to ike Cemm of 189L 



District. 


Hindu. 


Mnkam- 


Total. 


Ssbiranimr 








7 


833 


240 


Musaffaniagmr 








.•• 


33 


33 


MMnit 








M 


134 


168 


Bolaodababr 








a*. 




8 


Aligarfa 








• a. 




6 


Matbua . 








• •• 




7 


Agrs • 








.a. 


11 


11 


Famikh4b4a 








• •a 


11 


11 


XaiDpttri • 








..a 




6 


Bmilly . 


■ 






• • • 


1 

i « 

1 1 


1 



Vou II. 



■ 8 



n 



I8ATI. 



116 



BISBN. 



Distribution offhe Biidtis according to the Cernut of 1S91^ concid. 



DiBTBICT. 


Hindu. 


Moham- 


TOTAI^ 


Bijnor 


• 


• 






•• • 


54 


64 


Bnd&uD 




1 • 






• • • 


37 


87 

■ 


Mor&d&b&d . 




■ 






66 

1 


26 


98 


Sh&hjab&Dpar 


• 


1 t 






••• 


2 


2 


Pilibhlt . - 




• 1 






••• 


17 


17 


Cawnpur 




• 4 






••• 


7 


7 


Fatebpnr • 




• • 






••• 


6 


6 


llamtrpnr . < 




1 * 






••• 


10 


10 


A11ah4Ud . 




• ( 






• • • 


10 


10 


J4laun 




> • 






••• 


82 


9S 


Ballia 




» < 






••• 


29 


29 


Gorakhpnr . 




• 


t. 




!•• 


6 


6 


Tar4i 




• 






• • • 


112 


112 

* 


Lnokiiow 




• 






• •• 


1 


1 


lUdBardli . 




• 






• •• 


17 


17 


Sita^ur 




• 






• •• 


1 


1 


Sultftnpur . 




• 






• • • 


13 


13 


)^&rabnnki . 




• 1 






• •• 


27 


27 


Total 


107 


p52 


939 



^ Bisen. — A powerful sept of Rajputs found in considerable 
numbers in the Allah^b^^ Benares^ Oorakhpur, and Faiz&bad 
Divisions. The head of the sept is the Bilja of Majhauli, in 
Pargana Salempur Majhauli, of Gorakhpur. They as well as the 
Donw&r {q. v.) claim descent from one May6ra Bh&tta^ who is said 
to Iiavc been a descendant of Jamadagni Rishi of the race of 
Bhrigu. Regarding this personage the local tiradition is very 
vague. Some say he came from Hastinapur and was the son of 
one Aswathama ; others that he was an emigrant from MahA* 



117 BI8BV. 

rlfihtra or the Marhatta country. He read Sanskrit for f| while at 
Benares, and became a proficient in astrology. Quitting that city 
at last under a divine impulse he settled at Eakradih, a village in 
Pargana Sikandarpur, of Azamgarh. The whole of that Pargana 
came gradually under his authority. His domestic arrangements 
illustrate a period when the bonds of caste, as we know them, were 
unknown. He is said to have had three wives,-* first a Br&hmani 
named N&gseni ; the second S&rajprabha, a SQrajbans Ra jputni ; the 
third Haikumiri, a Oautam Bhuinhftrin. By his wife S&rajprabha 
he had a son, Biswa or Bissu Sen, who was the ancestor of the Bisen 
sept of Chhatris ; by Haikumtri, Baikal or Bagmar Sahi, the ances* 
tor of the Bhuinhir families of Kuw&ri and Tamk(il^ ; by N&gsen, 
Nages, Nagesar or Nigsen ; and by a Eurmin concubine Indra- 
dawwan Mai, from whom sprang the Mais of Azamgarh^ of whom 
a separate account will be given. He expelled the Bhars, and 
finally went on a pilgrimage to the Him&laya, where he died. 
There are thus a family of Misr Br&hmans, and a largo half 
Kurmi olan which claim common descent with the Majhauli Bisen 
family. 

2. " In the reign of Akbar and with the fall of the Kalhans 

rule, the Bisens, who subftequently, under the 

Th« GondA braaoh. . . 

R&jas of Gonda, took a leading position among 
the trans*Ghigra powers appear for the firf»t time on the stage of 
history. The clan is one of the most numerous in Eastern Oudh, 
and is scattered in clusters of small Zamindiri communities 
throughout the Districts of Gonda, Faizibid, and Partibgarh, with 
the river Kuino for its northern and the Ganges for its southern 
limit. Its principal seat is beyond the boundaries of Oudh at 
Majhauli, in Gorakhpur, and its members differ from those of many 
of the other ruling clans in having no recollection of a departure 
from some distant home in the West, and being unable to oonnset 
their countless houses by any intelligible pedigree. They admit 
that they are BhQmiya Thikurs, or indigenous, as faur as they can 
ascertain, in their present territory. It is true that they a ss ert 
their descent from a common ancestor, May&ra Rishi ; and in thus 
deriving themselves from a mythical religious character outi»ide the 
distinctions of cai^te, agree with others of the less aristocratio 
among the local Chhatri families who are unable to claim any 
connection with the heroes of the Solar and Lunar raoes. The 
ties of common clanship ate very vaguely recognised, and I beUe\*e 



BISEN. 118 

that the Bisen of Majhauli has always dectined to oonfirm them by 
eating with even the great homonymous chieftains of Gronda and 
Rampor, in Faizabid. Those settled in Oudh were all of them 
before the time of Akbar in the position of ordinary village zamin- 
dai*s^ dividing their inheritance among all the males on the ordinary 
coparcenary principles^ and it was not till later that the title 
and position of Raja were acquired by a few forttmate houses to 
the e^ctreme north and extreme south of their settlements. At 
the centre^ in Fuzabad^ they always remained in a subordinate posi- 
tion/'i 

8. Of the FaizabM branch Mr, Camegy writes : — " What their 

claim may be to bdn^r placed under the 

The ParUbgarh branch. _ , /_. . ^,mi-- j 

Sombansi line is not clear. Their avowed 
chief is the BiLja of Majhauli, in Gorakhpor. In Oudh we have 
no less than thirteen chiefs of this clan, and their colonies are 
principally to be found in the Partabgarh District, but also in 
Bahraich, Oonda, Daryabad, and Sultinpor. The local heads are 
the Raja of Kalakankar, and the Rsljas of Manikpur and Bhinga. 
Sir H. M. Elliot aOirms that the present R&ja of Majhauli is in the 
one hundred and fifteenth generation from May&ra Bhatta, the 
devotee. The Oudh branch state that they broke oft from the 
parent stem in the person of Rad Hiim, and settled in the Province 
under the wing of Manik Chand, the then powerful Gaharwir Rija 
of Manikpur, he who so happily picked up the foundling mother of 
all the Kanhpuriya clan. Within the last few years the R&ja of 
Majhauli took to himself a wife from the R&jkumsLr house of 
Dera, — a sure indication that the Bisens (indigenous devotee 
Chhatris of Gorakhpur though they be) are higher in the social scale 
than the Rajkumar offshoot of the Mainpuri ex-convert Chauh&ns.'' 
4. From Gorakhpur it is now reported that they intermarry 

with the septs of the Simet, Hayobons, 

The Qorakhpor branch. -»,,^,,^ ^^ ^i^i a 

Baghel, Chauh&n, Chandel, Gaharwar, 



S&rajbansi, Rfijkumar, Chandrabansi, Sombansi, Gautam, 
Gandhwariya, Hara, Kachhwaha, Rlna, Nagbansi and Jftdon. 
In Jaunpur they take brides from the Bais, Nikumbh, Qiaupat 
Khambhy and Kharagbans, and give girls to the Nikumbh, Raghu* 
bansi, Bacbgoti, Rajkum&r, and Sombansi* In (Jonda they are 
reported to give brides to the Simet, Raikw&r, Janw&r, Chauhftn, 



' Oonda Sgttlgmenl Report, 15. 



110 



BI8EN< 



Kmlhans, Bhadauriya, and Kaohhw&ha, while they receive girls 
from the Bandhalgoti, RAjkam&r, Palw&r, S&rajbans, BaiB^ Chaa* 
hin, Kalhans, and other high class Bljputs. 



Diilrihuiion of tie BUen Bdjpuh hp H9 Cemut of 1891. 



DiflTBICT. 


Hiadns. 


Mnbam* 


TOTAU 


SabiranpQr 










4 


8 


7 


Jle«mt • 










1 


•«• 


1 


Ifstbiira • 










7 


••• 


7 


Agrm 










6 


•M 


6 


FafTofcb4b4d 










t 


••• 


8 


Etah 










••• 


6 


6 


EUwali 










17 


••• 


17 


BoaAan • 










S4 


••• 


84 


MorAd4b4d . 










81 


••• 


81 


8liAbjah4op«r . 










1 


8 


9 


PilibbH • 










1 


•^ 


1 


Oftwopor • 










948 


— 


848 


Fatflipor • 










1.070 


... 


1.070 


Biada 










816 


8 


888 


Hamtrpor • 










199 


• •• 


199 


AlUhAbAd • 










7.809 


85 


7.884 


BeiuvM 










3.ie8 


••• 


8.868 


XirtApiir • 










8.974 


••* 


8.374 


Jaoapar • 










4*806 


49 


4.408 


Qbiiipar 










8,486 


i 


8.488 


BtUta 










6.5S8 


• •• 


6.668 


Qoimkbpar • 










9.683 


1 807 


91880 


BmU 










969 


1808 


8,867 



StS^N. 








120" 






BliSHNOt 




Bidrihution of the Bisen BdjpuU hythe C^fuui of ISOt-- toocld. 


DiSTBICT. 


Hindus. 


Moham- 


Total. 


Azatngarh , 


» • • ( 




• • 


8,864 


1.096 


9,060 


LnoknoW 


> 


• ' • 


f' 


• • 


368 


36 


404 


Unfto 


» 


• ' • 




• ' • 


1,102 


22 


],124 


R&d Bareli . 


t 






• • 


925 


158 


" 1.088 


Sltapnr 


• ( 


» •' 




■ • 


481 


1.028 


1,509 


Hardoi 


»■ < 






1 • 


74 


••• 


74 


Kberi 


< 






• ' • 


276 


1,001 


1.276 


Faiz&b&d . 


> < 






» • 


7.212 


1.272 


8,484 


Gonda , 


» < 






1 • 


27.697 


«•• 


27,697 


fiahriich 


> 1 






• ' • 


1.611 


1.301 


2,912 


SuUAnpur « 


) 4 






► • 


1.586 


658 


2,244 


Part&bgarh 






1 • 


4,778 


••• 


4.778 


B&nbanki • 






• 


2,455 


640 


3.095 








TOTAl 


• 


97.492 


9,827 


107t319 



Bishnoi — (worshippers ol Yielmti). — Usually, as at tb^ last 
CetiBus^ classed as a sub-tribe of Banyas, but really a distinct 
religious sect. They are strongest in the Meerut and Bohilkhand 
Divisions, and as they are emigrants £rom the Panjib, Mr. 
Maclagan's interesting account^ of them may be quoted ; — '* The 
fotfnder of the sect was Jhflmbaji, who lived towards the end of the 
fifteenth Centary. The following is the account given faj the 
people regarding him. At Pinp&sar, a village south of Biklner^ in 
the Jodhpur territory, there lived a Rajput Panwir, named Laat^ 
who had attained the age of sixty years and had no son. One daj 
a neighbour going out to sow his field met Laut, and deeming it m 
bad omen to meet a childless man, turned back from his purpose. 
This cut Laut to the quick, and he went out to the jungle and 



I Panjih CmMUM A0|H>H,1S91, page 139, tqq., qnotiag 8ina SeUlemetki R«|Mrl. ISft. 



121 BI8HN6I.' 

bewailed his ohildleesness till evening, when a faqfr appeared to him 
and told him that in nine monthe he Bhould have a son, and after 
showing his miraculons power by drawing milk from a calf, vanished 
from his sight. At the time named a child miraculously appeared 
in Laut's house, and was miraculously suckled by his wife Hansa. 
This happened in Sambat 1508 (A.D. 1451). For seven years the 
boy, who was an incarnation [avatdra) of Vishnu, played with his 
fellows, and then for twenty-seven years he tended cattle, but all 
this time he spoke no word. His miraculous powers were shown in 
various ways, such as producing sweets from nothing for the delecta- 
tion of his companions, and he became gradually known as Achamba 
('' the Wonder **)^ whence his name of Jh&mba, by which he is 
generally known. After thirty-four years a BrAhman was sent for 
to get him to speak, and on confessing his failure, Jh&mbaji again 
showed his power by lighting a lamp by simply snapping his 
6nger8y and uttered his first word. He then adopted the life of a 
teacher, and went to reside on a sandhill, some thirty miles south 
of Bikftner, where, after fifty-one years, he died and was buried^ 
instead of being burnt like an ordinary Hindu. 

S. ** Another account of Jhftmbaji says that when a lad of five 

years old he used to take his father's herds 
to water at the well, and had for each head 
of cattle a peculiar whistle : the cows and bullocks would come one 
by one to the well, drink, and go away. One day a man named 
Udaji happened to witness this scene, and struck with astonish- 
ment, attempted to follow the boy when he left the well. He was 
on horseback and the boy on foot, but gallop as fast as he would he 
could not keep up with the walking pace of the boy. At last in 
amazement he dismounted and threw himself at his feet ; the boy at 
once weloomed him by name, though he then saw him for the first 
time. The bewildered Udaji exclaimed,— " Jhftmbaji I '' (omnis- 
cient) , and henceforth the boy was known by this name. On attaining 
manhood Jhftmbaji left his home, and becoming a faqir or religious 
mendicant, is said to ha^'e remained sitting on a sandhill called 
Samrathal in Bikftner for a space of fifty-one years. In 14S5 A.D. 
a fearful famine desolated the country, and Jhimljaji gained an 
enormous number of disciples by providing food for all who would 
declare their belief in him. He is said to have died on his samlhill 
at the good old age of eighty-four, and to ha^'e been buried at a spot 
about a mile diiitant from it. A further account hays that his body 



BISHNOI. 122 

remained 8U8pended for six months in the bier without decompos- 
ing. 

3. '^ The name Bishnoi ie, of oooree^ connected with that of 

Vishnu, the deity to whom the Bishnois srive 

Tke name of the sect. .... , ^ 

most prommence m their creed, thongh they 
sometimes derive it from the twenty-nine {dis^nau) articles of &ith 
inculcated by their founder. In fact, in our returns it was veiy 
difficult to distinguish the Bishnoi from the Vaishnava, who was 
often entered as a Baishnav or Bishno. The Bishnois sometimes 
call themselves Prahladbansi, or Prahl&dpanthi, on the ground 
that it was to please Prahlada Bhagat that Vishnu become incar- 
nate in the person of Jhimbaji. The legend is that thirty-three 
crores of beings were killed by the wicked Hii-anya-kasipu, and 
when Vishnu, as the Narasinha Avatara, saved the life of Prahlida 
and asked Prahlada his dearest wish, the latter requested that 
Vishnu would effect the salvation {muiti) of the remaining twenty* 
eight crores. To do this required a further incarnation, and 
Jhambaji was the result.'' 

4. '^Regarding the doctrines of the sect Mr. J. Wilson writes : — 
«, . , V ,,. V . 'The sayings {iAabd) of Jhimbaji to the 

Tenets of the Biahnoia. , . i i , , 

number of one hundred and twenty were 
written down by his disciples, and have been handed down in a book 
(pot hi) which is written in the Nagari character, and in a Hindu 
dialect, similar to Bagri, seemingly a M&rw&ri dialect. The 
' twenty-nine ' precepts given by him for the g^danoe of his fol- 
lowers are as follows : — 

Th din s4tak pdnch rot ratioanti ndri, 

Sera karo ihndn ail ianiokh iuchk p^dri. 

Pdni bdni idhni Una lijo ckkdn. 

Day a dkarm kirde dharo gum batdijdn. 

Ckofi nindya jutk barjya bdd %a kariyo ko^ 

Amal tamdku bhang lil dUr ki t^dgo. 

Had mds se dekk ke dUr ki bhdgo. 

Amar rakhdo tkdt bail tani na bdko, 

Amdshj/a bar at rdnkk lilo na ghdo, 

Hom^jap tamddk pilfa bdsk baikunihi pdo. 

Vntii dharm ki dkkri guru baldi soS, 

Pdkul doe par ckdvyajis ko ndm Biiknoi koS. 

Which is thus interpreted : * For thirty days after child-birth and 
five days after a menstrual discharge a woman must not cook food. 



128 BI8BK0I. 

Bathe in the morning. Commit not adultery. Be content. Be 
abstemious and pure. Strain your drinking water. Be careful of 
your speech. Examine your fuel in case any living creature be 
buint with it. Show pity to living creatures. Keep duty present 
to your mind as the Teacher bade. Do not steal. Do not speak 
evil of others. Do not tell lies. Never quarrel. Avoid opium, 
tobacco, bhang f and blue clothing. Flee from spirits and flesh. See 
that yoiir goats are kept alive (not sold to Musalm&ns, who will kill 
them for food). Do not plough with bullocks. Keep a fast on the 
day before the new moon. Do not cut green trees. Sacrifice with 
fire. Say prayers. Meditate. Perform worship and attain heaven« 
And the last of the twenty-nine duties prescribed by the Teacher— 
' Baptize your children, if you would be called a true Bishnoi. ' '' 
6. '' Some of these precepts are not strictly obeyed ; for instance, 
a , , ..* though ordinarily they allow no blue in their 

clothing, yet a Bishnoi, if he is a servant of 
the British Grovemment, is allowed to wear a blue imiform ; and 
Bibhnois do use bullocks, though most of their &rming is done with 
camels. They also seem to be unusually quarrelsome ^ words) 
and given to use bad language. But they abstain from tobacco, 
drugs, and spirits, and are noted for their regard for animal life, 
which is such that not only will they not themselves* kill any living 
creature, but they do their utmost to prevent others from doing 
so. Consequently their villages are generally swarming with 
antel(»pe and other animals, and they forbid their Musalman 
neighbours to kill them, and try to dissuade European sportsmen 
from interfering with them. They wanted to make it a condition 
of their settlement that no one should be allowed to shoot on their 
land, but at the same time they asked that they might be assessed 
at lower rates than their neighbours on the ground that the antelope 
being thus left undisturbed do more damage to their crops ; but I 
told them that this would lessen the merit (pun) of their good 
actions in protecting the animals, and they must be treated jiuit as 
the surrounding villages were. They conader it a good deed to 
scatter grain to pigeons and other birds, and often have a large 
number of half-tame birds about their tillages. The day before 
the new moon they observe as a Sabbath and fast*day, doing no 
work in the fields or in the house. They bathe and pray three 
times a day, in the mc»rning, afternoon, and in the evening, saying 
BUknol biiknol instead of tlie orJiuarv Hindu Rdm I Kim! 



BiSHNOt 124 

Their clothing is the same as of other BignB, except that their 
women do not allow the waist to be seen^ and are fond of wearing 
black woollen clothing. They are more particular about oeremonial 
purity than ordinary Hindus are^ and it is a common saying that 
if a Bishnoi's food is on the first of a string of twenty camels and 
a man of another caste touches th^ last camel of the strings the 
Bishnoi would consider his food defiled and throw it away. 

6. '' A number of representative Bishnois assemble^ and before 

them a S&dh or Bishnoi priest^ after Hght- 

Ceremony of initiatiozi. ./»•/» * • 

ing a siLcrincial nr^ {kom), instructs the 
novice in the duties of the &ith. He then ti^es some water in a 
new earthen vessel^ over which he prays in a set form {Biiino gdyam 
trt), stirring it the while with his string of beads (mdla), and after 
asking the consent of the assembled Bisbnois hb pours the water 
three times into the hands of the novice^ who drinks it off. The 
novice's scaIp-Io6k {cAoti) is then cut off and his head shaved^ 
for the Bishnois shave the whole head and do not leave a scalp- 
lock like the Hindus ; but they allow the beard to grow, only 
shaving the chin on the father^s death. Infant baptism is also 
practised^ and thirty days after birth^ the child^ whether boy or 
girl^ is baptized by the priest {Sad A) iu much the same way as an 
adult ; only the set form of prayer is different {jjfarbi gdyatri), and 
the priest pours a few drops of water into the child's month, and 
gives the child's relatives each three handfuls of the consecrated 
water to drink ; at the same time the barber clips off the child's hair. 
The baptismal ceremony has the effect of purifying the house, which 
has been made impure by the birth {siiCat). 

7. *' The Bishnois intermarry among themselves only, and by a 

ceremony of their own, in which it seems the 

Cnatoms of the BiehnoiB. ti^- r^i i^ ».i 

circumambulation of the sacred nre, wmcb 
is the binding ceremony among the Hindus generally, is omitted. 
They do not revere Brahmans, but have priests {Sddk) of their own 
chosen from among the laity. They do not bum thdr dead, fafut 
1)ury them below the cattle-stall or in a place frequented by cattle, 
such as a cattle pen. They observe the Holi in a different way 
from other Hindus. After sunset, on that day, they fast till the 
next forenoon, when, after hearing read the account of how 
Prahl&da was tortured by his infidel &ther, Hiranya Kasipu, for 
believing in the god Vishnu, until he was delivered by the god 
himself in his incarnation of the Lion«Man {Nara^Sinta), and 



125 BISHIfO;. 

jnQuming over PrablAda^s sufferings, thejr light a sacriiioial fire and 
jpartake of consecrated water, and after distributing unpurified 
sugar {pur) in commemoration of Prahlida^s delivery from the 
fire into which he was thrown, they break their &st. 

'' Bishuob go on pilgrimage where Jh&mbaji is buried, south 
of Bik&ner, where there is a tomb {matk) over his remains, and a 
temple {mandir) with regular attendants (p^jdrt), A festival 
takes place here every six months in Asauj and Phftlgun, when the 
pilgrims go to the sandhill on which Jhimbaji lived, and there 
light sacrificial fires {hom) of jandi wood in vessels of stone, and 
offer a burnt offering of barley, eesamum (iil)^ better, and sugar, 
at the same time muttering set prayers. They also make presents 
to the attendants of the temple, and distribute grain for th^ 
peacocks and pigeons, which live there in numbers. Should any 
one have commit^d an offence, such as having killed an animal, or 
sold a cow or goat to a Musalm&n, or allowed an animal to be 
killed when he could have prevented it, he is fined by the assembled 
Bishnois for the good of the temple, and the animals kept there. 
Another place of pilgrimage is a tomb called Chhambola, in the 
Jodhpur country, where a festival is held every year in Chait. 
There the pilgrims bathe in the tank and help to deepen it, and 
sing and play musical instruments and scatter grain to peacocks 
and pigeons. The Bishnois look with special attention to the fire 
sacrifice {kom) ; it is only the rich who perform this daily ; the poor 
meet together to carry out the rite on the Amiwas day only. The 
Gienas or S&dhs, who are their priests and are fed by them like 
Brfthmans, are a hereditary class and do not intermarry with other 
Bishnois ; nor do they take offerings from any but Bishnois. The 
Bishnois are a regular caste and have been shoyvn as such in our 
tables ; and the returns of the caste are much more to be relied on 
than those of the sect, for the reason given above that many 
Bishnois by sect must have been shown in our tables as Vaishnavas, 
and vice wend. 

8. ** It is said that a member of any of the higher Hindu castes 

may become a Bii»hnoi ; but as a matter of 

OrfftoixAtioii. 

fact they are almost entirely Jats or carpen* 
iers (Kkdl%)f or less frequently, lUJimts or Banyas, and the Banya 
Bijinois are apparently not found in the Panjab, their chief seat 
being Moiidabad, in the North-West Pronnces. The man who 
becomes a Bishnoi is still bound by his caste restrictions ; he no 



BISHNOI. 126 

longer calls himself a Jat, but he can marry only Jftt Bishnois, or 
he is no longer a Khati^ and yet cannot marry any one who is not 
a Ehftti j and further than this the Bishnoi retains the goira of his 
original tribe and may not marry within this. Karewa is practised 
among them^ but an elder brother cannot marry a younger brother's 
widow. 

9. '^ There is not perhaps very much in the teaching of Jhimbaji 
Connectioxi with VaiBh- ^ distinguish him from the orthodox pattern 

navism, ^f Hindu saints^ and in some points his doc- 

trine^ more especially with regard to the preservation of life, is only 
an intensification ofthe ordinary Yaishnava tenets. But in the omis- 
sion of the circumambulation {phera) at marriage, the cutting off 
of the scalp-lock, the special ceremony of initiation, and the disregard 
for the Br&hmanical priesthood, we find indications of the same 
spirit as that which moved the other Hindu reformers of the period.'' 

10. Mahant Atma B&m, known as Mah&r&j or Mahant, the 
The BiBhnoia of the North- present leader of the Morddftbid Bishnois, 

Western Provinces. gives an aocount of them wHch, as far as the 
legends connected with Jhstmbaji, agrees exactly with the Panj&b 
legend. He names nine endogamous sub-divisions of them — J&t ; 
Bishnoi ; Banya Bishnoi ; BrAhman Bishnoi ; Ahir Bishnoi ; Sun&r 
Bishnoi ; N&i Bishnoi ; Chauhan Bishnoi, Bayhar Bishnoi. The rule 
of exogamy is that they do not intermarry in their own goira or in 
that of their relatives as long as any tie of relationship is remembered. 

11 . The MortLd&bad branch settled there when the District was in 

the hands of the Naw&b Wazor of Oudh, about 
one hundred and fifty years ago. They do not 
admit outsiders except into their special sub-division as given above. 
Polygamy is allowed ; polyandry repudiated. The marriage cere- 
monies are performed in the orthodox Hindu fashion. Widows can 
re-marry by the sagdi form. Besides the special worship of J hfimbaji, 
they have, now following the example of their Hindu nttighboors, 
adopted also the worship of Siva and Bhawani. When a child is 
bom the mother is secluded for forty days, when the Mahant sends 
one of his disciples who makes her throw some butter into the fire. 
This ceremony, is known as basandar ehk4na or " fire touching.*' 
When a man dies the nearest male relative of the deceased draws 
water from the well in an unused earthen vessel, and places it at the 
door of the house with the opening at the top covered with a piece 
of new cloth. Upon this are placed some cakes {piri). Just as the 



127 



BI8HK0I. 



life. 



Bun ie setting eome of the clansmen assemble^ and each takes a hand- 
ful of water and pours it on the ground in the name of the dead man. 
This is repeated on the third^ tenth, twentieth, and fortieth day, and 
after three, six, and twelve months. The corpse is thrown into the 
Ganges with a pitcher full of sand tied round the neck. They per- 
form the srdtidka in honour of the sainted dead in the month of Kuftr, 
as ordinary Hindus do. Those who die without issue have the Mrdd* 
dka performed by other relations, and on this occasion clothes, etc., 
are given to Brihmans, They will eat from the hands of none but 
their own clansmen. 

12. They strictly abstain from spirits, meat, and tobacco. Wher- 
ever they are numerous they erect by sub- 
scription a shed which is known as a Vishnu 
temple (Vithnu mandir). There they assemble on the fifteenth of 
every Hindu month, and the songs of Jhftmbaji are chanted by the 
Mahant or some other Sidh or priest. This meeting is known aa 
jum^la. In the months of Ku&r and Chait they assemble in large 
numbers and offer sweetmeats and money. Part of the offerings i<f 
taken by the Mahant and the rest is divided among the worshippers 
present. The Mahant and his Sadhs practise oeUbacy. The 
BifJmois of Bijnor appear to differ from those of the Panjiib in using 
the Musalmftn form of salutation, sa/dm aiaikum, and the title of 
Shaikhji. They account for this by saying that they murdered 
a Muhammadan Qazi who prevented them from burning a widow 
and were glad to compound ^the offence by pretending io adopt 
Ibl&nu 



DiUribulion pf Bisknui Banyat^ aeeording io ike Cenim» of 1891. 



DirraiCT. 


Nambtf. 


DisraicT. 




Nomb«r. 


Debfm D&B • • 


• 


58 


MoHid4Ud 


• 


8,748 


HQSaflanagar • 


• 


909 


Cawnpor • • 


• 


7 


Me«nit • • 


• 


S55 


' Binds • 


• 


6 


RilMAV 




1.086 

1 

! 




1 


A>ijM<ir • • • 


• 


Total 


• ! 5,001 


* Hm •Mi r«onrti«d m 
DUinok 


Bk 


hnoi Boml 


m% 4S,6Se, mo«Uj loomd 


tB I 


Om Dtjoor 



SlYAR, BIAR. 126 

Biyar, Biar.-*A tribe of labourers and caltivators in the 
Eastern Districts. 

1. The word Bi&r means ''a seed-bed/' and it is suggested thst 

Origin and character. *^^ "^^ ^^ *^® <>"P^ ^^ ^^ nameon ac- 

iaticB of the tribes. count o£ their occupation, which is principally 
rice cultivation and the constmction of tanks and embankments. 
They may possibly be of aboriginal origin^ but the tribe appears to 
be very mixed, and while they have to a great extent lost the broad 
^ose characteristic of the pure Dravidian races, like the Majhwacs 
or Koi-was, they are not noticeably different in appearance from 
the Chamars and other menial Hindu castes which surround 
them. They may perhaps be connected with the Bhoyars of Betul, 
'' who are said to have come originally from Upper India : they are 
hard-working and industrious cultivators, thoroughly aliye to the 
advantages of irrigation^ and generally expending much labour and 
capital in the sinking of wells/^^ The idea which at one time pre- 
vailed that they were in some way connected with the g^reat Bhar 
race seems groundless. They consider themselves autochthones of 
Pargana Barhar, in Mirzapur, and have no traditions of emigration. 
They are slight, dark, wiry men, noted for their skill in earth-work^ 
and habitually employed on excavations of ^11 kinds : a quiet, 
rather depressed lace, occasionally addicted to petty theft. In 
Mirzapur they have now formed themselves into two endc^amous 
divisions, the Barhariya, who take their name from Pargana Barhar, 
north of the river Son, and the Dakkhinaha or *' Southerners/' who 
live south of the river. Those north of the Son have begun to 
imitate Hindus so far as to start one sub-division or sept (iTwrt), 
the Chamaiiawa or Chandanawa, who say they are descended 
from the chandan or sandal tree, and to this is attached one gotra^ 
that of K&sip. These sub-divisions, however, do not restrict mar- 
riage, the rules of exogamy within the two endogamous sub-divi- 
sions being of a very elementary kind. They say that when a girl 
is married into a family they do not permit another alliance with 
that family for at least three generations. Others say that only 
the family of the mother's brother {mdmu) and the fathec's sister's 
husband [phiipha) are barred. The tendency, however, seems to be 
to extend the restriction to the orthodox limit fixed in many of 
these tribes and to include the &mily of the father's brother 



1 Ceniral Provinces Oatelteer, 48. 



^ ■ 



N • '.'' 



I • 



P». 



I , 



120 bitIb, biIb. 

(rtacka) and the maternal aunt (mdoil). Other members of the 
caste, however, name seven septs^^Kananjiya, SarwILr, Barwir, 
Mahto, KahtOy KAi»hi, and Barhar. These are exogamoos, and 
hy|>er^my is said to prevail to this extent that the Kanaujiya 
intermarry only with the Barwir, Sarw&r and Mahto. Three of 
these are purely local sub-divisions, Kanaujiya (from Kanauj), 
Kabhi (from Benares), Barhar (from the pargana of that name in 
Mirzapur). The others are probably all occupational— Sarwir 
" archer ; '' Barw4r, « carrier of loads ; '' Mahto, " leader ; " Kahto, 
" spokesman.'' 

2. They have a caste council (jmncidyat) which meets on ooca- 
. sions of marriages and funerals, and disposes 

of tnbal busmess. The president {Mukktfa) 
is a hereditary officer, and he has an assistant known as ChaudharL 
Offences against morality are punished by fine or castigation. The 
castigation is in the form of a shoe-beating, which is administered 
by two strong young men at the orders of the president. The fine 
takes the form of two or four days feeding of the clansmen. When 
the offender agrees to do this he is restored to caste privileges. If 
a man marries into a family already excommunicated he has to 
give a two days' feast of goat flesh and liquor to the clan. If a 
poor man pleads poverty, the fine is sometimes reduced, but if he 
disieganls the Kcntence he is excommunicated for two, four, or even 
ten years. If the Mukhiya or Chaudhari is a minor, the council 
releit some relative to act for him. The Chaudhari is always 
apiKiinteil by the council. 

«}. Difference in wealth or social station is no bar to marriage. 

A man may marry as many wives as he can 

Boles of iii*rriMr#. a' <r • » \ 

support. Tlie senior wife is mistress of the 
house, is respected among the relations, and joins in the family 
worbhip. If a man marries a second time, and he or she annoy or 
ill-treat the first wife, the council interferes in her favour. As a 
matter of tact the senior wife generally selects the junior wives, and 
urges her hui>lMmd to I^olygamy, as their lalxmr saves her trouble. 
If there are more wi^'es than one they live in separate huts in the 
same enclosure, but, as a rule, they get on well together and live in 
Ciinmion. Conculinage, if the concubine {raHai) is a member of 
the tribe, it) permitted. The abhirrenoe with which they regard 
even the idea of |olyandry is suflicient to show tliat it oi»uld never 
have lieen an iubtituti^^u of the tribe. Women ha\'e considerable 
Vol. 1L i 



biyIe, biIr. 130 

freedom both before and after marriage. If a woman is caog^t in 

an intrigne with a stranger to the tribe she is expelled. If her 

lover be a member of the tribe^ the fathers of both have to feed the 

clansmen : bnt it is a peculiarity of this tribe that they will not 

allow the lovers to marry. The reason is because such cases give 

rise to a feud between the girFs family and that of her lover, which 

is usually so serious that a marriage alliance between them is out 

of the question. In such cases of incontinence the girl's father has 

to feed the tribesmen on pakU roioi, that is to say^ batter cakes 

ipUri) and goat's fleshy and- the next day on kaeheki ratoi, that is, 

boiled rice and pulse {dal, bidi). The tribal punishment for the 

lover used to be fifty stripes with a cane^ but British law has pot 

a stop to this^ and he now gets fifty blows of a shoe. After the 

beating is over he has^ in addition, to give the same feast as the 

girl's father. 

4. The marriage age for boys and girls is from six to twelve: 

The headman arranges the match : the con- 
Marriage and divorce. . - . , . • .. i j ^u -xi 

sent of the parents is essential, and the parties 
have no nght of choice* The bride-price fixed by invariable cosiom 
is four rupees in cash^ two cloths {dkoti), four Men cosrse sugar 
iffur), and a little turmeric. No physical defect which appears in 
either party after marriage is sufficient to break the tie ; bat this 
is not the case if fraud is established against the parents of either 
party : and it is understood that a woman may refase to Kve with 
her husband if he is unable to support her, or is impotent. A man 
can divorce his wife for adultery : in fact, if after adultery is 
established, a man does not discard his wife, he is punished by the 
coxmcil. But all separations must be by the sanction of the head- 
man, and he will not give leave until he has enquired and heard 
evidence in the case. If a man marries a woman who has been 
divorced for adultery he is put out of caste. The sons of the 
senior wife are called jethri or superior : those of the second Immkri 
or inferior. These two sets of children succeed equally, while the 
children of a concubine have no rights, and receive only whatever 
their father may please to give them during his lifetime. If the 
concubine was a woman of the tribe, the children receive fall caete 
rights and can be married in the tribe : not so, if the mother wae of 
another tribe. Her children are called Biy&r after their father, bat 
have no rights of marriage or commeneality. 



131 bitIbj biAr. 

6. A man may take a widow to live with him without any 

ceremony. For a while the clansmen will 
not eat with him^ but when he feeds them he 
is generally restored to caste on condition that he goes to bathe at 
Benares or Oaya. The levirate is allowed under the usual restrio- 
tion that the younger brother can marry his elder brother's widow, 
and not vice vend. If the levir abandon his claim to her she may 
marry an outsider. She takes with her only children at the breast ; 
the others remain with her late husband's brother. Once she 
marries again she loses all rights in her husband's estate. Their 
uncle manages the property for his nephews, and they succeed when 
they come of age. So in the case of the levirate the mother manages 
the property for her sons by the first marriage. Her second 
family has no claim to share. There is no fiction by which the sons 
of the levir are attributed to the first husband. 

6. Only a sonless man can adopts and that only with the consent 
^ , . of his brethren and the council. A man 

Adoptioii. 

usually adopts his brother's son, though ooca^ 
sionally the adoption of a daughter's son is allowed. A man 
may adopt if his only son is a permanent outcast. During the 
life of one adopted son a second cannot be adopted. Curiously 
enough a bachelor can adopt, but not a bUnd man, or a cripple, or 
an impotent man, or a Jogi, or a woman, except a widow following 
distinct instructions from her late husband given before witnesses. 
But in any case she can adopt only one of her husband's brother's 
sons. A man cannot give his only or eldest son or only brother in 
adoption. A boy once married cannot be adopted : nor can a girl be 
adopted : nor a sister's son : nor a daughter's son except in most 
exceptional circumstances. As a rule a son adopted by another loses 
all rights to his father's estate, but cases are quoted to the contrary. 
If he be his father's only son he inherits in both houses. If a natunj 
•on be bom after adoption he and the adopted son share equally. 

7. The custom of Beena marriage or piar* 

jaijian does not pre%'ail. 
H. In all cases the sons of a man are his heirs. Primogeniture 

is so far obfierved that the eldest gets a tenth 

in excess of every thingi and the children of the 

first or senior wife get something more than the others The shares 

go by the sons, not by the mothers. A man cannot select a special 

son in hiii lifirtime to be heir in excess of the others. E%'en if one 

Vol. 11. 1% 



bitIb, biIb. 132 

son be better off than the others by self -acquired property, dowry, 
etc., he gets his nsnal share. Grandsons get their proportionate 
share in the inheritance of their fathers. If there are no sons the 
associated brothers inherit equally. The widow has a right to 
maintenance so long as she continue chaste : if she becomes unchaste 
her husband^s brothers can expel her. A daughter has no rights, 
but it seems to be usual for the brothers to give her some of the 
family jewelry, etc., and if she is badly treated by her husband or 
bis friends she has a right to come back to her original home and 
claim maintenance there. If^a man die without a son or widow 
his associated brothers succeed. If a widow marries while pregnant, 
and a son is bom, he will succeed to his real not to his step-father. 
If the widow on remarriage takes little children with her the step« 
father is bound to support them until they grow up and get them 
married. If a man become an ascetic his sons get his estate : but a 
remarkable inile prevails that in such case the sons get only the 
acquired prox)eity of their father, while the ancestral property goes 
to his brothers. Village and tribal offices such as that of maAlo are 
ancestral : but if the eldest son of the deceased proves unfit, the 
duty is made over to one of his elder brothers. 

9. Families in which sons are married or from which sons-in-law 

come are considered relations. There is no- 

Belationsbip* 

thing peculiar in the general system of 
relationship. They do not, as a rule, remember the names of 
ancciitors beyond the grandfather. 

10. When a woman is being delivered she sits on the ground 
, . , facing east. She is attended by the Chamiin 

Birth oeremonies* . . , , 

midwife, who cuts the cord with a sickle and 
buries it in the place where the child was bom, lighting a fire on the 
spot, which is kept burning while the woman renuuns in seclusion. 
After birth the child is rubbed with a mixture of barley flour and 
oil. The first day the mother is fed on hatwa^ which is made of 
wheat flour, coarse sugar (y»r), and ghi. After this she is given 
butter cakes {p^ri), but in poor families only rice and pulse. Every 
morning and evening she is given a mixture of fur, ghi, and 
turmeric, which is known as idra. On the sixth day the Chltmiin 
bathes mother and child, the Dhobi takes her clothes to the wash, 
the barber's wife cuts her finger and toe nails and colours her feet 
with lac dye {ma^dtoar). On that day the men of the family shave 
and put on clean clothes, and the woman's husband's sister {namad) 



133 biyAb, biIb. 

elenns the delivery room {saur)^ for which she receives a present in 
cash, clothes^ or jewelry. The wives of the barber and Dhobi get 
four annas each, and the Chamain the same with her food for the 
days she has been in attendance. That evening the clanspeople, 
male and female, are fed. From that date the attendance of the 
Chamiiii ceases. On the twelfth day (baraki ) the mother bathes in 
warm water, and the barber^s wife cuts her nails and those of all 
the other women of the family. From that time the mother is 
considered pure, and cooks for the family. On this day the old 
earthen vessels of the &mily are replaced. The convade so far 
prevails that on the day the child is bom the father does no work, 
and has to take the first sip of the draaght given to his wife. The 
husband does not cohabit with his wife till the child is six months 
old, and is first fed on grain {annsprdsana). 

11. No adoption is valid unless the adoptive father and the boy 

appear before the Mukhiya, Chaudhari and 

Adoption ofMoumy* 

council and make mutual engagements, 

12. There is nothing very remarkable about the marriage cere« 

mony. The bride is selected by the boy's 
father and approved of by the Mahto. The 
boy's father then on a date (ta^an) fixed by a Br&hman sends or 
takes to the bride's father a present which fixes the betrothal. This 
is known as neg bkama, and in some places consists of four rupees in 
cash, twot^f turmeric, two t^r^oil, and two f^rt coarse sugar (gur) ; 
in others of one and-a-quarter iert turmeric, one and-a-quarter ten 
sugar, and one and-a-quarter sen of oil. The marriage pavilion 
{m4nro) has the middle post of iidJk wood [ItardwiciU bimata). It 
is erected by the sister or paternal aunt of the bride, who reoeives a 
small present for doing this. Five days before marriage the mat* 
mangar ceremony is performed in the usual way as described in the 
case of the Bhuiyas, except that the earth is dug by the father's 
sister's husband (pkitpka) of the bride, and is brought home by five 
unmarried girls of the bride's sept, who make out of it a rude altar 
{htdi) in the marriage shed, on which is placed the lucky water jar 
(kaUa)t and a rude representation of parrots (9uga) sitting on a Y 

tree, which is made by the village carpenter out of the wood of the 
cotton*tree (fssis/). On this day the family priest {pmrokii) 
sprinkles the bride and bridegroom with a bunch of ddb grass 
soaked in turmeric and oil (kaldi ekarkdna). This is done five 
times. Before the procession starts the bridegroom's mother does 



]6itAb, biAb. 134 

the '' waving '' ceremony (paracHan), as described in connection 
with the Bhniyftrs. The bridegroom's procession is met by the 
bride's friends outside the village, and they embrace {meti jkoli). 
On reaching the reception place (janwdnid) the brideg^room^s father 
takes the wedding present (cAarAauwa) to the bride. This consists 
of some jewelry and a sheet for the girl and her mother. When the 
bridegroom arrives he and the bride are seated on leaf mats or stools 
in a square {ekaui) made under the marriage shed : the bride's 
father washes the feet of the bridegroom, and her mother does the 
same for the bride. Then the hands of the pair are joined, and the 
bride's father pours water over them, while the Pandit^ reads the 
Banka^pa or ^Werses of donation.'' They then walk five times 
round the parrot images and water jar, the girPs brother pouring a 
handful of parched rice (lawa) over them each tdme they pass; 
while some parched grain is thrown on the sacred fire (Ao«), which 
is kept burning in the shed. Then the pair sit down, and the bride> 
groom marks the right foot of the bride with red lead, and taking 
five pinches of it between the thumb and the first finger of his 
right hand rubs it in the parting of her hair. This is the binding 
portion of the ceremony. Then the wife of the bride's brother 
{hhaujdi) sprinkles some red lead {i€ndur ehhirakmm) over the 
bridegroom and gets a small present. She then escorts the pair into 
the retiring room {kohabar)^ the walls of which are marked with rude 
figures drawn in red clay (geru). Over these the bridegroom pours 
some oili and has to submit to a good deal of coarse practical jokes 
from the female relations of the bride.' Next morning is the 
^)itcA0n or ceremony of eonfarrealio, when the bridegroom and faride 
eat together. After this is the mdnro kildi or '' shaking of the 
marriage shed." The father of the bridegroom pulls up and pitehee 
away one of the poles of the pavilion amid the shouts of his party. 
This may possibly be a survival of marriage by capture. On the 
bridegroom arriving at his house his sister, apparently with the 
same idea, blocks the door, and will not admit the bride until the 
gets a present. At the bridegroom's house the kokah^r cerem0iiy» 
as above described, is again performed. A day or two after thia, on 
a day fixed by the Pandit, some woman of the &mily takes the 
wreaths of mango leaves (bandanwdr) which decorated the door and 



1 It need hardly be said that this onstom of BrAhmanf oondoscending to p6tf< 
eoremoniea for people of low caste is irretrolar. See Mann, III., 65, IV., SI, 81, 91. 
* For the signifloanoe of the kohahar oeremony see If (v^w^» pwafrapli IS. 



136 bitIr, biAr. 

the aacred water jar {taUa), and throws them into a etream. The 
deities that preside over marriages are Gauri (Devi) and Granesa. 
Images of them made of oow*dung are placed in the marriage shed^ 
and are rubbed with a little of the red lead before it is applied to the 
head of the bride. A marriage can be broken off after the first embas* 
sage (pueHdwa) of the headman^ but once the red lead is applied it is 
final. 

IS. The three forms of recognized marriage are the ckariauwa 

and the iagdi for widows. There is also the 

Foroii of BULrriA^. 

gurdwaiy or marriage by exchange^ when two 
persons exchange sisters.^ 

14. The dying person is removed into the open air before death.' 
_ The ceremonies are performed in the ordinary 

way. After cremation a stalk of the tall 
reed-like g^rase (jknrai) is planted on the edge of a tank. This is 
apparently like the vessel [gkani) hung on a pipal tree, intended 
as an abode for the spirit {pret) during the time which elapse 
before the faneral ceremonies are complete.' Dnring the next ten 
days the man who fired the pyre goes, daily to the tank and pours 
ten vessels {lotti) of water over the grass-stalk. Wlien the mourners 
return from the pyre they sit and lament the deceased for a short 
time, and each touches with his big toe a little vessel of water which 
is laid in the court-yard. For ten days mourning goes on. The 
man who fired the pyre cooks his food in an earthen vessel without 
nUty eats only once a day out of a leaf platter {dmmna)^ and the 
relations do not eat p4n or turmeric or put oil on their heads. The 
chief mourner goes about with a knife and brass Ida in his hands 
to keep off ghosts. On the day after the cremation the women of 
the family go to the tank. The dead man's mother walks in front 
of the widow, and all sing songs of mourning. When they arrive 
at the tank the widow wathee the red lead off the parting of her hair 
and pours ten handfuls of water on the stalk of grass which embodies 
the spirit of her husband. All the women do the same, and the 
same ceremony is performed daily for ten days. On the tenth day 
(daiwdn) all the male relations shave at the tank and get a Brihman 
to offer up thfpe balls (^nda) of barley flour, which are thrown into 



I 8m Bk%iy%^ pttrmfT«pli IS. 

< Tjkr, PfimOvM CuiiwH, I., OS. 

* i^W. U.. l&t 



biyAe, biIb. 136 

the water in the name of the deceased. They then retam to the 
house, where the funeral priest (Mahflpfttra^ Mah&br&hman) jattends 
and receives the bed, clothes^ and vessels of the dead man, and one and- 
a«quarter rupee in cash from the person who fired the pyre. These, 
it is believed; will pass on for the use of the deceased in the next 
world {svarga),^ ^' How could he get on in the next world without 
these things ? " is what they say ; but of a future in which felicity 
awaits the good and retribution meets the evil-doer they have only 
the very vaguest idea.' On that day his brother-in-law binds a 
turban on the head of the dead man's successor, and pdn and betel- 
nut are distributed and the clansmen fed* On this day, to mark her 
abandonment of married life, the widow floats away {terwa denn) 
her little box which contains the red lead for the parting of her hair 
(Mendura) and forehead spangles into the water. 

15. At the period sacred to the dead {piira patsis) in the 

month of Ku&r they pla ster a little space 

Ancestor worship. , .1 i. ,11 ' " 1 .1 

under the eaves of the house, spread there a 
little rice and flowers, and a vebsel {lota) full of water and a tooth- 
brush (datwan) for the use of the dead. On the 15th day of Knir 
they give some diy grain {sidha) to a Br&hman, and feed a few 
of the kinsfolk in the name of the dead. If this is not done, their 
spirits beset them in dreams, cause the nightmare^ and bring disease 
and death. 

16. Their special deity is Mahadeva in the form of the lingam. 

As local deities they worship Sewanriya^ the 
deity of boundaries, and Dharti Mah&deva^ 
the earth-god. These local deities have a shrine on the village 
boundary consisting of a mud platform under a Memal (iambaM 
heptaphifLlnm), bahera {termiualia belleriea), or pipal {fiemi imdica) 
tree. A small red flag marks the shrine, near which are placed 
images of elephants. This is the shrine of Sewanriya., the deity of 
boundaries. In the name of Dharti and Mahftdeva two stone pillars 
are set up in the ground on the outskirts of the village. When the 
harvest is cut both these are propitiated by a burnt sacrifice {iom) of 
sugar and butter {^ur, ghi). People who are in trouble make vows 
there, and, when the evil is removed, sacrifice a goat or fowl, and 
sprinkle some liquor through the Baiga. For this he receives some 



1 Trior, Primxtiv CvXtute, I., 481, 483, 490. 492, 49&. 
> Ibid, U., 75. 



137 biyIb, biAr. 

grain and a couple of pice. Tlic women have a special worship to 
Amina Devi/ in which men do not join. They make a burnt offerin^^ 
and li^ht a lamp in her honour. If this deity is not worshipped 
the deity mounts on their heads and drives them into a fit of 
ecstaoy (abkudjio). They have the usual custom of borinp^the ears 
(kMnekkedan) of children when they are five years old. That day 
special food is served, and after this the child must conform to caste 
usages in the matter of food. Their reli^ous business is done by a 
low class of PAnr6 Brahmans. On the day a child's ears are bored 
a goat is offered to Juftla-mukhi Devi, and the meat is consumed 
by the worshippers and their friends. 

17. On the R&mnaumi of Oiait they have the heads of their 

children shaved at the shiine of Ju&la-mukhi 
Devi at Kota in the presence of the priest 
{panda) in charge of the temple. On that date they offer a goat 
and a burnt offering {^om). On the snake festi\'al, Ntgpanehami| 
held on the fifth bright half of Sftwan, they will not plough, and 
make a white protective mark round the walls of their housesi oil 
the boms of the oxen, and give them salt. On the Dasahra, the 
tenth light half of Ku&r, they eat specially good food. On the 
feast of lamps, Diwftii, in the last day of the dark fortnight in 
Kirttik, they plaster the housei light lamps, and on that day the 
Ahir herdsmen come and dance at the houses of their employers, 
and get some old clothes and a small money present. At the 1^1 
Sankrftnt, in the end of the month of PAs, they all eat rice boiled 
with pnlbe (ikickart) after a Brahman has first touched the food 
aud blesfeed it. On the thirteenth light half of Pils they bury the 
old year {Sambai gdrna). There is a regular place outude the 
village in which a stake of the wood of the cotton tree (temal) is 
planted in the ground. Three days after all the villagers colled 
fuel round this, and on the day of the full moon (fiiianmdiki) the 
village Brahman fixes a time for burning the old year {JSambml). 
The lire is lit by the village Baiga, and then all the people apply 
fire to it, and parch stalks of barley in the fire and eat them. 
They also make small lumps of cowdung and throw them into the 
fire. Next morning all collect and sprinkle the ashes of the 
Sambat into the air. This is known as tdih u^dna. After marking 
their foreheads with the ashes they return home. Next day, up to 



1 Aain ffsti is mut nf tks M—hifrlr 



biyIr, biAb. 138 

midday, the men sing abnfiive songs^ and throw earth and oowdmig 
at the women. After midday they bathe^ put on clean clothes, 
throw about the powder o£ ground mica or talc {abir), eat wheat 
cakes {puri) fried in butter^ and drink liquor. The feast winds ap 
with a regular saturnalia in which decency and order .are forgotten.^ 

18. Places like wells and tanks where any one has been drown- 

ed are considered as specially haunted.' If any 
one goes alone to bathe m such places the ghost 
pushes him in and drowns him. They also have the same idea 
about deaths by a &11 from a tree> which are regarded as the work 
of the offended tree spirit. If they happen to walk under a tree 
where such an accident has happened they bend their heads and 
bow. To keep off such ghosts people take a piece of iron about 
with them, such as a knife, a key, etc. They believe that if you 
can succeed in catching one of these malicious Bh&ts and cutting 
off his scalp-lock, he will serve you for the rest of your life, 

19. The women tattoo themselves in the usual way among these 

jungle tribes.' They believe that if they aie 
not tattooed Ood (Bhagw&n) brands them in 
the next world with a torch of dry grass.^ 

20. The lucky days are Sunday and Monday and Friday ; Toes- 

day and Saturday are unlucky. Among 
omens, oaths, witohoraft, numbers 5 and o are lucky, 13 unlucky. 

They take omens from the iurli bird, whose 
song on commencing a journey or business is lucky. A jadcal 
crossing the road is inauspicious. The house door may faoe the 
North, East, or West, but not the South. Every one has two 
names, that fixed by astrology (rdi), and that in ordinary uae. 
They swear by putting the hand on their son's head or touching 
a Brahman's feet. In the first place if they tell a lie the son diaB, 
in the second they lose their property or life. They are much in 
dread of witchcraft {Una). Such cases are treated by the Qjha^ 
who has power to drive off or summon Bh&ts, and can thus revenge 
himself on an enemy. Dreams only mean the displeasure of the 



1 This fefitiYal has obyions analogies in European onstom. Mannhardt 
siders them to bo snn-charms or magical ceremonies intended to Monra * piop«r 
supply of snnshine for men, animals, and plants* See Frazer, Qold§n Bcugh^ 11, 

« Tylor, Primitive Culture, 1, 109. 

s See Agariya, para. 22. 

< Tylor. Primitive Culture, I, 451. 



139 BIYABy BiAr. 

fliinted dead at inattention^ and are not specially interpreted. Some 
women, particularly those born on a Saturday, can cast the Evil 
Eye. When a child is thus affected its eyelashes stand out 
straight, and when babies are struck they refuse the mother's breast. 
Even big children are affected. The sign of the arrival of a person 
with this power is that the person affected if eating immediately 
vomits. All disease is due to demoniacal influence. It is only Ojhas 
who can recognise the particular Bh&t which is at the bottom of 
the mischief, and having marked him down they are able to pre- 
scribe the appropriate offering or expel the evil spirit by bringing 
the victim into a state of ecstacy {abkvdna). 

21. Their dress presents no pecoliarities. The women wear 

jewelry, the iatua on the fore-arm, rings 
(mundari) on the Bngers, the bakunta on the 
upper arm, the palm leaf ornament (tarU) in the ears, necklaces 
(Aansmii) and strings of beads on the neck, heavy anklets {pairi). 
They do not wear the nosering. They use hquor and tobacco 
freely. They will not eat the flesh of monkeys, cows, bufEaloes, 
horses, camels, crocodiles, snakes, lizards, jackals, or rats. They 
eat pigs, goats, sheep, fowls, and all kinds of fish. Women do not 
eat pork. Children eat first, then the men, and last of all the 
women. They will not touch a Dom, Chamir, Dharkir, or 
Bhangi; nor the wife of the younger brother, the wife's elder 
sister, and a connection (samdiin) through the marriage of children. 
They will not speak by name of the wife or mother, or of the dead 
if it can be avoided. In the morning they will not speak of death, 
dibcase, or quarrels, or of a lame man or a cripple, or of a village 
where lm\ cliaracters live or where there was in former days a 
murder or a fight. They tow, if possible, on the tenth light half 
of Jcth. Fields for the spring crop are ploughed five times, for 
the autumn cmp twice. They salute by the pdelagi form, and 
seniors give the blessing nike raio, " Live happily \" If a woman's 
relation visits her she seizes him by the feet and weeps. Then in a 
sort of bing-song she describes all her troubles to him, and ends by 
washing his feet and giving him tobacco.^ ^^l)en a guest comes he 
is expected to bring with him some parchetl grain and coarse sugar 
for the children. Then if he is a clansman the houf«bolder seats 
him in the cooking place {ck^uim] and feeds him. Women are 



I Tjlor, Pfimiii9€ CMmr9, II, 11. 



bitIe, biIb. 



140 



BOHRA. 



respected, as they work very hard. Men who ill-treat their wives 
are divorced by the tribal council, and put out of caste for a year or 
two as a punishment. Old people are taken care of and given only 
light work. In the hot weather they all collect in the evening 
under a tree, and chat on village business. In the cold weather 
they assemble at each other's houses, sit round a fire of rubbish 
{taura), and the house master finds them in chewing tobacco. 
They are very clannish and detest and distrust strangers. They 
will eat both kinds of food {paiki and iaeicH) only from a BrSh- 
man. No one but a Dom will eat or drink from their hands. 

2^. Their business is ploughing {kalwdAi) and doing earthwork 

on embankments and tanks, in which men, 
women, and children join. When they take 
service as ploughmen they get on the first day a pot {idnri) full of 
grain and a rupee in cash, and the same when sowing is over. Their 
daily wages are three sers of barley or sdwdn millet. The Byirs 
are a very quiet, respectable tribe, and are very seldom seen in oar 
Courts. 

23. They have a sort of local organisation (eha) in which three 
or four villages join, but it is weak and inefEective, and as a tribe 
they are little more than serfs, a»erijpU gleba ; a few are now begin- 
ing to cultivate as sub-tenants. 



Occupation. 



Distribution of the Biydrt according to the Cemm of 1891. 



DiSTBIOT. 


Number. 


DiSTBIOT. 


nmniMr. 


Benares • 
Mirzapnr • • 


3,214 

14,398 

537 


Ballia .... 
Tar&i .... 
Total 


679 
93 


Gh&zipur • • 


18p821 



Bobra. — (Sanskrit, tya»fli<!^f<ijt/i, "a trader ").— A general term 
for any trader or money-lender. Those recorded under this name at 
the last Census are almost entirely confined to the Meerut Division. 
They claim to be and ai-e usually admitted to be Bifihmans. Of 
them Sir II. M. Elliot ^ writes—'' The Bohras of these Provinces 
either come from the neighbourhood of Jaypur, or are descendants 



1 SupyUm/entaJL Qiouary, i.v. 



141 BOHBA. 

of the ori^nal Eettlers from that quarter, and preserve some peou- 
liarities of speech and dress by which they are readily known. An 
inferior class of Bohras is called Kaiy&n^ who are said to take their 
name from their trick of constantly saying Kaki^ KaU, * Why?' 
or Rahti^the continually revolving nature of their dealings and 
monthly visits to their debtors have with reference to the constant 
revolutions of the rakat or Persian wheel and buckets procured them 
the designation of Rahti/' Another name for them is Athwariya 
because they take interest every eighth {dlkwen) day. The Bohraa, 
according to Sir H. M* Elliot^ have larger dealings and with 
higher classes than the Bahtis have, but, like the latter, are generally 
eager to acquire possession of profitable estates. There is, however, 
this difference between them, that the Bahtis lend and will take in 
return only money ; whereas the Bohras are ready to receive every 
marketable article, including the produce of the soil as wel! as cattle, 
among which may be enumerated horses, camels, sheep and goats 
in payment of their debts. 

2. Tiiose in the Upper Ganges Jumna Du&b, claim to be Paliwil 
Gaur Brfihmans, from Pftii, in BajputAna.^ Trade is not lawful 
for a Brahman except in times of scarcity and under certain condi« 
tions.' Hence to mark their separation from Br&hmans with whom 
they do not mess or intermarry, they associate with the Mahibrih- 
man, who is an abomination to the Ilindu on account of his functions 
as a funeral priest. 

3. In Kumaun the Bohras call themselves Khasiya Rijputs, bat 
claim toiiave been originally money-lenders. They are now thriv- 
ing agriculturists.' To the east of the Province the trading Brfth- 
mans are called Biona, and arc analogous to the Babhan or Bhutnhir.* 
Quite distinct from these trading Brahmans are the Bohras of Central 
Indil^ who are Muealmins. They are wholesale merchants of the 
finit class, as well as pedlars. They render implicit obedience to their 
elected Mullas. They are of the Hasani tribe, — once so dreaded in 
Eg}'pt and Persia for acts of murder and desperation. The principal 
Bohra colony at U jjain, where they have four s]H*eiaI quarters («aii#> 
U.)^ In the Panjaib, as in these Pronnoes, all the Bohras are Ilindua. 



i BuhUr. S^fttd L««ri. I. 72. 

* AtkiBa<«ii, HiMKi/ayaii 09»tlU4t, III, 941^ 9q. 

* BucbaoAO, Kaaitm liKila. II. 1^. 
' llalouliB, C\ii<r«kl imd%a, i. lit, if. 



BOHEA. 



142 



BOKirA. 



4. Their exogamouB Eections would lead to the conolusion th&t 
tbdr origin is mixed. The KSohbi and Khangar seem to represent a 
non-Aryan element, BesiilcB these are the Bachgu4r, BalSi, Bath- 
am (from Srivasti), Bhatiya, Chanvar, DasMi, Deswal, Kama' 
Kaeib, Kundal, Maheswari, N^gar, Samel, Syjlmi, and Sundi, 



Diitriiulioii of the Bokrat aceording to the Centut of 


1891. 


DiBTHICT. 


Nambsr. 


DlBIBlCT. 


Nomber. 


SBharanpnT . 
Mnzaffatnagar 
lleerut .... 


632 
13 
2 

75 


Allgarh 

Etah .... 

H^rdoi 

ToTiL 


386 
32 

1 


Bukndshalir . 


1,131 



Boriya. — A tribe of village servants and cultivators found chief- 
ly in the Cawupur and Hardoi Dietricta. Their sub-castes show 
that they are closely connected with, if not an offeboot of, the great 
Pasi tribe. Thus we find among their sub-divieions Arakh, Bahe- 
liya, Gujar, Khangar, Kiean, Luniya, Pasi, Rajpasi, Rakhpaei. 
Some, again, are local sections, ench as Ajudhyabasi, Antarbedi, Baia- 
war, Banarasi, Brijb^j, Kanaujiya, Mahobiya ; others imply eomc 
connection with other tribes as Bhurtiya, Chanhin, Ghosi, H^ra, 
Kiuthiya, Kathwflns, and Sombansi. Others are occupational, as 
Ghurcbaiha, " horsemen ; " Khetvpil, " field men." 

Dhtribttiion of tie Boris"' according to the Censtit of 1891. 



DiSTBICT. 


Kaith- 
winfi. 


Piras- 
rimi. 


ViMi. 


Othotti. 


lOtkh. 


Cawnpnr .... 
Fatehpur .... 
Hunlrpur .... 
Hudoi .... 
Bahrftich .... 


2,990 
985 


6^1 
232 


4.738 

349 

7,031 


S,G91 
86 

2 
69 

4 


18,161 
1,662 

a 

7,100 
4 


TOTit 


3,«. 


7,063 


12,119 


3,752 


£6.909 



J 



143 BBAHICAK. 

Br&lmiail.^— -The levite class of the Hindu caste system. The 
word Brihmana is derived from Hr&hman (root brik, vrii,) '' reli«- 
gious devotion regarded as an impulse or feeling gradually grow- 
ing up and expanding so as to fill the soul/' To quote one 
of the latest and best authorities* — '' The common term used in 
the Veda for the officiating priest is Br&hman (masculine, 
nominative singular^ Brahma) originally denoting^ it would seem, 
' one who prays/ ' worshipper/ or * the composer or repiter of 
a hymn/' In some passages the word also signifies a special clasa 
of priests who officiated as superintendents during sacrificial cere- 
monies, the complicated nature of which required the co-operation of 
several priests. The &ct that the terms Br&hmana and Brahma- 
putra, both denoting the son of a Br&hman, are used in certain hymna 
as synonymous of BriLhman, seems to justify the assumption that 
the profession had already to a certain degree become hereditary at 
the time when the hymns were composed/' The term Brihman, 
as Dr. Muir> remarks, must have been originally applied to the same 
persons who are elsewhere in the Vedic hymns spoken of as Rishi, 
Kavi, etc., and have denoted devout worshippers and contemplative 
iages who composed prayers and hymns which they themselves recited 
in praise of the gods. Afterwards when the ceremonial gradually 
became more complicated and a division of sacred functions took 
place, the word was more ordinarily employed for a minister of 
public worship, and at length came to signify one particular kind 
of priest with special duties. The original Aryan priest was the 
house father, and we still find among the lower Dravidian races 
that the family worship is done either by the head of the house- 
hold or by the son-in-law or brother-in-law ; and it was only when 
the service of the gods became a more complicated and difficult 
function that a special class of officiants was created for this pur- 
pose. This differentiation of function took place, of course, at an 
early date in the history of the development of Hinduism. Dr. 
Haug * belie\'e6 that the differentiation of the functions of the classes 
of priests, Hotris, or repeaters of the Rik verses, the Udgatris, the 



I Pnncipallj bM«d on Boitt by PuidiU BAmf luulb CluiiiM and BhAa PraUp 
TiwAri. 

* IVofesanr EffftUiif , Eneyl&pirdia Briianniea, i.v.. BrAkmanUm, 

* Anciemt8QnskrUU9ts,l^i^2nd9diiioniVmU\d,C<^UuUa £«rww, CLXVfl. 
258. 

* ^tUrrya BrAhw%mna, I, tnindrnttioik, 9. 



BBAHMAN. 144 

chanters of tlie Bik verses^ and the Adhvaryns, or manual laboarers 
and sacred cooks must have been at an early date^ certainly not 
posterior to the collection of the Mantras, and the dicta o£ the 
Brsihman priests into separate works. 

2. But, as Dr. Muir goes on to say :^— '' Though towards the 
close of the Yedic period the priesthood probably became a pro£es- 
sion, the texts do not contain anything which necessarily implies 
that the priests formed an exclusive caste or at least a caste separated 
from of all others by insurmountable barriers as in later times. 
There is a wide difference between a profession and even a heredi- 
tary order in caste in the fully developed Br&hmanical sense. There 
is, therefore, no difficulty in supposing that in the Vedio era the 
Indian priesthood, even if we admit its members to have been for 
the most part sprung from priestly families, may have often 
admitted aspirants to the sacerdotal character &om other classes of 
their countrymen/' This theory, then, that even the Brihmans 
themselves are probably of mixed origin, and that the caste, as we 
find it now, is in a great measure occupational in origin, goes to 
the very root of the Bi-ahmanical caste system of modem India, and 
deserves to be established by some examples from the immense 
mass of evidence which might be adduced in support of it« 

8. In the first place it may be noted that under the general 
CompoBite origin of ^^^ ^^ Brahman are included various classes 
Br&hmana. which are almost generally admitted to be (^ 

distinct origin, such are the Mahabrahman or funeral priest who, on 
account of his functions, is detested by all Hindus who pretend to 
purity ; the various kinds of beggars and astrologers, such as 
the Joshi, Dakaut, and his brethren, and the Ojha or devil priest, 
who is almost certainly the Baiga or ghost-finder of the Dravidian 
races, who has been imported into Hinduism. Next, the supposi- 
tion that the early so-called Brahmans were strictly endogamoos, 
is contradicted by much evidence. Dr. Muir* on the evidence of 
the early texts, shows that they not only intermarried with women 
of their own order or even with women who had previously 
remained single, but were in the habit of forming connections with 
the widows of Bajanyas or Vaisyas, if they did not even take pos- 
session of the wives of such men while they were still alive. 



1 Aitart'ya Brdhmana ; 263,19. 
> Ibid, I, 2S2, ««/« 



145 BrIqmaK. 

4. Secondly, we have a mass of facts pointinpf to the creation of 
certain classes of Br&hmans in comparatively modem times. Thns 
in Part&bgarh^ there is a current legend that the celebrated Oudh 
chieftain, M&nik Chand, created Brahmans wholesale out of various 
Kurmis, Ahirs, and Bhars. A similar case occurred in Fatehpur.' 
In Unio, again, a story is told of Raja Tilok Chand, that one day 
while hunting he was very thirsty, and having no attendant he 
asked a Lodha, who w&s present there, to fetch him some water, 
which he brought in his own drinking vessel. The RAja after 
drinking the water discovered that the owner of the vessel was a 
low caste man, so he asked him to call himself a Br&hman under 
the title of Pathak of Amtara, ^as he was watching the mango {dm) 
trees* 1 his title still remains with his descendants, who are acknow- 
ledged as Br&hmans** Sir J. Malcolm* in Central India found 
many low caste female slaves in Brahman houses, the owners of 
which had treated them as belonging to their own caste. Under 
the head of DmdiA a reference has been made to the curious 
IHhar story of the clever Dusftdh girl who married a Brahman.* 

5. Thirdly, this intermixture of castes comes out very clearly 
in the earlier legends of the race. Thus we find that the Angirasas, 
or sons of Angiras, were Brahmans as well as Kshatriyas. So the 
descendants of Garga, although Kshatriyas by birth, Ijecame Brah* 
mans.* In the Mahabharata Bhima is married by his brother 
Yudhishthira to the Asura woman IlidimU, and the marriage rites 
were regularly performed, and Draupadi, a Kthatriya girl, accepts 
as a husband in the Swayamvara Arjuna, who pretends to be a 
Brahman.* Ac<;ording to a passage in the Maliabharata* all castes 
beei)mc BrahmauH when once they have crot^sed the Gomati on a 
viiiit to the hermitage of Vasistlia. The Brahman Drona acts the 
part of a Khhatriya in the grmt war. Kakshivat was the son o£ 
Dirghatamas by Usij, a female servant of the Queen of the Kalinga 
Raja, whom her husband ha«l desinnl to submit to the embraces of 
the sage in order that he might lieget a son. Tlie Queen substitutad 
her bondmaid Uhij. The wige, cognisant of the deception, oon*«- 
crated Usij, and begot by her a son named Kakshivat, who 



« SrttUmrnl Report, U7, » Arehmolo^U^l B^porU, VIII, 10^ 



P»rt III, 4y ; VI. 351. i^. 

* Ou.lh Gatttterr, I. 9u5. 365 : III, 229. 
« Central tndia, U, 2ul. 

VuU II. 



• WUftoD. Yi$kmu rMHiia.S5P. 
r n%*i, 451. 

• III. ^(fM. 



bbIhmak. 146 

tlirongh his affiliation to the R&ja was a Kshatriya; bat as the son of 
Dirghatamas was a Br&hman.^ So Yisv&mitra^ a Kshatriya, faj 
the force of his austerities^ compelled Brahma to admit him into 
the Brahmanical order in order that he might be on a level with 
Yasishtha, with whom he had quarrelled.' Even up to the time 
that Vasishtha wrote the legality of a twioe-bom man manying 
a Siidra woman seems to have been at least arguable.' Numerous 
instances of similar mutability of caste ih comparatively modem 
times might easily be given.* 

6. The legends throw little light on the origin of BriQunans as a 

. . . caste except to establish the substantial unity 

Legendary ongin of j. ^i * i -n ^ * 

BrAhmaxLB. 01 the Aryan peoples. By one account the 

Br&hman was produced from the mouth of the Supreme Being, the 
Kshatriya from his arms, the Yaisya from his thigh, and the Sfidra 
from his foot. In the Purusha Sukta hymn of the Big Yeda the 
primsBval man is hewed by the gods into four parts, which form 
the four great divisions of the race. A later l^end bases the divi- 
sion on purely moral grounds, and degraded those Br&hmans who 
gave themselves up to anger and pride into Kshatriyas ; those who 
lived by agriculture and flock tending, the yellow Yaisyae ; and 
those who gave way to lying and immorality, the black SCkdras. 

7. The usual division of Brlihmans is into ten great orders. 

First the five Dravidas south of the 

Diyiflion of Brihrnans* ^r* n » • i.« « xi. -mi- i.a 

Ymdhyan range, consisting of toe Mahi- 
r&shtras who dwell in the country where Mar&thi is spoken ; the 
Andras or Tailangas of the Telegu country ; the Eam&tas of the 
Canarese country ; and the Gui-jaras of Qurjarishtra orGhqarlt. 
Secondly, the five Gauda or Gaur, north, uf the Yindhyas, consist- 
ing of the Sarasvatas, who take their name from the Sarasvati river; 
the Kanyakubjas or Kunaujiyas, from Kanayakubja or Kananj ; 
the Gaudas or Gaurs who are said to take their name either from 
Gaur in Bengal or Gonda in Oudh ; the Utkalas of Orissa, and the 
Maithilas of Mithila, the modem Bihir and its neighbourhood. 

8. At the last Census the Brahmans of these Provinces were 
recorded under twenty-one main sub-castes,— Bangili, Chaubty 



> Wileon, Rig Veda, 1, 42, note. 
« Ibid, II, 319. 



' Buhler, Books of Ihe Eatt, U, 6. ' Aryans, II, 290. 



4 Max MfiUer, Aneumi SmuikriiLiUnt' 
ture, 58, iq, ; Bajendza Ula ]fitni» imd^ 



147 bbAhman. 

Dii\4ra, Gangaputra, Gaur, Gnjaiiti, Jhijhautiya, Kanaujiya, 
KarnAtak, Kashmiri, Khandelwul, Mahar&ehtra, Maithila, Ojha» 
PalHwai, Sakaldipi, Sanftdh, Saras wata, Sarwariya, and UtkaK 
Besides these divisions, which are in a large degree territorial, there 
are others^ such as Ach&rya, Hotri, etc., which are occupational. 
The Br&hmanic sub-castes ^nll, for the sake of convenience, be 
discussed in separate articles. The complete lists give no less than 
nine hundred and two Brahmanical dinsions, but here tribes and 
gotrai are inextricably compoundeil. 

9. Among the sub-divisions of local importance, we find in Dehra 
DAn the Gangari; in Muzaffamagar, the Acharya, Dakaut, and 
Taga ; in Meerut, the Acharya, Bolira, Chaurasiya, Dakaut, Dasa, 
and Gautam ; in Aligarh, the Abhin&shi, Agnihotri, Barwana> 
Gautam, Partsara, Pathak, and Upftdhya ; in Mathura, the Gautam 
and NIgar ; in Agra, the Chaurasiya and Gautam ; in Farrukhibid, 
the Mahibrahman ; in Etah, the Dichhit, Gautam, Rajauriya, and 
Upftdhya ; in Bud&un, the Parftsara, Pithak, TiwAri, and Upftdhya ; 
in Moridibftd, the Gautam and MahabrlLhman ; in Hamirpur, the 
BhagorA and Sanaurhiya ; in Allahibadi the Malawi and Rithi ; 
in Jhansi, the Bhagord, Dakkhini, KarAri, and Sagarmodi; in 
Jalaun, the Aiwasi; in Iialitpur, the Bhagor and Singirekh or 
Sringirishi ; in Benares, the Audich, Bhiradwaja, NAgar, and Yedi ; 
in Mirzapur, the Sandil ; in Jaunpur, the Kantil and Rajbhit ; 
in Ohizipur, the Bhar&dw&ja, Chliatri, Gautam, PachliaiyAn, 
Parisaragotra, Sftndil, Veili, and Yajurvedi ; in Ballia, the Gautam; 
in Basti, the Sindil ; in Bahriich, the Belwtr ; and in the Hills, the 
Bais, Blial, Bhit, Gangari, Johhi, Khas, I^akhpil, Lohni, Pinrd, 
Panth, Pathak, Sarola, Tripathi, Tiwari, Upadhya, Upreti. Of 
maoy of these some account will be found in other articles. 

10. The great i»ul>-oa8tes already named are for the mo^t part 

mdogamous; l>ut the rule appears to be 
cKtiasionally relaxed when the sc^antiness of 
brides in the Hniall local group is an ol>stacle to marriage. Thus 
there seems to lie no doubt tliat in parts of the c*ountry at limst the 
Gaur and Sara^wata nub-castes intermarry. A(*cording to Manu 
jicrwtns are forbidden to marry who btand in the relationship of 
iapim*iai, that is, who are within five degrees of affinity on the 
side of the mother, and seven on tliat of the father. The |»rson 
himself c^iibtitutes one of these di*grees ; that is to say, two persona 
stand to each other in the iapimda lelationship if their oonunoD 
Vol. II. X 2 • 



bbAhman. 148 

ancestor^ being a male^ is not farther removed from either of them 
than BIX degrees, or four degrees when the common ancestor is a 
female. This rule reinforces the principle that the gctra is an exo- 
gamous unit. It is needless to say that this gotra system has been 
developed to an extraordinary extent, and they have become so 
numerous that it is practically impossible to procure any well estab- 
lished list of the gotrai of any of the chief tribes. The word gotra 
means primarily a '' cow-pen/' and has hence been extended to 
the descendants of a common ancestor. Most of them are what 
has been called eponymous, that is to say, they claim to be descended 
from and to derive their names from some Rishi, or saint, who is 
supposed to have been their first ancestor. All the Brahmanical 
goiras have eight great ancestors only— Visvamitra, Jamadagni, 
Bharadwaja, Gautama, Atri, Yasistha, Kasyapa, and Agastya.* 
These occupy with the Brahmans about the same position as the 
twelve sons of Jacob with the Jews, and only he whose descent 
from one of these great Rishis was beyond doubt oonld become the 
founder of a gotra. The Brahmanical system of gotrtis hsa, again, 
by a fiction been extended to other tribeS| such as the B&jpat, 
Banya, Khatri^ or Kftvasth, but among them the institution is 
exotic, and naturally much less vigorous than among the tribe from 
whom it was derived. 

1 1 . There is again another Br&hmanical division, that of the 
eharana or sdkha and the pravara. The iaiia or charana is usually 
applied to the body of persons who follow one of the various schools 
of Vedic teaching, which are said to be as many as 1,130, of which 
there are 1,000 for the Sama Veda, 100 for the Yajur Veda, 21 
for the Rig Veda, and 9 for the Atharva Veda. The institution 
of the pravara is, again, purely religious. The pravara or ar$lega, 
which are generally regarded as synonymous terms are those sacri- 
ficial fires which several gotras had in common. It was left to their 
own choice to which they wished to repair, 

12. Under the articles dealing with the separate Br&hmanical 

tribes an account of some of the domestio 

Domestic ceremoDies. . . * - • 

ceremonies has been given. A few pomts 
may here be noticed, principally derived from the customs of the 
Sarwariya Brihmans of the Eastern Districts of the Province. 



> Hang, Aitareya Brahmanam, II, 479. 



149 brAhmak. 

IS. What is commonly known as the rajodartan {rafan^ " potlu« 

The Bajodartan : *^^^'" (^^nana, " seeing '') is the time durincf 
garbhadina. which women remain impure for four days 

after the menstrual period^ and while in this state do not touch tie 
drinking water or cook for the household. This is, it is hardly 
necessary to say, consistent with the common practice of the most 
primitive tribes.* The pollution is removed by the rajasudm or 
ceremonial bathing on the fourth day. Immediately on marriage 
follows the " impregnation rite/' garbhaddna. In ancient times no 
bridegroom approached the bride till the fourth night after the 
oompletion of the marriage ceremony. This interval is prescribed 
by Gobhib. The present interval of two, three, or four years in the 
case of child-marriages is quite unsupported by the authority of 
ancient lawyers. Dhanavantari (in the Susruta) declares that the 
Oarbhad&na should not take place till a girl is sixteen. Dr. 
Buhler has shown from the Vivaha Mantras that, in olden times 
girls were married long after they had rea(*hed the age of puberty » 
and infant marriages were unknown ; moreover that the human 
husband is the fourth husband, the three gods, Soma, Visvavasu, 
and Agni, being the first three at the period of a girl's becoming 
marriageable. As it should take place on the fourth day, the con- 
summation rite was sometimes called Ckatnrihi karma. During 
the previous day the youug married woman was made to look 
iox^mrds the sun, or in some way exposed to the rays. In the 
evening she was required to bathe. Her husband also performed his 
ablution and went through other prescribed forms. Before approach- 
ing his wife he was careful to secure the solemn imprimatur of 
religion on an act which might lead to the introduction of another 
human being into the world. He therefore repeated two mmntrai 
or texts of the Rig Voila (X, 1S4), the first of which may be thus 
translated,—" Let (all-pervading) Vishnu prepare her womb ; let the 
Cieat4)r shape its forms ; let Prajapati be the Impregnator ; let the 
Creator give the embryo/" At present, in Bengal, the girl is 
^ubjecte«l to a periiMl of isolation which exactly corre8|ionds to that 
deH*ril)e«l by Mr. Frazer in the case of various primitive races, the 
idea lieing that at this period o£ her life dangerous influ<*nces 
I'manate from the girl which it is necessary to counteract. In I'piier 



I Pr»g«r, OuiJen Hou^h, II. lA^. ^fq. 



/ 



BBAHIIAN. 160 

India the rite appears to consist in the worship of the kula devaU 
or family god^ and if the head of the &mily is rich or illiterate^ a 
Brahman is employed to read the Durgap&tha or songs in honour of 
the goddess Dorga. This rite is intended to obviate the danger of 
a miscarriage. 

14. Next follows^ in the sixth month of pregnancy^ the simania 

pum savana, or the rite of male production, 

Slmanta pnm savana. -xt. xi i • ^ i* • i 

done with the object of secoring a male 
heir, the desire of every Hindu mother. The expectant mother is 
bathed, dressed in red clothes which are sent from her Other's 
house, and some fruit, the emblem of prolificacy, is placed in her 
lap. She then goes to the family shrine and worships the hoosehold 
god. 

15. When the child is bom, and before the cord is cot, the head 

of the family does the nandimukk irdidka, 

Nandimnkh sr&ddha* __ 

He lays some kusa grass on the ground and 
offers a pinda over it. After this the cord is cut and it is buried 
in the room in which the delivery took place. Over it a fiie 
(pananghi) is lighted, and wood of the teudu tree is burnt. For 
twelve days the lamp is fed with nim oil. During this time the 
mother is fed with cakes {pnriy Aaiwa), caudle {ackimdni), and 
ginger (sont^). Bread and pulse cannot be given to her, because 
during the period of pollution only substances cooked with ^n, 
milk, or parched grain, can be taken from the family cookhouse. 
The members of the family are impure for twelve days after a 
confinement in the house ; during this time no Deota can be wor- 
shipped, nor can any one drink water from their hands. After the 
sixth day the Cham&r midwife is dismissed, the mother and child 
are bathed, and after that the N&in or barber's wife attends on her. 

• 

But it is not absolutely necessary that this rite should take place 
on the sixth day in case the omens are adverse. In that caee it is 
postponed for one or two days. At this rite one of the women of 
the house waves some barley in a sieve or basket over the mother 
and child, and this grain is given to the midwife. If the first 
child die, the next bom is usually put in a sieve, or it is weighed in 
a scale against barley, which is given to the midwife. The genjOial 
rule appears to be that if a child die within six days after birth the 
corpse is buried ; if it die between that time and the inveatiture 
with the sacred cord {janeH) it is thrown into a river [jal pratdi) ; 
after investiture the dead are cremated. The corpees of girls up to 



151 brAhman. 

the age of seven are thrown into running water ; if over that age 
or married they are cremated. 

16. On the twelfth day after birth is the barmki^ when the 

_ . . mother and child are bathed and the babr ie 

shown to its male relations, who are expected 
to pnt a money present in its hand. The maternal grandmother 
sends a yellow sheet (pisri dhoti) for the mother, and for the \ 
child a little coat (J kola), and a cap {iopi). On that day all the 
women friends collect and have their nails cnt, while a barber 
woman mbe them with a mixture of oil and turmeric {ubian). If 
the baby be a boy, the lady friends give the wife^s mother, or in her 
absence the father, two annas each ; in the case of a g^l, the con- 
tribution is half that amount. This is known as " the nail cut- 
ting'^ {naki kati^a^ nakh tardtki). A list of these donations is 
made at the time, so that the receiver may reciprocate them when 
a similar occasion occurs in the family of the donor. The women 
also give a pice or two to the barber's wife, who does the anointing, v^ 
All the women then sit down and sing the birth song {iokar, San^ t 
9ohha) . This is the only song {rdg) which can be sung at any 
time of the day ; for the others appropriate times are fixed. 

17. If the child be bom in the asterism of MAla, the »i//ii 9dnU /^ 

rite is performed to obviate the il!-luck 
attaching to this period. In this case the 
woman and child are kept in the delivery room for twenty-seven 
days from the date of birth, and during that period the father is 
not allowed to see the face of the baby ; he is also not alkwed to 
shave or change his clothes. There are two kinds of the MiUa 
asterism, '' the light *' {ialka, Idg) ; the other '' heavy " (hhiri, 
drik). If the birth occur in the latter, he must not see his chikl 
for twelve years, and in that interval can neither shave nor change 
his clothes. Many persons, under such unfortunate ciroumstanoes, 
become Jogis. On the day of the mila idnti rite everythin^c follows * 
the number twenty-teven, the number of the asterisms (Nakikmira) \ 
water is drawn from twenty-seven wells, the wood of twenty-seven 
varieties of trees, sieves made with twenty-seven kinds of knots, 
blankets of twenty-seven breadths, earth from both hanks of the 
Ganges, clay that has been pressed by the foot of a horse or 
elephant, and from the King's gateway, which at Chunlr is the 
main gate of the fort, are collected. The child's father bathes and 
goes into the ooortyard. There a barber woman makes a square of 



BBAHMAK. 152 

flour, and in it places a stool for him to sit on. Near him is placed 
a jar {^alsa) filled with Ganges water. The Forohit or &unily 
priest then worships Gauri and Gunesa. The earth and blankets 
are put into the sieves and laid on the father's head, while over him 
is poured the water drawn from twenty-seven wells. After this 
the barbei-'s wife receives the blankets as her perquisite, and a small 
money present. This done, the father is considered pure, and he is 
allowed to come out, shave, and bathe. Then he returns to the 
square, where he worships a small brass or gold image of. Vishnu. 
Near him is placed a brass saucer {iaiori) which is filled with ghi 
from a black cow. The ghi is melted until it becomes quite thin. 
The saucer is placed before the father, who keeps his eyes fixed 
upon it. The mother comes up from behind with the child in her 
arms, and she holds the baby so that the father may 4see its image 
reflected in the ghi. After this the child is seated in his lap, antl 
he makes it a present in money. In case the child is bom in 
Mul, the twelfth day rite is postponed, and carried out with the 
observance on the twenty-seventh day. The ceremony ends with 
the feeding of twenty-seven Brahmans, and the presenting of gifts 
to the friends and relatives who have attended the ceremony* 

In the families of learned Br&hmans, such as Pandits, when 

the child is two months old it is dressed in 

Dolarohana. 

A new cap and coat and placed in a swing* 
(kindola). Up to that time it remains on a bed. Hub rite is 
known as dola rohana. On that day the family god is worshipped, 
and rich food {pilirii bakhir) is cooked for the household. 

19. Pandits have also another rite known as 5^ the bringing* 

out,'' vahirnisarana, 1'he usual custom 

Vahir niBarana. 

is that the child is not brought out of the 
house until '' the grain feeding," anncprdsana. Bnt if it is 
desired to bring the child out before it is fed on grain, he performs 
this rite. The baby is dressed in a new coat and cap of bine cloth, 
the colour of the sky. These clothes are first dedicated at the 
house shrine {diukart), and then the child's forehead is marked 
with lamp-black {kdjal) and a necklace of holy seeds {bafarbalfa) 
and tiger's claws (haghnaha) tied round its throat. All these are 
devices to repel the Evil Eye. It is then brought out ; but as an 
additional precaution a black piece of cloth, a colcnr which 
frightens evil spirits, is himg roimd its neck, or at any rate the coat 



153 BRAHMAK* 

is bound with black braid. In former times this bringing of the 
child into the open air was known as the nisHramana, 

20. According to the early ritual the "food-giving" rite or 

annaprdsana was performed in the sixth 
month after birth. " The child was carried 
in the arms of its father and placed in the midst of a party of 
friends, including the family priest, who offered prayers for its 
wel&re and presented it gifts. A little food (generally rice) was 
then for the first time placed in its mouth, and various qualities 
were supposed to be imparted, according to the nature of the food 
given, whether rice, butter, honey, milk, or the flesh of partridges 
or goats/'^ Now-adays in the sixth month a lucky day is 
selected. Rich food {pflri^ baiHr) is cooked; the waist string 
of some old member of the family is broken and tied round the 
waist of the baby to ensure its long life. Then a tray containing 
rich food is laid before the oldest man in the family. He takes a 
little out, and after making a holy circle round it with water, offers 
it to Vishnu. The reason of this is that there was once a foolish 
Br&hman whose children used to die one after the other, so he made 
a vow that if his child lived, he would eat its ordure. The child did 
live, and he was fain to avoid performing his rash vow ; so he went 
to a learned Pandit at Benares, who directed him to take out a 
little of his food that day in this manner, and so his vow 
would be satisfied. Hence Br&hmans before eating always take 
out a Kttle food in this way, and offer it to the Thakur. After this 
has been done the old man before whom the food has been placed 
takes up a little of the food on one of the silver coins of the ancient 
kings or on a gold mohur of the Emperor Akbar, and puts it into 
the child's mouth. No English coin will answer the ]mr{X)se. 
After this, if the family can afford it, a few Brahmans are feil. 
H they are poor they consume the food which has been pre|)ared for 
the rite, and give a Brihman some raw graia. Until the ««««- 
prdtana is done the child is never left alone lest the witch Jamhua, 
who is really the impersonation of the infant lock-jaw, which is so 
fatal to children owing to the cutting of the cord with a blunt 
instrument and the neglect of all antiseptic treatment, shtmid carry 
off the Uiby. Hence a woman or child is always left in charge. 
As an additional precaution, they also place m^ar tin* bed an iron 



I UvmJm WUUut, BtvAvmimmm and Hk%UUn. MZ. 



BbAhman. 164 

lamp-black box {kajrauta)^ and anoint the child font or five times 
with a mixture of oil and turmeric {ubtan) in the belief that as it 
is rubbed its strength will increase. 

21. In the fifth year the rites of head-shaving {m4nra%) and 
The MAnran and ©ar-piercing {kanchhedan) are performed. 
kanohhedan. The regular ritual prescribes that the tonsure, 

shaving and cutting ofE the hair should be done separately. They 
were known as ehaula, eiUdaiarma, ketanta^ and k^kanr. " When 
performed for the first time they were held to have a purificatory 
efFect on the whole character. In the case of a Brfthman the 
ceremony of tonsure was performed in the third year, but was often 
delayed^ and sometimes did not take place till the seventh or eighth 
year. According to Asvalayana the child was to be placed on the 
lap of its mother to the west of the sacrdd fire. The father was to 
take up his station to the south of the mother, holding in his hands 
twenty-one stalks of kusa grass. He was to sprinkle the head of 
the child three times with a mixture of warm water, butter, and 
curds. He was to insert three stalks of kusa grass into the child's 
hair on the right side, saying,—' O divine grass I protect him.^ 
Then he was to cut off a portion of the hair and give it to the 
mother with the recitation of various texts, leaving one lock {tikka, 
chuda) on the top of the head, or occasionally three or five locks, 
according to the custom of the family.''^ At present it is usual 
for the Eastern Brahmans to have this rite performed at some 
shrine, such as that of Devi of Bindh&chal. For three days before 
the shaving rite a song is sung in honour of Devi, and many 
Brahmans who have lost children, vow that if the life of toe last 
is spared, the mother will carry the whole way to the shrine a clay 
pot (burst) full of fire, and will eat nothing on the road but parched 
grain. When they reach the courtryard of Devi's temple, they 
place the fire pot before the Panda, whose parishioners they may 
happen to be. Next day, after bathing the child in the Oangee,tlie 
parents take it to the temple, and the Panda instructs them how to 
perform the usual circumambulation {parikrama). Aftor this the 
baby is seated in its father's lap near the shrine, and a baarber 
shaves its head. A few sweets {laddm) are given to the ohiId| 
and then a Sunar comes up from behind and pierces both its ears. 
They take home with them a striped handkerchief {ekundoii^ irtidii 

1 Monier Williams, Btakmafiism and Hinduitm, 85S« 



15S BBAIIIIAK. 

ihejr tie round their neoks for good luck^ and some sweetmeats, 
nrhich they distribute among their friends as the holy food {prasdd) 
of the goddess. 

22. The rites of childhood close usually with the F&thana or 
^ ^ commencement of learning. A lucky day is . 

selected, and with earth and water from the 
Ganges a little platform {ciaiiUra) is made. When it is xealy 
some dry earth is sprinkled oyer it. Below the platform the chiid 
is seated facing east, while the family priest &oes west. Ganesa^ 
the deity of good luck, is first worshipped. Then a oowry shell is 
placed on the platform and worshipped. Next the priest puts the 
shell in the bojr's hand and makes him write with it fiye times the 
words Sri Oanesa nam^i. This he has to obliterate with his right 
hand. Some Br&hmans are fed if the family can afford it ; and 
from that day the boy's education begins. 
. y 28. After this comes the importmt rite of initiation known as 

npanafana. A Br&hman should be initiated 
when he comes to be eight years old, dating 
from the time of conception. A time should be selected when the 
stars are auspicious, and it should not be performed in the evening 
or during a thunder-storm. First of all a shed {mdmro) is erected 
with bamboo supports. In the centre a ploughshare is placed, and 
near it a jar {kaha) filled with water. Under the thatch a square 
{ckauk) is marked out with flour, and on this two leaf mats (palari) 
are laid, and under them some grains of barley are sprinkled. On 
these mats the parents of the boy sit with the comers of their gar- 
ments knotted together and facing the east. The father wean a 
yellow loin-cloth, and has a handkerchief {aiifoekka) over his left 
shoulder. The mother wears a yellow sheet. Then the officiating 
Purohit places in the father's right hand some holy rice {^ckAttt) 
and flowers, repeating at the same time some texts and directing 
him to pour the contents of his hand on the ground. Next the 
Purohit puta some gold or copper coins in his hands, and reads the 
iauisipa or formuU of dedication. Then he inrokas Dharitri MAta 
or Mother Earth, and the father puts the money on the ground^ 
which he touches reverently. He then sprinkles the earth with 
water from a bunch of iiu« grAM» And offers Malayagir or Malabar 
sandal-wood and incense to Mother £arth« Then Ganesa is wor* 
shipped in the form of a representation of an elephant whidi is 
made on the water jar {Jtslss). The picture is drawn with rsd 



\ 



BRAHMAN. 156 ' 

lead or turmeric. Then an image of Gauri }& made of cow-dung 
and placed near the water jar. Some make seven images of cow- 
dung to represent Gauri and her sisters. 

24. Next the jar is filled with water by the father of the boy, 
and over the mouth is placed a saucer containing some of the sacred 
grains, the sdicdn millet, unhusked rice or barley. This is followed 

"^ by the worship of the nine planets {navjigraha). To the north- 
east of the jar is made an altar (vedi), and on it a square is marked 
out with flour, in which images of the planets are made in various 
ways. That of the Sun is made of flour ; Mangal or Mars of re<l 
lead ; that of the Moon of rice-flour ; that of Vrihaspatior Jupiter 
of turmeric ; that of Budha or Mercury of turmeric ; that of Venus 
or Sukra of rice-flour ; that of Sanischara or Saturn and Rihu and 
Ketu, the ascending and descending nodes, of iil or sesamom. 
Then with the recital of appropriate texts offerings are made to 
each, — to the Sun, a cow, copper, wheat, red sandal, and red cloth ; 
to the Moon, a conch shell, Malabar sandal, white cloth, a white 
cow, and rice ; to Mangal, a red ox, red cloth, copper, treacle, and 
rice ; to Budha, camphor, tnung pulse, green cloth, a bhick cow, and 
gold ; to Vrihaspati, a yellow cow, yellow cloth, gram, and tur- 
meric ; to Sukra, Malabar sandal, white cloth, rice, and a white 
horse ; to Sanischara, oil, sesamum, black cloth, a black cow, and 
iron ; to Rahu, a buffalo, or goat, a blanket, cotton and its seed, 
urad pulse, and sesamum; to Ketu, cloth of various colours, grain, 
iron, sesamum, and urad pulse. 

25. All these offerings, except those made to the last three 
deities, are taken by ordinary Brahmans ; those to Sanischara by 
the Bhanderiya or Dakaut. 

26. When the offerings are complete, the parents are dismissed, 
and the boy who desires initiation is called. All his hair is shaved, 
and he is invested with a waist-string {kardhana) of manj fibre, a 
small loin cloth (i^opin), and he is given a dftnd or bamboo stick, to 
the end of which is tied a cloth containing some rice and pulse. 
This signifies that he has adopted the role of the Sannydsi. The 
Purohit repeats texts, and five other Brahmans sprinkle the eight 
parts of his |>ody with a mixture of lice and turmeric. Then 
another square is made, and teven lamps and- twigs of mango are 
tied together and placed within it. Beside them are laid seven 
images of Gauri made of cow-dung, and he worships the lights and 
^he images of the goddess. Next he worships the water jar, and 



167 brIhmak. 

gce6 to the house door^ on each side of ^hich seven images of Ganri 
are made. These he worships with an offering of cakes {piri), red 
lead, sacred grass, incense^ lamps and naivedya or a mixture of 
treacle, curds, ghi, honey, and water. After this he returns to the 
house, and in the inner room {kokabar) worships ten images of 
Gauri in the same way. Next he pours ghi on the images of all 
the deities whom he has up to this time worshipped. Then his 
parents are recalled, the comers of their garments are knotted 
together, and they are made to sit in a square facing the south. All 
the ancestors are invited to appear and sit on leaf mats placed close 
by for their xeception. When their spirits are supposed to hAve 
taken their places, some rice, ber fruit, treacle^ ghi, honey, and 
tsesamum are mixed together and formed into a lump. This is 
offered to the sainted dead, and afterwards placed in the shed. 
Again the parents are dismissed, and the boy is called in. Eight 
Brahmans are called in and f^ on pakki under the shed. The boy 
sits in the midst of them, and each Br&hman gives him a morsel 
of his food, which he eats. On this occasion the boy is not allowed 
to eat salt. \Mien the meal is finished, the door is again plastered. 
27. Next three altars are made in the shed. Each altar should 
be the length of the distance of the point of the thumb from that of 
the ring 6nger. The father entrusts his son to a priest of the Achftrya 
grade, and humbly requests him to instruct the lad and 'make him 
a full BrAhman. The Acharya signifies his consent by taking the 
lH)y by the arm, and the lad has to make an offering of eight 
Biahmanical threads (janeit). One is offered to the sacred wat«r 
jar, one to Ganet>a, five to fi\'e Brahmann, and one the lad keepa 
him^lf. Further, the lad prei»cnts a full suit of clothes to the 
Puruhit, Guru and Acharya, and one to another Brahman, who ia 
regarded as the representation uf Drahma. Then beginning from the 
north-east he spieads kusa grass evenly on the three altars, and 
the Achirj'a calls for fire, which is brought in a vessel made of bell 
metal (Jtdma). Vpim this is heaped up wood of the maddr {m$cl4» 
piai gigante^) paidsa (bmira frondoia)^ kkair {m':^eia eaieeku) 
chirckiti (aekj/ramtkui asptrm), P^/^h 9^i^^9 immi, and tome ddt 
grass. This collection of wood is technically known as tamidk. 
When this is ready the lad makes a present to the Brahman who 
represents Brahma, and asks him to watch over the sacrifice and 
prevent any interniiiiiun of it. Then the Achirya repeats tk« 
appropriate taxi one hundred and eight times, and all the time keepa 



bbAhman. 158 

pouring ffU on the wood. This oblation otffii is known as aiuii, 
and is done with a lea£ or twig of mango. Fieote of dry cow-dung 
(goitha) and three sticks of paldia wood are also thrown on the 
fire^ and so with all the kusa grass which had been spread on the 
altars. On the top are placed some betel and coooanuts. On this 
five Brahmans hold a Br&hmanical thread and invest the lad with 
itj repeating the appropriate text. 

28. After this the lad is bathed with water from eight jars, and 
he pnts on another sacred thread. He> is dressed in yellow gar- 
ments and golden ornaments and wears wooden sandals (klaranm) 
stained with turmeric He next begs from all present* 

29. He then runs out in the guise of a Brahmach&ri with the 
object of attaining religious knowledge^ and is dissuaded by his 
parents from adopting the life of a recluse. When he consents to 
return the women of the house put treacle and washed rice in 
his hands, and kiss the eight parts of his body. The deities and 
sainted ancestors who have graced the rite with their presence sre 
humbly requested to return to their own abodes^ and the rite is 
complete. 

y"^ 30. The ceremony, though disguised by an elaborate Brfthmani- 
cal ritual, is obviously based on the same general prineiples of which 
an elaborate account, derived from the usages of various primitive 
races, has been given by Mr. Frazer.^ 

31. Some account of the other domestic ceremonies of Br&hmans 
Other domestio oere- . has been given in connection with the Brfth- 
moniM. manical tribes, and need not be repeated here. 

82. The religious functions of the Br&hman are various. If the 
The functions of the word is, as ProfcsBor Schrader' suggests^ 
BrihmanB. philological ly the same as the Flamen of 

Rome, we have a link vrith the religious practices of two branches of 
the great Aryan race. We have first, the Upftdhyiya or Pidh% 
who is the officiating priest, vrith whom may be classed the Achir^ 
ya, Hotri, and similar functionaries whose business it is to superin- 
tend the more elaborate ahd mysterious rites of the faith which 
can be performed by none but those deeply conversant vrith the 
Vedic ritual. Next comes the Parohit or Purohit, ** one placed in 
front/' the prepoiiiui or praetei of the Roman world. The instita- 



1 Qoldsn Bough, U, S42, $qq, 
s PrM§laric AnUfuitieB, 416, 490. 



169 brJlHhak. 

tion of the Forohita, who wmb not only a mere honse priest^ bat a poll- 
tical functionary y goes back to the early Aryan times. In Yedio 
times he was regarded as a confidential and virtnons minister of state ; 
bat by the time of Mann^ he had &llen to a lower status^ and was 
regarded as inferior to other Br&hmans. His duties consist in super- 
intending the domestic rites at birth, initiation^ and marriage. He 
must be acquainted with the appropriate mantrai or texts which 
are used on these occasions, and he generally knows a modicum of 
astrology (Jyotiti) by which he is enabled to cast horoscopes and 
announce the lucky and unlucky days for the performance of the 
▼arious family rites, the commencement of agricultural operations, 
and the like. The ordinary village Purohit is, it is hardly neces- 
sary to say, very seldom proficient in Sanskrit or religious learning. 
He is able to mumble a few texts without understanding them ; but 
he rarely makes any attempt to inculcate morality or improve the 
lives of his parishioners. This duty, so far as it is done at all, he 
leaves to the GKiru, who may or JD»y not be a Br&hman. The 
lowest class of semi-religious drihman is that which, as Mr* 
Ibbetson' says, '* exist only to be fed. They consist of the younger 
members of the Purohit families, and of Br&hmans who have settled 
as cultivators or otherwise in villages where they have no hereditary 
clients. These men are always ready to tender their services as 
recipients of a dinner, thus enabling the peasant to entertain the 
desired number of Br&hmans on occasions of rejoicing, as a propitia* 
tory ofiTering, in token of thanksgiving, for the repose of his 
deceased father's spirit, and so forth. The veneration for Brfthmans 
runs through the whole social as well as religious life of the Hindu 
peasant, and takes the practical form of either offerings or food« 
No child is bom, named, betrothed, or married ; nobody dies or is 
burnt ; no journey is undertaken or auspicious day selected ; no 
house is built, no agricultural operation of importance begun, or 
harvest gathered in, without the Brihmans being fed ; a portion of 
the produce is set apart for their use ; they are consulted in sickness 
and in health ; they are feasted in sorrow and in joy ; and though 
I believe them to possess but little real influence with the people, 
a oonidderable portion of the wealth of the Province is diverted into 
their useless pockets.'' This is pretty much the state of the 

I XII. 46, Mid M« Hair, Aneiemt SmmikrU T$M$, I, ItB, a^lt. 



\ 



BRAHMAN. 



160 



Br&hmans further ea&t. As Mr. Sherring^ says of the Benares 
Brahman : — '^ Light in complexion in comparison with the rest of the 
people, frequently tall in stature, with the marks of a clear pene- 
trating intelligence depicted plainly, and sometimes in a striking 
manner^ upon his countenance, erect^ proud^ self-conscious, the 
Brahman walks along with the air of a man unlike any I have ever 
seen, in which self-sufficiency, a sense of superiority and a conviction 
of inherent purity and sanctity are combined/' 

33. Besides these sacerdotal Br&hmans there are, it is needless to 
say^ numbers who have no religious functions whatever^ who serve 
as soldiers or messengers, clerks in our offices^ and the like. Ther^ 
is also a large body of Brahman agriculturists^ though most of 
them will not themselves touch the plough. 



Distnbttlion of Brdhmans according to the Census of 1691, 



District. 



Number. 



Dehra Duq 



Sah&raiipur 

Mazaffarnagar 

Meerat 

Bulandsbahr 

Aligarh 



Mathura 



Agra 

FarmkbAUd 
Mainpuri 
Etawah 



Etah 



Bareilly 



16,027 

44,250 

41,427 

108,071 

92,000 

131.798 

113,936 

128,636 

78,220 

66»301 

91,019 

53318 

47,086 



' Saered city of the HtndiM, 14. 



161 



bbahmak. 



IHHribution qf Brdhmans according to the Census of 1891 — oontd. 



District. 



Namber. 



liijnor 

Moridibid 

8b4hjiihAnpQr 

Pilibbtt 

Caw D pur 

Faiehpoi 

lUnda 

Hamtrpur 

AUahibAd 

Jbinsi 

JAUnn 

Lalitpar 

BCDATM 

Mirzapar 
Jannpar 
OhAiiptir 
Ballia . 
Qorakbpur 
Batti . 



Azamgarh 

Kumaun 

OarhwAl 

TarAi 

Luekuow 

UnAo 

RAd liarrli 



27.118 

67.002 

43.578 

60,453 

25,147 

178.399 

68.180 

99.041 

49.570 

196.34^ 

34.633 

48.269 

21.745 

102.978 

165,885 

150,908 

68.379 

103^7 

865.550 

196,412 

iiaios 

134.841 

97.581 

6.705 

44.414 

122,0!6 

108.676 



Vol. U. 



bbAhman. 



162 



BRIKDABAKI. 



DiHrihution qf Brdhmans according io the Cen»u$ of 1691 — concld. 



District. 



Sitftpur 

Hardoi 

Eheri 

FaizAb&d 

Gonda 

Bhar4ioh 

Suit &n par 

Part&bgarh 

Barabanki 



Total 



Number. 



103.850 
113,190 

69,654 
159,637 
28a507 

87,481 
162,509 
124,424 

86,091 



(Males 2,455,791 
4,719,882 \ 

(Femalea 2,264,091 



Brindabani. — A sub-caste of Gkisftins who take their name 
from Brindaban, in the Mathura District {wrindavana)^ ** the grove 
of tiflati '' or basil). It is not quite clear to which section of the 
Vaishnavas the term is applied. The relation of Brindaban to 
the modem school of Hindu reformers has been elaborately disoassed 
by Mr. Growse.^ 



IJitfribution of the Brindabani Gundins according to the Cemne of 

1891. 



Dl«TEICT. 


Nambor. 


District. 


Number. 


MazafTamagar • 
Cawnpnr 


2 

1 

1 


Mirzapnr 

Kberi • . • . 

Total 


24 

11 




38 



' Maihura^ 179, iqq. 



f 



1C3 BTJGniNAi BUNDBLA. 

Bngh&na. — A class of Hilt Br&hmans who by one account are 
descended from Gkur Brdhmans of Benares ; others say that they 
have the same origin as the Naithana Br&hmans (^. r.). They have 
the same relations with Sarolas and Oang&ris, are intelligent^ 
and, when educated^ make useful clerks and officials.^ 
/ Bondela.' — A sept of Rajputs almost entirely confined to the 
Bundelkhand country, to which they have given their name, now 
included in the Allah&b&d Division, According to the Mirzapur 
tradition they are descended from a family of Oaharwftr Rijputs, 
resident at the village of Gaura, near Bindh&clial. Of their ancestors 
one took service with the Rftja of Panna, an independent state 
between Bftnda and Jabalpur. The R&ja died childless, and the 
Oaharwftr adventurer took possession of his fort. lie had no son^ 
and being disgusted with life, he made a pilgrimage to the shrine of 
the Vindhyab&sini Devi, at Bindh&chal, where he offered his head to 
the goddess. Out of the drops of his blood which fell upon the 
altar a boy was bom, who was called Bundela, because he sprang 
from the drops [ftikni) of blood. lie returned to Panna and found- 
ed the clan which bears his name. In their own country they are 
known among themselves as Bundela, but by outsiders as Oaharwdr. 
They do not marry among Baghels, Bais, Gaur, Umath, or Sengar 
Bajputs, who are known as the Sakuri group. They intermarry with 
Panwirs, Dlianderas, or Chauhins. Mr. Sherring's assertion that 
they arc ondogamous is contradicted by them. The prohibitiona 
against marriage are the loss of religion, residence among foreign 
peoples, disregard of tribal custom, and engaging in occupations 
practised by low caste people. The Bimdelkhand branch repre- 
sent themselves to be the descendants of Pancham, R4ja of Benares. 
During the reign of Xasir-uddin MahmAd, Emperor of Delhi, 
(12 id>1266 AD.) Arjuna Pik, a descendant of Raja Pancliam, left 
Ik'naies for Mahoni, and made that place his capital. One of his 
descendants became Rftja of KudAr ; his name was Saho Pil and 
his descendant founded Orchha, and thence his descendants spread 
over Bundelkhand. 

2. The stages in the marriage ceremony anv^ 

J*/. — P/kaltldn, the bi»trothal, when the 
family priest of the bride's family gi\'et the 



I AikiBKm, liimalafan Qastittrr, 1II« 270. 

' Pariij UMd on m noU bj l>i»Aa Bij*/ Dabidiir Siah ci lAlitpur 
Vol. II. t%^ 



BTJNDELA. 164 

bridegroom a sacred thread {faneil), some mpeee^ cloth| andabeteU 
nut, in the presence of the elders of his family. The money is dis* 
tribated as alms among the BrsLhmans. 

Snd.'^Zapan patriia, or the fixing of the date for the marriage* 

3rd.^Paurpaf8(Uidr, the reception of the party (bdrdf^ of the 
bridegroom at the door of the bride's house. 

4th,^^CharhaUy offering of ornaments by the relatives of the 
bride to the bridegi'oom. 

Btk. — Suidpf the rubbing of red lead by the brid^oom on the 
parting of the bride's hair. 

6th, — Kanydddn, the giving away of the bride to her husband 
by her father. 

7M.~P<infyra^ ana, the holding of the bride's right hand by 
the bridegroom as an indication that he promises to suj^rt her aa 
long as she lives. 

Sth.-^Ahuti tarna, the making of the fire sacrifice. 

Sth.^'ParHrama, the revolutions of the pair round the saciej 
fire 

lOlk, — Dhruva sakshi karna^ the promise of the bridegroom^ 
in the presence of fire, water, the sun, and other natural objects^ 
that he will be faithful to her and she to him. 

llth, — Sapyaddn, the presenting of a bed to the married pair. 

12ti. — Da'f a, daAef, or JaAez dena, the giving of the dowry* 
Women can be divorced for adultery, impurity, violation of tribal 
rules, and neither divorced women nor widows are allowed to- 
remariyr 

3. They belong to the Vaishnava sect, and are either RAmftwata 

or worshippers of R&dha Krishna. In all 
respects they follow the ceremonial usages- 
of high class Hindus. 

4. They believe their original profession to have been soldiering, 

and some of them serve in our Native regi« 
ments. They hold land as landlords and 
tenants. They will eat the flesh of goats, deer, wild pig, and fish > 
but those who abstain from meat are considered more respectable. 
Spirits are forbidden. They eat kaehchi and pakii from the handa 
of Brfthmans, and can eat pakki with Banyas and Khatris, by 
which is meant that they will eat with them on the same floor, but 
not from the same dish. They can drink water from the hands of 
ihftrs and N&is. They smoke only out of a pipe used by their 



V 



BUKDUiA. 



166 



BUBHBLA. 



clansmen. The Bundelas, on the whole^ are a fairly respectable 
Rljpat sept, but they are occasionally given to lawlessness, dacoity, 
and similar crimes of violence. 

5. In Jalaun they give brides to the Dhandhera and Panw&r 
septs, from whom also they take wives. They profess to belong 
to the Easyapa gotra. These Panw&rs with whom they intermarry 
are the Rij Panwftrs or inferior grade in Bondelkhand. 

Di$lrihulio% of Bundela Ndjputs aeeording io ike Cemus of 1891. 



District. 


Mamber. 


DitTBlCT. 


Number. 


Bulaodthahr 


25 


AUihAbAd 


114 


IfAihuim . 




1 


Jhinti . • . . 


1.948 


Agra 




15 


JilsaQ . • • • 


189 


FarrnkUbAd . 




58 


Lalitpor • • • • 


6»158 


Ktiwab . 




6 


Gorakhpar 


8 


Blah 




4 


fiaiti . • • . 


96 


Bhihjshinpur . 




89 


Lneknow. 


8 


Cawnpor . 




2 


F«izib4d. 


8 


Fatchpor . 




43 
618 


PartAbgarfa . 

Total • 


7 


Hamlrpar • 


9,307 



Bnrhela*— 'A sept of RAjputs in RM Bareli/ who are not separ« 
ately entered in the Census Returns. Their sons marry girls from 
the Raghubansi and Bais septs ; their girls marry Amethiya and 
with^fficulty Bais boys. 



SHU§mmi Report, il|ipfiidm C, 



chJLi 167 obIik. 



Chai/ Chaiiii Cbaini. — ^A cultivating, fishingy and thieving 
caste foupd in Oudh and the Eastern Districts. Nothing certain is 
known as to the origin of the name. It has been soggested that they 
are the representatives of the ChArya,' a degraded Vaisya class, or 
that the word is totemistic (meaning the seed of a tamarind ; Sans* 
krit, eidrmika, "leather*'). Mr. Risley* writes of them : — "They are 
probably an offshoot f roft some non- Aryan tribe. They are found in 
OuJh, where Mr. Nesfield connects them with the Th&ru, Raji, Nat, 
and other broken and gypsy-like tribes inhabiting the base of the 
Himalayas, and traces in their physiognomy features peculiar to 
Mongolian races. Mr. Sherring, again, in one place speaks of them 
as a sub-caste of Mallahs ; in another as a class of jugglers, thimble- 
riggers, and adventurers, who attend fairs and other festivals like 
men of the same profession in England. A sub-caste of the Nuniyas 
bears the name Ch&in, but the Nuniyas do not admit any affinity. 
Mr. C. F. Magrath, in his Memorandum on the Tribes and Castes 
of Bihir, published in the Bengal Census Report of 1S72, says they 
closely resemble Binds in their occupation, being chiefly lK)atmcn, 
who also engage in fishing. Ch&ins are thickest south of the Ganges^ 
while Binds are most numerous in North Bihir. Mr. Magrath 
adds that their reputation as thieves, impostors, and swindlers, is in 
his ex])erience not altogether deserved, as the men whom the common 
people, and even the |K)lioo of Bihir, descrilie as Chains, usually turn 
out on enquiry to be Maghaiya Doms, Nats, or Rajwars/' Their 
cubtonis, according to Mr. Rislej'^s account, do not differ from those 
of Mallahs. 

2. In Oudh, according to Mr. Camegy,* thcj' live chiefly by 
fltihing, cultivation, and making reed mats. T)iey smoke with but 
do not eat iinth Mallihs. They frequent the neighbourhood of lakes 
and ri\'ers, and are divided into the Eastern and Western branches, 
which do not intermarry. 



I From tnqmriM at Minapvr mod a note bj Bibo B^lri N4ib, Dtpaty Coll«olor» 

Kheri 

* Trib€4 amd Casif*, I, ISS. 



CHAI. 168 

In January they go to the hiils to collect catechu {Hair). They 
worship the monkey-god Mah&bir, Satn&r&yan, and Devi P&tan : to 
the first they ofEer rice-milk {kh(r) in October ; to the second a 
mixture of cooked rice and vetch (urad), called phdra ; to the third, 
cakes {pUrt) and new rice, coriander, and molasses to Mahabir. 
They eat pork and drink spirits. A woman who sins with one of 
her own tribe may be absolved by feeding the brethren ; but not so 
if her paramour is of another caste. They are thimble-riders, 
omament-snatchers, swindlera, and impostors. According to ^f r. 
Risley they rank with Binds, Nuniyas, and Pisis, but nowhere do 
they rise to the distinction which Binds and Nuniyas sometimes 
attain, of giving water and certain kinds of sweetmeats to Brah- 
mans. 

3. In Kheri the rule of exogamy bars the line of the maternal 
uncle and father's sister. They can marry two sisters in succession, 
but polygamy is forbidden. Infidelity, even intertribal, is repro- 
bated. Marriage takes place at the age of ten or .twelve, and is 
settled by the caste Chaudhari. No money is paid by the relations 
of either party. Widow-marriage is prohibited ; but they can live 
with a man of the tribe, the phrase used being gkar-baiikna. The 
children of such connections are recognised as legitimate, but they 
are not admitted to full caste privileges. The levirate on the usual 
terms is permitted. There is no custom of adoption or initiation 
into caste. Betrothals are made in infancy, and the marriage 
ceremony is of the standard type, the bhanwari or walking round 
the sacred fire being the binding portion of it. They worship 
MahsLdeva, Sfirajnarftyan, and K&li, who receive sacrifices of goats 
and rams on a Monday. They will not take any food or water 
from, or smoke with, any other caste. They have given up their 
occupation of mat-making, and now live by fishing and thieving at 
fairs. 

4. In the returns of the last Census they are classed as a sub- 
caste of Mallah. The Chain is what is known as an Uchakk% 
Uthaigira, or Jebkatra^one who picks pockets and cuts with a 
little knife or sharp piece of glass the knots in their sheets in which 
natives tie up their valuables. They frequent fairs and bathing 
places, and (he boys are put on to steal, while the men act as 
'' fences '' and engage the attention of the victim, or facilitate the 
escape of the thief. 



169 cuamAr. 

Chamar.^ — The caste of cnrriers, tanners, and day-labourers 
found throughout Upper India. Their name b derived from the 
Sanskrit cAarma^ldra, a " worker in leather/' Traditionally the 
Chamdr is the offspring of a Chand&la woman by a man of the 
fisherman caste. The Kftravara of Manu/ *^ who cuts leather/' is 
descended from a NishAda father and Vaideha mother. The Nishdda, 
again, is said to be the child of a Brahman and a S&dra woman, and 
the Vaidelia of a Vaisya father and a Br&hman mother. On this 
Mr. Sherring* remarks : — ^' If the workers in leather of the present 
day are lineal descendants of the workers in leather in Manu's time^ 
the ChamArs may fairly consider themselves aa of no mean degree 
and may hold up their heads boldly in the presence of the hi^ier 
castes.'' Mr. Sherring appears to have been impressed with the 
high-bred appearance of some Cham&rs. This may, perhaps, be to 
some extent accounted for by liaisons with some of the higher castes ; 
but most observers will agree that Mr. Risley* is right in his opinion, 
that "the average Chamar is hardly distinguishable in point of 
features, stature, or complexion from the members of those non- 
Aryan races from whose ranks we should primd facts expect the pro- 
fession of leather-drcesers to be recruited.'' Mr. Nestield believes 
the Chamar to have sprung out of several different tribes, like the 
Dom, Kan jar, HabAra, Chero, etc., the last remains of which are still 
outside the pale of Hindu society. " Originally he seems to have been 
an imi^ressed labourer {begdr) who ^"as made to hold the plough for 
his master, and received in return space to build his mud hut near 
the village, a fixed allowance of grain for every working day, tlie 
free use of wood and grass on the village lands, and the skins and 
bodies of the animals that died. This is very much the status of 
the Cliamar at the present day. He is still the field slave, the grasa- 
cutter, and the carrion-emter of the Indian tillage." But it is, per- 
haps at present, until the existing e\'idence from anthropometry is 
largely increased; premature to express a decided opinion of their 
origin further than this, that the tribe b in all probability occupa- 
tional, and largely rci*ruited from non-Ar)'an elements. Anumg 



I Priocipallj tiA««<l on •nqnirien at Minapiir: tin eUU^imU doU bj BAbn 
ViD<lhjf««ari Pim«Ad. I>«i>iitj C(>U»cU^r, lUJlm. ami Dctea >rj the Dvpaij laap^etani 
of Hoh«<>U. Afrra, lUrviUj, BatUnn, Btjnor ; Paodit lUmaTAtikr Piar*. Ksrwi. Mid 
the IVputj C«-nifnia«icii«r, SolUnpor. 

s Sn»t%tuUs, X.Sd. 

• H*ndu TribtB and CasU», I, 391 

« TnU* and CatUs^ 1« ITS. 



ChamAr. 170 

all the Indo- Aryan races the use of hides for clothing prevailed in 
primitive times.^ The Vishnu Pur&na' enjoins all who wish to 
protect their persons never to be without leather shoes ; and Manu' 
warns the Brahmans never to use shoes that have been worn by 
another. In the Ramslyana Bharata places on the vacant throne of 
Ajudhya a pair of Rama's slippers^ and worships them daring his 
exile. The Charmae of Pliny's list have been identified with the 
inhabitants of Charma Mandala^ a district of the West, mentioned in 
the Mahabharat, and also in the Vishnu Pur&na under the title of 
Charma- Khanda.^ 

2. One curious legend of the origin of the tribe has been referred 

to in connection with the Asl^w&la Banyas : ^ 

Traaitiona of origin. , . t* a • i t 

Once uj)on a time a certain Kaja had two 
daughters, Chamu and Bamu. These married, and each gave Inrth 
to a son who was a prodigy of strength {paklwdn). An elephant 
happened to die in the Raja's palace, and being unwilling that it 
should be cut up, he searched for a man strong enough to take it 
out whole and bury it. Chdmu undertook and performed the task. 
Bimu pronounced him an outcast ; so the Banyas are sprung from 
Bamu, and the Chamars from Chamu. Another legend tells how 
five Brahman brothers were passing along together. They saw a 
carcass of a cow lying on the way. Four of them turned aside ; 
but the fifth removed the dead body. His brethren excommuni- 
cated him, and since then it has been the business of his descendants 
to remove the carcasses of cattle. Another tradition makes them 
out to be the descendants of Nona or Lona Cham&rin, who is a 
deified witch much dreaded in the eastern part of the Province. 
Her legend tolls how Dhanwantari, the physician of the gods, was 
bitten by Takshaka, the king of the snakes, and knowing that death 
approached he ordered his son to cook and eat his body after his 
death, so that they might thereby inherit his skill in medicine.* 
They accordingly cooked his body in a cauldron, and were about to 
eat it, when Takshaka appeared to them in the form of a Brfthman, 
and warned them against this act of cannibalism. So they let the 
cauldron float down the Ganges, and as it floated down, Lona, the 



1 Sobrader, Prehutoric Antiquities, 327, sq, 

5 11, 21. 

» Loc. cxL IV, 66. 

4 McCrindle, Indian Antiquary, VI, ai2. Note. 

« For iiutanooB of thia bolicf, see Spencer, PrincipUi of Sociology, I, 2i]. 



171 chahIe. 

Cliamarin, who was washinp^ on the bank of the river, not knowing* 
that the vessel contained human ilesh, took it out and partook of 
the ghastly food. She at once obtained power to cure diseases, and 
e8i>ccially snake-bite. One day alt the women were transplanting 
rice, and it was found that Lona oould do as much work as all 
her companions put together. So they watched her, and when she 
thought she was alone she stripped oft all her clothes (nudity 
being an essential element in all magic), muttered some spells, and 
throwing the plants into the air they all settled down in their proper 
places. Finding she was observed she tried to escape, and as she 
ran the earth opened, and all the water of the rice fields followed her, 
and thus was formed the channel of the Loni river in the UnAo 
District. 

3. The Census Returns show eleven hundred and fifty -six sub- 
divisions of Chamars : of tbet^ the most im* 

IntenuJ stmeiare. , ,, 

portant locally are — 

SahAranpur — Ajmar, Baliyin, Dharaun, Mochi, Sagahiya, Sirs- 
wal. 

Bulandshalir — Bharwariya, Chandauliya or Chandauriya, LiU 
man. 

Aligarh — Chandauliya, Ilarphur, Kathiydra, Mochi, Ojlia. 

Mathura — Chaurasiya, Kadam, Tin^ar. 

Mainpuri — Loniyin, Pajhai>iya, Suji. 

Eti^waii— 'Amrutiya, Bisaili, Xakchhikna. 

Etah — Nagar, Nunera. 

Bareilly — Bardwari, Bhusiya, Chandauii^\a, Nona. 

Bijnor— Sakt. 

Budaun — Baharwir, Chauhtn, Kokaian, Uri^a. 

Moradabiil — BhayAr, Rimanandi. 

Cawnimr — Gangapiri, Rangfiya. 

Fatchpur — Dcsi, Dhuman, Doniar, PanwAr, Rangiya, Turkatwa. 

Banda — Barjaiwa^ Dhaman, Dhi^ndhiya, Dhindhor, Janwar, 
Rangiya, Seth, Soraliiya, l^jjain. 

Ilamirpur — Dhindhor, Rangiya, I'^mit^. 

AllahaUd— Autarbedi, Chand Ri«, Uhatiya, Kaliar, Turkiya. 

Lalitpur — Bhadauriya. 

Benares— Dhuri va. 

Mirzapur —Turkiya. 

Jaunpur— Banaudhiya, Turkiya. 

( I liji zipur — Kanau j iy a. 



chamIe. 172 

Ballia — Kanaujiya. 

Gorakhpur — Bamhaniya, Belbhariya, Birhariya^ Dakkhin&ha;, 
Desi, Ghorchai-ha, Ghosiya, Kanaujiya, Mohahar^ R&jkumiri^ Sar- 
wariya, Siudas, Tatwa, Uttaraha. 

Basti — Birhariya, Chhagoriya, Chamarmangta, Dakkhinaha, 
DeBi,'1VIohahar, Sarwariya, Tanbuna^ Uttar&ha. 

Azamgarh — Gual, Kanaujiya. 

Lucknow — Chauhan, Dusadh. 

UnSo — Chauhdn. 

Rae Bareli— Chandel, Dhaman, Dhundhar, Dhuriya, Ohor- 
charha^ Gorait, Harphor, Khalkatiya, Kulha^ Nona, Tanbona. 

Sitapur — Chauhan, Pachhwslhan. 

Sult§.npur — Banaudhiya, Dhaman^ Nona, Tanbuna. 

Partabgarh— Banaudhiya, Chandel, Dhaman, Dhingariya, 
Jogeya, Nona, Surahiya, Tanbuna, Turkiya. 

Barabanki — Jogiya, Pachhwaban. 

4. In the detailed lists we find the Chamars of the Province classi- 
fied into sixteen main sub-castes. Aharw&r (principally found in 
the Allahabad Division), Cham&r (chiefly in Meerut) ; Chamkatiyas 
(mostly in Bareilly) ; Dhusiyas (in Meerut and Benares) ; Debars 
(in Agra, Rohilkhand, Allahabad, Lucknow); Golfi (in Et&wah); 
Jaiswaras (strongest in Benares, Allahabjid, Gorakhpur, and Faiza- 
bad) ; Jatwas (in Meerut, Agi-a and Rohilkhand); Koris (in Faiza- 
bad, and Goi-akhpur); Korchamras (in Lucknow); Kurils (in Lucknow 
and Allahabad) ; Nigoti (a small sub-caste chiefly in Mainpuri) ; 
Patthargotis (in Agra) ; Purabiyas (in Lucknow and Eaizab&d) ; 
Raedasis (tolerably evenly distributed throughout the Province), 
and Sakarwars (in Agra and Allahabad). But there is hardly a 
District which does not possess, or pretend to possess^ the sevenfold 
division which is so characteristic of castes of this social standing. 
Thus, in Ballia, we find Dhusiyas, Jaiswai'as^ Kanaujiyas^ Jhojhiyas, 
Jatuas, Chamartantos, and Nonas ; in Agra, Mathuriya, Jadua, 
Domara, Sakarwar, Batariya, Guliya^ and Chandauriya. Some of 
these sub-castes are of local origin, some are occupational, and some 
take their name from their eponymous founder. Thus the Aharw&r 
are connected with the old town of Ahar, in the Bulandshahr Die* 
trict, or with the Ahar tribe ; the Chamkatiyas take their name from 
their trade of cutting hides {chdm kdtna) . This sub-caste claims to 
have produced the saints RaS Das and Lona Cham&rin. The 
Jatua or Jatiya have, it is said, some unexplained connection with 



173 cuamAr. 

the tribe of JdtB. The Kaiydn is also a subcaste of the Bohras, and 

is said to be derived from their habit of always sayinp^ iait^, 

'* what ? '' " when ? '' The Jaisw&ras trace their ori^n to the 

old town of Jais, though some have a ridiculous story that it is a 

corruption of JinMwdr, in the sense that they are agriculturists and 

grow various crops (jfnt). The Koli or Kori, a term usually applied 

to the Hindu weaver, as contrasted with the Julahaor Muhammadan 

weaver, are connected by some with the Kols ; by others with the 

Sanskrit Kauliia, in the sense of "[ancestral'' or a "weaver/* 

They say themselves that they take their name from their custom 

of wearing unbleached {iora) clothes. The Jhusiya, and also perhaps 

the Dhusiyae, have traditions connecting ihem with the old town of 

JhCbi, near AlIahAbdd. There are again the Azamgarhiya of 

Azamgarh ; the Jatlot of Rohilkhand, who like the Jatiya say they 

are kinsfolk of the Jits ; the Sakarwar connect themselves with 

Fatchpur Sikri ; in the Central Duab are the Saksena, who say they 

come from Sankisa, and the Chanderiya from Chanderi. In Mirza* 

pur we find the Jaiswara, Jhusiya, Kanaujiya, Kurla, DusAdhu, 

kinsmen of the Dusadhs, the Kori, the Alangta or "beggars/' the 

Dolidhauwa or " palanquin carriers, " the Azamgarhiya, and the 

Banaudhiya, who are residents of Banaudha,— a term which includes 

the western parts of Jaunpur, Azamgarh and Benares, and the 

wiuth of Oudh. To these Mr. Sherring adds : — In Benares the 

Rangua (ranff, "colour") who are dyers ; the Katiui or " cutters,'* 

{hitna) of leather ; and the Tantua, who manufacture strips or 

strings of leather known as tdni. Acconling to the same authority 

s^)mc of these sub-castes are difTerentiated by function* Thus, many 

(»f the Jaiswara are servants ; the Dhusiya or Jhusiya, who trace 

their origin to Sayyidpur, in Ghazipur, are shoe-makers and harness 

makers ; the Kori, weavers, grooms, and field labourers ; the Kuril, 

workers in leather; and the Jatua or Jatiya, labourers. The 

Jaifewiras will not CMrry burdens on their shoulders, but on their 

heads, and are liable to excommunication if they violate this rule. 

They supply most of our syces, and are liable to be eziielled if thcj 

tie up a dog with a halter, which they worship. Any one who 

offends in this way is fined five rupees and a dinner to the brethreiL 

Tiie Mangatiyas or Mangtas live on alms, which they take only 

fn>m the Jaisw&rs. In Mirzapur they describe these functioiis 

f^omcwliat differently. There the Jaiswiras make shoes and work 

as day labourers ; the Jhusiyas are labourers and keep pigs, which is 



CHAMAR* 174 

also the occupation of the DueMhu ; the Koris make shoes and weave 
cloth; the Dolidhanwas carry palanquins, the Azamgarhiyas are 
menial 6ci*vants of Europeans, and tend swine. The Banandhijas 
tend swine and are day labourers. There is again another local 
division of the Eastern Cham&rs into Uttarahas or " Northerners/^ 
and Dakkinaha or " Southerners, '' who live respectively north and 
south of the River Sarju, and do not intermarry. The Chandaur or 
Chandauriya, of the Central Duab, claim to be descended from 
Chanura, the famous wrestler of Kansa, who was killed by Krishna. 
5. These sub-castes are now all, or practically all, endogamous ; 

but there seems reason for believing that this 

Bales of exogamy. /» • i 

fissure mto endogamous groups may be 
comparatively recent. Thus there seems no reason to doubt that in 
the east of the Province the Dhusiya and Kananjiya intermarry. 
The rule of exogamy within the sub-caste seems to vary. Those who 
are more advanced say that marriage is prohibited within seven 
degrees in the descending line. Others say that they do not inter- 
marry as long as any previous relationship between the parties is 
known or asceiiiainable. In Ballia, a careful observer states that 
they do not many in a family from which their mother, grand- 
mother, or great grandmother has come ; nor do they marry in 
the family of their parent's sister. A man may marry two sisters, 
but not a daughter of a brother-in-law. The descendants of one 
common stock are called Dayad, and among them marriage is prohi- 
bited. Besides, this occupation plays a very important part in 
marriage alliances : thus, those who remove manure or night-soil 
cannot intermarry with those who practise the cleanlier duty of 
horso-keeping. As a rule they marry locally within their own 
nei<»hbourhood, if a suitable match can be so arranged. If a Chamar 
entice away the wife of a clansman, in addition to the punishment 
inflicted by the tribal council, he is obliged to repay her marriage 
expenpi'S. If a girl is detected in an intrigue with a caste-fellow, 
her parents are fined one and-a-quaiiicr rupees, and in Mirzapnr the 
same is the punishment inflicted on a man who marries again while 
his first wife is alive. In fact, polygamy is discouraged unless the 
first wife Ini barren, when a second marriage will usually be sane- 
tioiunl by the council. Among Cliamars in particular it seems to be 

I 

believed tliat rival wives do not get on together ; and this sort of 
quarreling has the special name iantya ddh — " the ill-will between 
the CO- wives/' Other sayings to the same purport are Kd9h hi iamt 



176 chamAr. 

bii buri koH iai, ^'— Even a oo-wife of wood is an evil ; " and when 
one wife ia bein^ carried to the burning ground, the other says : — 
i/or jiya na patidwe ; Maui ka pair kiUajdwe,'^"! cannot believe 
that she is dead ; I am sure her legs are shaking still/' In Ballia 
it is said that if a ChamAr marries a second time, the first wife 
usually leaves him, and that her desertion for this reason is recog- 
nised as according to tribal custom. 

6. Cham&rs have a particularly well organised and influential 

tribal council or pancidwai. The head of 

Tribal oonneiL * -i • i x i i_ i? 

every family is supposed to be a member of 
t\\e panthdjfaiy and nearly every village has a headman {pradidn, 
Jamaddr). In large towns there is often more than one headman. 
In small matters the village council is competent to decide ; but for 
the settlement of weightier questions the councils of several villages 
assemble under their own headman, and then a general meeting is 
formed. Custom varies as to whether the headman is a permanent 
official or not. The most usual rule is that, if the son of the late 
headman is competent, he is generally appointed ; if he be found 
guilty of misconduct, the headman is as liable as any of the members 
to fine and excommunication. The cases which come before the 
coimcil may be classified aa (a) cases of illicit sexual relations or 
violation of tribal rules concerning food, etc. ; (i) matrimonial dis- 
]mtc8 ; (c) petty quarrels, which would not come under the cogni- 
zance of a Court ; (^0 disputes about small money transactions ; {e) 
dUiCH in connection with Jajmdni : this last is very common. 
Every Chamir family has assigned to it a certain number of families 
of higher caste, which are known as its Jajmdn (Sans. Yajamdna) : 
for which its members i^erform the duties of cutting the cord at 
birtliF, playing the drum at marriages ami other festive occaf^ions, 
remo>nng and dispohing of the carcasses of dead cattle, and in return 
for those services they recci\'e money fees, cooked food, and some- 
times grain^ flour, etc. In return they sometimes Ripply hhoes at 
marriages, a certain numl«r of shoes annually in pro|iortion to the 
liidoii tliey rct^eive, and also do rejiairs to leather articles, such as 
well liuckets umhI in cultivation. Tlietie rights are very jealoui»ly 
watcheil, and any interference with the recognised d^n^tituents of a 
family is stnmgly resented and brought liefore the tribal council. 
Thcbe onlers of the council in the way of fine or entertainment of 
the claiuimen are enforced under {K'tuilty of excommunication, of 
which the mo»t t»erious reRilt in that, until the ban is remofed, all 



chamAk. 176 

marriage alliances with the family o£ the offender are barred, and if 
any one marries a member of such a family, he at once becomes liable 
to the same punishment as that which they are undergoing. TEvery 
council has a mace-bearer {chiariddr), who goes round and ealls the 
members to the meetings, and he is allowed a small money fee for 
this service. The amount of fine v-aries from one to five rupees, and it 
is very seldom that the process of excommunication has to be used to 
enforce payment. If a person think fit to lay a charge before the 
council he has to pay a fee of one and-a-quarter rupees to the 
chainnan, who will not take up the case until the fee is paid. 
This money^ which to the east of the Province is known as ndlbandi 
or lehriy is spent in purchasing spirits for the refreshment of the 
members. 

7. Chamars show an increasing tendency to the adoption of 

infant marriafi:e. The usual age to the east 

Marriag^e. . . ^ 

of the Province is between four and eight, 
and it is not uncommon in Ballia for Httle girls of three to be 
married. It is very seldom that a girl remains unmarried after the 
age of eight. There are no regular marriage brokers employed ; the 
negotiations are conducted by a member of the &mily who is known 
as agua. As among other Hindu castes marriage is looked upon as 
a sacrament, and not based on contract. It is complete and binding 
once the prescribed ceremonies are gone through, and its validity 
does not depend on the express or implied consent of the parties. 
But no marriage is carried out without the consent of all the rela- 
tions, even those who are distant, and the desoent and family con- 
nections of both bride and bridegroom are carefully enquired into 
before the engagement is made. In Mirzapur the bride-price pay- 
able to her relations is two rupees and five ters of coarse sugar. In 
Ballia they deny that there is a bride-price ; but it is admitted that, 
if the parents of the bride are very poor, the father of the bride- 
groom may give as much as four rupees to defray the marriage 
expenses. As has been said, both bride and bridegroom are carefully 
examined as to whether they are free from any physical defect, and, 
as a general rule, if such be subsequently ascertained, it would not 
be a valid ground for annulUng the marriage. If the husband 
become a lunatic after marriage, the wife in Ballia would not be 
entitled to leave him, provided his relations continued to support her ; 
and in the same way the husband of a mad wife is held bound.to 
support her. Impotence or such mutilation as renders sexual 



177 ohakAr. 

intercourse impoesible is valid grounds for dissolving the marriage. 
But, as a matter of fact, impotency, proved to the satis&M^on of the 
council, is the only valid reason for a wife abandoning her husband. 
Divorce in the strict sense of the t^rm is unknown ; but a husband 
may turn his wife out of the house for proved infidelity, while she 
cannot leave him even if he be un&ithful to her, provided he 
gives her food and clothes. A womaui whose expulsion has been 
recognised by the council, can remarry by the ta^i or ittrdo form. 
The offspring of such informal marriages rank equally for purposes 
of inheritance with those of regularly married virgin brides. As 
regards the offspring of illicit connections they follow the caste and 
tribe of the father unless the mother was a Musalmin, or of some 
tribe lower than a Chamir in the social scale. Such people are 
known by the name of SuratwAl or SuratwAla. When a ChamAr 
takes a woman from a caste superior to his own, their children will 
be recognised as members of the caste ; but if she be inferior to him, 
their children are considered illegitimate, and will not inherit. This 
is always the case when the woman is a Bhangi, Dom, Dhobi, 
KAnchbandhua, or Musahar. 

The child of a Chamir at Ballia bv a Dusidh woman is known 
as Chamar DusAdha, and this is the only case in which a similar 
fuhion of castes is known to have been ieoognise<l. The importance 
of such facts in connection with the problem of the origin of the 
mixed castes is obvious. 

8. Widow marriage is, as has been said, fully recognised ; bat 

WidowHBArrbf* Md «^ong ChamArs, who have, like those at 

Um Uvirmu. Cawnpur, risen in the world, there seems a 

tendency to prohiUt it. The levirate is recognised, but the widow 

can live only with the younger broUier of her late husband. If the 

widow be young, and her younger brother-in-law of a suitable age, 

they usually arrange to live together ; if this cannot be arranged, 

she usually marries some widower of the tribe by the ia^di or 

Jttrdo form. In this case the brother and fsther of her late 

hublmnd have a right to the custody of the children of the first 

marriage : this rale is relaxed in the case of a baby, which aoeom- 

{lanies its mother. In some cases the wiilow is allowed to take with 

her to her new home all the children of the first marriage. Any 

dispute as to matters of this sort is settled by the tribal oouncil. 

If a widow marry an outaider she loses all claim to the estate of hrr 

Vol. IL m 



ch^mIb. 178 

first husband, aad so do any children she takes with her to the house 
of her new husband. 

In such cases the property passes to the brotherB oE her first 
husband . If, on the conti'ary, she marry her husband's brother, she 
or her husband will inherit only if there was no male heir by the 
first mariiage. At the same time, though Cham&rs are quite ready 
to lay down definite rules on this subject, the tribal custom does 
not appear to be quite settled, and when there are in the case 
of the levirate or widow-marriage two families, the matter is usually 
left to the council, who make a partition. 

9. Among some branches of the tribe, as, for instance, at Sultin- 

pur, when the fiirst pregnancy of a wife is 



Birth oeremonies. 

announced, a ceremony known as 9a^di is 
performed, which consists of the distribution of cakes {p4ri^ to 
the clansmen at their houses. But as Chamars are particularly 
exposed to fear of witchcraft and diabolical agency generally, care- 
ful precautions are taken to guard the woman from evil. To the 
east of the Province promisee of offerings are made to Yindhybi- 
sini Devi of Bindhachal, Banru Bir, Birtiya^ and to the sainted dead 
of the family if they vouchsafe an easy delivery. Thorny branches 
of the bel tree {Aegle marmelog) are hung at the door of the 
delivery room to intercept evil spirits, who are also scared away by 
the smoke from an old shoe, which is burnt for that purpose. Hie 
woman sits on her heels during accouchment, and is supported by 
her female relatives. She is attended by a woman of the caste for 
six or twelve days, which is the period for imparity. When it is 
announced that the child is a boy, the women sing the ioiar or song 
of rejoicing. Much of this consists of the invocation of Mdia, the 
goddess of small-pox. After the cord is out, if the child be a boy, 
the mother is bathed in warm water ; if a girl, she gets a cold bath. 
After the mother and baby are bathed, she gets a meal oonsirting 
of molasses, turmeric, and oil, and after twelve hours she is gvrea 
some kalwa sweetmeat. Next day she gets her ordinary food. 
All through the period of impurity the singing of the ioiar is 
repeated. At the door of the delivery room (taurt ; Sans: ini^i^ a 
fire is kept constantly burning, and into it some of main {lin^usiicum 
afotcan) is occasionally thrown. At least for the first six days a 
light is kept constantly burning. On the night of the sixth day 
the women sit up all night and worship Shashti or Chhathi, the god- 
dess of the sixth, with an offering of cakes made of barley*flour and 



179 CHAMJL&. 

rioe boiled with sugar. These are presented in a lea£ platter 
{dauna), and then eaten by the members of the household. An iron 
cutting instrument is also kept near the mother and child during 
the period of pollution. If the child be a boy the father is expect* 
ed to entertain his friends which is usually done on the twelfth 
day. 

On that day the parents or brothers of the mother^if they can 
afford it — send her a coat and cap made of red cloth for the baby, 
and a yellow loin-cloth for the mother. This present is sometimes 
accompanied by a special sort of sweetmeat known as iuikaura 
{$o%ik^ dry ginger) made of sugar, ginger, and other spices ; some- 
times with the faf/itftf ra is sent some caudle (e«iii0<fji»). There is 
no distinct trace of the couvade, except that the husband has to 
take the first sup of the cleansing draught given to the mother, 
and that he docs not shave for six days after his wife's delivery. 
There are no special ceremonies in connection with twins, but they 
are considered inanspici^us. If during the pregnancy of a woman 
an eclipse happen to occur, she is made to sit quiet while it lasts 
with a stone pestle in her hand, and is not allowed to move or touch 
any cutting instrument. If she move, it is believed that her child 
will he deformed, and if she touch a cutting implement that it will 
be bom mutilated. The child is named by the senior member of 
the family. On the fourth or fifth day after the mother rejoins her 
family, the child's head is shaved (sn^jtrajt), and irima about six 
months old, it is fed for the first time on grain (Ann€prd9ait) ; it is 
at this time that it is usually named. At the age of five or seven 
its ears are bored (ka^kktdan), and this constitutes the initiation : 
after this the chihl must conform to the rules of the tribe regarding 
food. 

10. When it is proposed to adopt a boy, the clansmen are invit« 

ed and in their presence the parents make 
over the boy to the adopter with these words, 
^'' You were my son by a deed of evil {pdp); now you are the son 
of so-and-so by a virtuous act (dkmrm)*' As the boy is accepted, 
tlie members of the caste sprinkle rice over him, and the adopter 
gives a feast. 

11. The customs of betrothal vary somewhat in different peaces. 

Thus, in Mirsapur, when a marriage is pro* 
posed, the bridegruom's father with his uncle 
and oUier near relations visit the bride. She is carefully examinsd 
Vol. 1L « S 



ohamIb. 180 

to make sure that she has no physical defect, and, if approYed, the 
boy^s father gives her a rupee, and some coarse sugar is distributed. 
Then her father entertains the party. Next follows the regular 
betrothal {barrekhi), This generally ^^kes place at the village 
liquor shop, where the two fathers exchange platters {danna) full of 
liquor five times, and at the last turn the bride^s father puts a rupee 
into the cup of his relation-to-be. Liquor is served round, two- 
thirds of the cost of which is paid by the father of the boy, and one- 
third by the father of the girl. On this day the date of the wed- 
ding is fixed by the Pandit. In Ballia, on the contrary, the parents 
and relations of the girl go to the boy^s house and present him with 
a rupee and loin-cloth. This is known as paupujfh or '' the wor- 
shipping of the feet '' of the bridegroom. 

When these presents are received in the presence of the members 
of the caste the engagement is complete. 

12. Marriage is of two kinds— the siddi, ehark^ or eharkama^ 

which is the respectable form, and the dola, 
used by poor people. In Mirzapur the wed- 
ding invitation is distributed by the father's sister's husband of the 
boy. The marriage pavilion {mdnro) is then erected. In the 6an- 
getic valley it consists of four bamboos; Cham&rs above the hills 
make it of nine poles of the iiddh tree {HardwicHa binaia) in 
obvious imitation of the Dravidian races by whom they are surround* 
cd. On this day the Pandit ties round the wrist of the bride an 
amulet formed of mango leaves and thread. The next day is devoted 
to feeding the clansmen, and cakes of various kinds are offered to the 
sainted dead. Then follows the matmangara ceremony, which is 
done, as already described in the case of the Bhuiyas. Then as the 
procession starts, the bridegroom's mother does the wave ceremony 
(parachhau) to keep off evil spirits. With the same object the 
bride's mother puts some lamp.black on the bride's eyelids, and 
hangs a necklace of beads round her neck. At the same time, at 
an assertion or acknowledgment of maternity, she offers the girl 
her breast. The bridegroom's father is expected to take with the 
procession five ankle rings (mathii/a) for the bride. The marriage 
is then performed by making the pair revolve five times round the 
ploughbeam [harin)^ which is fixed in the centre of the pavilion. 
Ihere also is erected a rough wooden representation of a flock 
of parrots (^uga) sitting on a tree. When the marriage is 
over all present scramble for the wooden parrots ; but the pole on 



181 chamIr. 

which they were hung is oarefolly kept for a year. During the 
inarriagei a special dance, known as tiie naifia ndci, is performed by 
members of the tribe, some of whom dress in women's clothes. 
Chamirs can give no explanation of this praeticci which may 
possibly be a symbolical ceremony done with the hope that the first 
child may be a boy, as the Argive brides used to wear false beards 
when they slept with their husbands.^ It is specially to be noticed 
that Brahmans are not employed in the marriage ceremony. The 
whole business is done by the uncle and brother-in-law (p^^p^a, 
dahnoi) of the bridegroom. Before they leave the pavilion a goat or 
ram is sacrificed to Paramesari Devi, and the flesh is cooked at the 
marriage feast. The marriage ends with a general carouse at the 
nearest liquor shop. 

13. The dola marriage is done in quite a different way. The 
following is the ritual at Ballia. The friends and relations are invit- 
ed to attend at the bridegroom's house, and they are supplied with 
a meal known as kaletta, which ordinarily consists of rice and pulse 
or parched grain {$atlu) or wheat cakes. The men then proceed 
to the bride's house and halt about a mile off to take refreshment. 
The boy's father subscribes twelve pice and the others two pice each 
with which liquor is purchased. The sum given by the boy's 
father is known as baUdri or niidri, and that contributed by his 
friends 60 Art, After drinking they go to the bride's house, which 
they reach usually about sunset. There the guardian of the boy 
pays twenty«four pice, known as neg, to the father of the bride, 
who supplements it with sufficient to provide another drink for 
the party. Then they are all fed, and next morning they go 
away with the bride. The bojr's guardian presents two sheets 
{»dri), one for the bride and one for her mother, and gives a couple 
of rupees to her faither^ who in return gives a loin cloth {dkoti) and 
a sort of handkerchief worn over the shoulder (kondhdwar) to the 
boy, as well as a sheet for his mother. The barber, washerman 
and village watchman receive a present of two annas each on this 
oeca^ion. Sometimes the owner of the village charges a rupee as 
marmaekh or w^rwdni^ (mdnro^ the nuptial shed), which is paid by 
the father of the bridegroom, and may pet haps be a survival of a 
commutation of Mtitju9 primae mociii, but is more probably one of 
the ordinary village dues levied from tenants by the landlord. 



Wnmn, ToUmUm, 79 : PMl0r§, 11. ISl. 



chamIk. 182 

This, however^ is not invariably taken^ and in return he nanally sap- 
plies some woody etc., for the wedding. The bride is supplied by her 
guardian with a sheet {*dr{), brass bracelets (mdUi), and anklets 
{pairi)y made of bell metal. Her brother or some other person as 
her representative accompanies her to the house of the bridegroom. 
It is a peculiar custom that on this occasion he always walks behind 
the bride. In the dola form of marriage the bridegroomor bis father 
very seldom goes to the house of the bride. The duty of escorting 
the bride home is left to some relation or clansman. 

14. After the bride has arrived that very day or very soon after 
the date of the wedding {lagan) is fixed. The family barber takes 
ten pieces of turmeric, of which he gives five to the bride and five to 
the bridegroom. With this he brings one and-a-quarter MetM of 
paddy, which he divides equally between them. The turmeric is 
ground into a paste, which is rubbed on the foreheads of the piur, and 
the paddy is parched and made into lawa for use in the ceremony of 
lawa parachkana. This part of the ritual is called kaldi or haldidkdm. 
The next day or a day after comes the ceremony dtmaikor or ''the 
digging of the earth.^^ This commences by the bridegroom^s mother 
worshipping a drum (dhol). If his mother be dead, this is done by 
his aunt or some other elderly female relation. 

Turmeric and rice aie ground into a paste {aipa%). The woman 
smears her hand in this and applies it to the drum. This is known 
MtAappa lagdfta, A leaf of betel, a betel nut, and two pice are also 
placed on the drum, which are the perquisite of the owner. Kve 
marks [iika) are then made on the drum with vermilion, and the 
women form a procession and go into a field, led by the drummer 
playing away vigorously. The senior w(»nan then worships Dharti 
Mata or Mother Earth, and digs five spadesful of earthy which are 
brought home and placed in the courtyard. In the middle of the 
yard are placed an earthen pot full of water with its top covered 
with a mango leaf and an earthen lid. Near it is a ploughbeam 
{karu) and a green bamboo fixed in the earth. The earthen pot is 
known as koUa, In the evening there is a feast known as maikara. 
It may be noticed here that there are in all five marriage feastS'^the 
haldidkdn and matkora already described and the b$dk^ marfdd and 
kankan or biddi. From the commencement of the h^ldi cere- 
mony up to the end of the marriage ceremonies the women sing songs 
both morning and evening. 

15. The actual marriage alwavs takes place at night. No Brib- 



183 chamAr. 

man is called in, but the village Pandit is consulted as to the auspicious 
time, and he receives two pice for his trouble. For the marriage a 
square (eAauk) is marked out in the courtyard with barley -floury and 
the bride and bridegroom are seated within it, the bridegroom on a 
stool {p(ria) or on a mat made of leaves (paM) , The service is done 
by some one in the caste who knows the ritual. He begins by the 
potra nekckdra or recital of the names of the couple, their fathers, 
grandfathers and great^grand&thers. Then the marriage iut{kal$M) 
is worshipped, and an ofEering of butter, rice, and barley is made to the 
fire which is lighted close beside the jar, and a similar ofFering is made 
to a fire which is lighted in the oratory {deoiuri) sacred to the house- 
hold god. The bride^s &ther then gives her away to the bridegroom 
{kmnfdddt). He accepts the gift and marks her forehead with a 
line of vermilion, which is the binding part of the ceremony. The 
ceremonies in the dola and ekarhaua marriage are practically identi- 
caL The only difference is that in the former the ceremony is per* 
formed at the house of the bridegroom \ in the latter at that of the 
bride. 

16. Those who have been initiated into the Siva Nirftyani or 

Sri NArAyani, Kabirpanthi or Rimanandi 
sects are buried, unless before death they 
have expressed a wish to be cremated. Their corpses are removed 
to the burial-ground on a gaily decorated bier without any marks of 
mourning and accompanied with shouts of Rdm / Rdm I Sai hai, 
'* The Lord is the Lord of Truth.'' Ordinary CharoAra are burnt 
in the usual way. Those who are poor only scorch the face of the 
corpse {mnkAdp). The ashes, when the body is properly cremated, 
are thrown into some neighbouring stream. The chief mourner who 
has fired the pyre on the day after the cremation places outside the 
house an earthen pot full of milk and rice gruel {mdnr) with a 
pitcher of water for the use of the disembodied spirit. On the third 
day after death comes the iirdiri ceremony which consists of the 
offering of oblations and cakes of barley-flour (pinda) to the depart* 
ed soul. On the tenth day (daiwdm), this ceremony is repeated, and 
the castemen are fed. On that day the person who fired the pyre 
{dMoika) is purified by being shaved. On the eleventh the utensils 
and private property of the dead man are made over to his sister's 
husband (hakn&i)^ who actn as the officiant priest— perhaps a survival 
of the matriarchate. In some places, however, and particularly 
where Chamirs are becoming rich and influential, the Mahibrihman 



chamAr. 184 

offers the sacred balls {piH4a). When the service is done by a 
member of the tribe he says, — Ar Oanga, pit Ganga; Bikdri ka 
beta, Bdmbokhsk ka n^fi, pinda dei ; Qanga Afdi hmjhtiji det — 
'^ Ganges on this side, Ganges on that side ; the son of Bihari (or 
whatever his name may be) the grandson of Rimbakhsh offers the 
cakes, but mother Ganges gives only bubbles in return/' Some 
plant a few stalks of grass near a tank as an abode for the spirit 
which wanders about until the funeral ceremonies are complete. On 
this water is poured daily for ten days. Some again g^ve a tribal 
feast on the twelfth, some on the sixteenth day after death. On 
the anniversary of a death twelve balls are offered, and, if the family 
can afford it, the clansmen are fed. Some, again, after the usual 
balls and oblations during the fortnight {pifrapaisia) sacred to the 
dead, join in removing thee orpse, and each of the five touches his 
mouth with a burning brand. By this procedure none of the five 
incurs any personal defilement. 

17. Chamars in the main conform to the popular type of village 

Hinduism. To the east of the Province all, 
except the richer and more advanced members 
of the caste, dispense with the services of Brahmans, except in so far 
as they usually consult them about the marriage auspices. To the 
west their marriage ceremonies are performed under the guidance 
of the low Gurra or Chamarwa Brfthmans. To the east, as they be- 
come rich and influential, they employ Sarwariya or Kanaujiya Brfth- 
mans of a degraded type. To the west the mourners accompanying 
the corpse address the Creator in the words — 1«H hai ; tain ne paida 
kij^a, aur tain ne mdr liya. '' Thou art He ; Thou hast created 
and then destroyed/' In Rohilkhand their clan deities are Bhawini, 
Jagiswdr or '^the lord of the world, '^ KftlaDeo,Ga]a Dewat, Zahir 
Ptr, and Nagarsen. In Agra they call themsielves of the Gorakhi 
sect, and worship Devi, Chamara, and Kuftnw&la, '^ he of the well.'' 
In Ballia they usually worship a deity whom they call Parameswar 
or " the Supreme Being.'' The godling is supposed to dwell in a 
mound of earth erected in a room of the house. On the day of the 
Dasahra festival seven wheaten cakes and some kalwa are offered, 
and some cloves and cardamoms ai*e ground up and mixed in water, 
which is poured on the ground. This is known as ckkdk. Some- 
times the offering consists of a young pig and some spirits. When 
a pel son is absent from home, he does not erect any mound or 
oratory (deokur) until he returns. In Mirzapur they have a special 



^. \ 



185 chamAr. 

deity known as Terha Deva or '' the crooked one ; '^ they also worship 
the Vindhyabfisini Devi, of Bindh&chal; B&nm Bir, a demon of 
whom they know nothing bat the name ; Sairi Devi, Birtiya, and 
the sainted dead (purkia lop). All these deities are worshipped 
in times of trouble with the sacrifice of a young pig, the meat of 
which is eaten by the worshippers and with a libation of spirits. 
On the PachainyAn festival milk and parched grain are offered at 
the hole occupied by the domestic snake. Those who have no 
children fast and worship the son godling, S&raj NArAyan, in the 
hope of offspring. Fire and the moon are also occasionally worshipped. 
To the east their chieT festivals are the snake feast at the Pach- 
ainyAn ; the Kajari, which is a sort of saturnalia held in the rainy \ 
season, when women drink and the roles of modesty are held in 
abeyance; the Tij, on which women fast for the welfare of their 
husbands and sons, and next daye at cakes ( pnri ) ; the Phagua or 
Holi. A second wife wears an image representing the deceased, 
known as sirofna, round the neck, and when she puts on fresh 
clothes or jewelry she touches them first with the image as a sign 
that they have been offered to the spirit of her predecessor. If this 
be not done, it is believed that the offended spirit of the first vnfe 
will bring disease or death. 

IS. But the most remarkable form of worship is that of the 

The SionirAyaai or ^«'*^i^> revivalist sect of the SrinAravani or 

SriDiri^rani Mct. SiunirAyaui. The founder of this sect was 

RAMAs or RavidAs, who was a disciple of RAmanand. Curiously 

enough in the Dakkhin quite a different legend has been invented 

and the so-called Rohidas is said to have been bom at Chambhargonda 

now Ahmadnagar, and is described as a contemporary of Kabir in the n 

twelfth or thirteenth century.^ The Northern India legend, as 

recorded in the commentary of Priya DAs on the BhaktmAla, tells how 

a BiAhman disciple of RAmanand used daily to receive the necessary 

alms from the bouses of five BrAhmans. This was cooked by his 

preceptor, and offered to the Creator before being eaten. One 

day as it was raining and the houses of the BrAhmans were 

at a distance, the BrahmaohAri accepted the supplies from a 

Banya. When RAmanand cooked it, the Divine Light refused 

to accept it, as it was unclean. The preceptor made enquiries 

and discovered that the Banya had money dealings with ChamArs 



CHAMAU. 186 

and that the food was hence defiled. BAmanand, in his displea- 
sure caused his disciple to be reborn in the womb of » Cham&rin ; 
and so it happened. When the infant was bom, remembering 
its past life, it refused to suck from the breast of its mother 
because she was not initiated. Then a voice from Heaven spoke 
to Ramanand and warned him that the punishment he had inflict- 
ed on his disciple was disproportionate to his offence. He was 
directed to go to the hut of the Cham&r and initmte the whole family. 
He was compelled to obey this order. The child v^as named by Ins 
parents RaSdas. When he reached the age of eighteen he began to 
worship a clay image of Rama and J&naki. This wafe displeasing 
to his father^ who turned him out of doors. BftM^ then set up 
business as a shoemaker and continued his mode of worship. He 
used to present all wandering ascetics with new shoes. One day. a 
saint appeared before him and gave him the Philosopher's stone. 
RaSd&s took no notice of it ; but the Saint touched his shoemaker's 
knife with it and turned it into gold. This had no effect on RaSdas, 
and the saint finally left the stone in the thatch of his hot. 
Returning some time after he found R&edas in poor circumstances, and 
learned to his surprise that he had not used the stone. The saint 
then promised that before morning five gold coins would appear in 
front of the divine image which Raddas worshipped. These he also 
refused to accept. But he was warned in a dream not to oontinue 
to despise wealth ; so he converted his shed into a magnificent temple 
and established regular woi*ship. This enraged the Brfthmans, who 
appealed to the Raja in a Sanskrit verse which means — *' Where 
unholy things are worshipped and holy things are defiled, three things 
follow — Famine, Death, and Fear/' 

19. RaSdas was summoned before the Raja and ordered to 
exhibit his miiaculous powers. He replied that he could do only 
one miracle— that the Salagrama or ammonite representing Vishnu 
would at his word leave its place and come down on the palm of 
his hand. The Rija ordered the Brahmans to perform a similar 
miracle. They failed and Raedas succeeded. This miracle so affected 
the Rani Jhali, whom one version of the legend makes out to have 
been a Princess of Chithor, that she became initiated. On this the 
Brahmans refused to eat in the palace, on the ground that it had 
been defiled, and some raw gi*ain was given them which they began 
to cook in the garden. But as they were eating they suddenly saw 
s sitting and eating between two Brfthmans. So they fell at 



187 chamAr. 

his feeti ftnd then he out his skin and showed them under it his 
BrAhmanical oord ; so he was proved to have been a BrAhman in his 
former liCe. 

iO. Tbe Orantha or Scriptnres of the sect are believed to have 
existed for eleven hundred and forty-five years, but to have been 
unintelligible until Sitala^ an inspired Sannyisi, translated them. The 
present recension is the work of the Rijput Sivanlr&yana, 61 
GhAzipur, who wrote it about 1785 A.D. The most important of 
these works are the Ourunyftsa and the Santa Virasa. The former 
is compiled from the Purinas, and gives an aooount of the ten 
Avatiras of Vishnu or NAr&yana in fourteen chapters, of which the 
first six treat of the author, of faith, of the punishment of sinners, 
of virtue, of a future state and of discipline. The latter is a treatise 
on moral sentiments. The opening lines are,—-'' The love of God 
and his knowledge are the only true understanding. ** ^ 

2 1 . SiuDiriy anis have a meeting house known as DhAmghar, or 
*' House df Paradise ; " Somaghar, or " House of meeting, '' and 
Girja Ghar, or church, a word derived through the Portuguese 
i^refa from the Greek eHliM. It usually contains pictures of the 
Saints GorakhnAth, RA£dAs, KabtrdAs, S&rdAs, and others. The 
scriptures are kept rolled up in cloth on a table at the East. They 
are carefully watched and never given to any one but members of 
their own congregation. They meet here on Friday evenings, and 
any educated man among them reada and expounds passages from 
the GurunyAfli. The only occasion when the SantavirAsa is read is 
at death ; it is then recited from the moment of dissolution until the 
corpse is buried. They are not allowed to eat meat or drink spirits 
before goin^ to tbe weekly service, but this is the only restriction. 
On the fiasant Panchami, or fifth Ught half of MAgh, a HalwAi is 
called in, who cooks some Aalfom sweetmeat (which is known as 
mambio^, or " food of the mind " ) m a large boiler (karkSp). Tliis 
is first offered to SiunArAyana before the Scriptures of the sect, and 
until this is done no ChamAr is allowed to touch it. The explana- 
tion of this is that SiunArAyana was a Chhatri, and it would be 
defilement to him if any ChamAr touched it before dedication. An 
offering of the same kind is made to Guru NAnak by the Sikhs.* 



> BUl«y. THhm and Catim, I, 178. 

> ibbtUoo, i*aiv^ Mihmofrm^, pMS. SSk 

Y0L.1L 



CHAMAK. 188 

22. The title Bhagat which they take does not imply that they 
abstain from flesh and spirits, but they are monotbeists (Sans : 
bkaktay '^ devoted'' ). They say that their chief conventicle is at a 
place called Barsari, in the GhSzipur District^ about which they 
repeat the verse, — ^^^As pis Chandrawdr men, Ohdzipor Sarkar; 
Bindu niramii karat sab B&gh RiA ke p^. ** ^^ In the neighbour^ 
hood 'of Chandraw&r, in the Ghazipur District, all meet together and 
discuss the doctrine of Unity. This place is near the BAS^a garden/' 

23. Persons of any caste may join the Siun&rftyani sect. When 
a candidate wishes to affiliate himself, they first warn him of the 
difficulties before him and test him for a few days, when, if approved, 
he is directed to bring a present according to his means to the head- 
man, known as Guru or Mahant. The candidate comes before the 
Guru, who sits with the scriptures opposite him, and first makes a 
sacrifice by burning camphor and ^^o», or ten kinds of perfumes.* 

^ These are thrown on fire, and the sweet savour which arises is their 

form of worship. Then some camphor is burnt before the scripturesf 
and all present rub the smoke over their &ce8. The candidate then 
washes the big toe of the Guru and drinks the water {eAaranamriia). 
Next the Guru recites privately into his ear the formula ( w^^ntra) 
of initiation, which is carefully concealed from outsiders. After 
this the initiate distributes sweets to the congregation. He is then 
considered Sant or initiate, and receives a small book which he is 
permitted to study, and which serves as a pass of admission to 
future meetings. If he loses it he has to appear at the next Basant 
Panchami meeting, and pay two and-a*half rupees for a new copy,* 
as well as a fine of five rupees for his negligence. At these meetings 
there is music and singing, men and women sit apart, and after the 
Mahant has finished his reading, he receives the contributions of the 
faithful. They are not allowed to drink in the Dhftmghar, but they 
may smoke gdnja, bhang^ or tobacco there. They never practise 
exorcisms {ojAdi), nor do they get into a state of religions fi^izy 
and deliver oracles. As already stated the dead are buried with 
signs of rejoicing. Some camphor is burnt in the grave before the 
body is laid there, and then all present join in filling up the grave. 
All initiates, male and female, are buried in this way. Children 
and persons not initiated are interred without any ceremony. If the 
wife of an initiate die, her relatives can take away her body and 
cremate it. They marry Uke ordinary ChamArs, and get a Brfthman 
to fix a lucky time. A similar movement among the Chamirs of 



180 ohamAr. 

BUispar, in the Central Provinces^ took place under OhAsidis 
between 1820 and 1880^ and in Bikaner under L&lgir about fifty 
yean ago. Their sole worship is said to consist in calling on the 
inviBible k>rd {Alakh, Alakk), V, 

S4. The ordinary Cham&r believes that disease^ death, and all 

troubles are due to demoniacal influence. 
When a person falls ill a sorcerer {njha) is 
called in. and he points out the particular evil spirit which is respon- 
sible for the mischief, and the appropriate sacrifice by means of 
which he can be appeased. In the same way barrenness in women 
is held to be due to her possession by some demon. A widow.is 
very careful to worship the spirit of her deceased husband. In 
this case, as with a deceased wife, no image is used, but a piece of 
ground is plastered, and on it is placed a new loin cloth {clhoti) and 
a waist chain (kardkani). Sometimes a pig is sacrificed. The soul 
of a dead husband is called muttutkya dtva or "the man-god." 
Persons who die in any ibudden or unubual way become malevolent 
spirits {bknt)^ and must be carefully propitiated. Their offering is 
a young pig and an oblation of spirits. Chickens are offered to 
Ohizi Miyfin, goats to Devi, and pigs to the family godlings and evil 
spirits. These are offered at the house shrine, while offerings to 
godlings and saints are made at their temples or tombs. The 
regular feast in honour of the dead is the Malialaya Amawas, Pitr* 
bisarjan^ or Pitrasaunan. Among trees they respect the ftipal 
imlasif and nim. The fipal is the abode of Vasudeva, the imlaii of 
Lakshmi, the tiim of Sitala. Motlier Ganges [Gamga mii) is a special 
object of reverence. The favourite method of propitiating evil 
spirits of those who have died by accident is to pour spirits near 
the place occupied by the Bh&t, and to light some §ifjit in a pipe- 
bowl. For ghosts of high caste persons, the proper offering is a firs 
sacrifice {hom). The ordinary malignant evil spirit i* called BhAt or 
Daitya ; that of a Muhammadan Sbahid Mard ; the Jinn is higher 
and more powerful than these. To the Shahid Mard and Jinn the 
sacrifice is not a pig but a fowl and flowers. 

25. The Chamir from his occupation and origin ranks even below 

the nc»n-Ar\'an tribes who have bei*n quite 

Social regulAiioiia. "... 

rvoently adopted into Hinduism. lie is con- 
sidered impure because he eats beii, p»rk, and fowls, all abomination 



I Cf«tr«i 1^r9wim€m QmmUtf^ 100. #99. 



ohamJLr. 190 

to the orthodox Hindu. He will eat cattle which die a natural denth^ 
and numerous cases have occurred where ChamUrs have poisoned cattle 
for the sake of the hides and flesh. He keeps herds of pigs, and the 
Chami-auti or Cham&r quarter in a Hindu village is generally a 
synonym for a place abounding in all kinds of abominable filth, where 
a clean living Hindu seldom^ unless for urgent necessity, cares to in- 
trude. One proverb describes a man setting up to be Gk)p&l, a respec- 
table Krishna worshipper, while his pots and pans are as filthy as those 
of a Cham&r ( Nem tern Oopdl aisan ; hdnrieharui Chcuwdr aisan)^ and 
another says, — "The worthy are dying and the unworthy living 
because Chamars are drinking Ganges water,''— i^;V/tf war/, dkiikan 
Ji^i ; Oanga jal Chamdrdn pip^)^ This repugnance to him is 
increased by his eating the leavii^ of almost any caste except Dhobis 
and Doms, and by the pollution which attaches to his wife (Cha- 
m&rin, Chamslin), who acts as midwife and cuts the umlnlical cord. 
But in spite of his degraded social position, the Cham&r is proud and 
punctilious and very conservative as regards the rights and privi- 
leges which he receives in the village community. Their women 
wear, at least in the east of the Province, no noserings ; they have 
metal bangles (mat/itya) on their wrists; arm ornaments (^^'«) 
and heavy bell -metal anklets (pairi), Chun&rs swear by R&ma^ 
the Guru, the Ganges, MahMeva Btlba, the shoemaker's last 
{piaruii), and their sons' heads. They will not touch a Dom or 
Dhobi, nor the wife of a younger brother or nephew, nor will they 
call their wives by their names. Women eat after the men. They 
salute relatives and clansmen in the forms Rdm ! Rdm ! and pd^la^. 
26. The Chamar practises a variety of occupations. His pri- 

mary business is curing skins and shoemak* 

Oooupfttions. 

ing, and the latter business has developed 
what is really a separate caste, that of the Mochi (Sans : moekika) ; 
in a village he provides all leathern articles used in husbandry, sudi 
as whips^ thongs, well buckets, and the like. As a rule, he has a 
circle of constituents {jajmdn) whose dead cattle he recdves, and 
to whom he gives leather and a certain number of shoes in return. 
His wife has similarly a certain number of families to whom she 
acts as midwife and performs various menial services at marriages 
and festivals. The Chamir himself is the general village drudge 
{begdr, pkarait) runs messages, and does odd jobs, such as thatching 
when he is called Gharami, and the like. Sometimes he receives 
wages in cash or kind, but perhaps more generally an allowance of 



191 ohamIr. 

grain per plough belonging to the family he eenrcs, or a patch of 
rent-free land. Another part of his dntieB is to beat drams and 
blow trampets during a marriage or when cholera or other epide- 
mic disease is being exorcised from the Tillage. Large numbers of 
Cham&rs take to field labour, act as ploughmen, carters, grooms, 
or emigrate to townS| where they do various lands of unskilled 
work. In Part&bgarh they are said to have usurped the business 
of carrying palanquins, the hereditary occupation of Kahlrs. The 
extension of the leather trade at Cawnpur has made it a great Char 
mir centre. Many of them have become wealthy and aim at a 
standard of social lespeotability much higher than their rural 
brethren, and some have begun even to seclude their women 
which every native does as soon as he commences to rise in the world. 
87. The system of tanning pursued by the ordinary village Cha- 
mlr is of the most primitive kind. The skins are placed in a pit and 
covered with water, containing lime {ei^lna) and impure carbonate 
of soda {itijji) ; after ten days they are taken out and the hair 
removed with an iron 8cn^>er (kiurpi). They are again removed, 
sewn up in the form of a bag^ which is again filled with the bark 
solution, and hang on a tree or stand. This process lasts five days, 
when the tanning is considered complete.^ 



1 Ho«j, Monograph, 90, $qq* It it ia eorunu oootrast to ih« Hoaierio ■jrttaai of 
prvpttrinff hidM, which ooiuitt«d in rabbing with fat and ■tretohing. lUad^ XVll, 
883. 



CSAUlu. 





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105 



CHAMAR OAUB. 



Chamar Oaur.— A sept of RAjpots of whom Sir H. M. Eilioti 

writes — '^ Among the Oanr Rdjputs the Chamar Oaur who are sub- 
divided into Raja and RfiS, rank the highest, which is accounted for 
in this way : — When trouble fell upon the Gaur family, one of their 
ladies, far advanced in pregnancy, took refuge in a Chamdr's house, 
and was so grateful to him for his protection, that she promised to 
call her child by his name. The Bhats and Brfihmans to whom 
the others fled do not appear to have had similar forbearance, and 
hence, strange as it may appear, the sub-<livisions called after their 
name rank below the Chamar Oaur. '' Pargana Sandtia, of liar- 
dai, was, so it is said, occupied by Thatheras,' who by one theory 
are identical with the Bhars, and then Chamar Oaurs came in from 
near Bijnaur in the time of Jay Chand. They came in under two 
chiefs, bringing with them Dikshit Brihmans, who up to the present 
are their recognised priests. They differ entirely from Chamar 
Oaurs, who came from near Cawnpur, and have for their priests 
Tiwiri Br&hmans. The writer of Uie Hardoi Settlement Report* 
speaks of the Chamar Oaurs as '' a refractory, quarrelsome, ill-con- 
ditioned set, their one redeeming quaUty (owed probably to the fact 
that they are Rijputs in name rather dian in reality) is that they 
do not murder their daughters/' Their ancestor, Oanga Siuh, known 
as Kina, or "one-eyed/' is said to have driven out the Thatheras. 



Diitribmtiom of He Chamar G9%f RSjfai% aeeotdiag io the Ce*i9m$ 

of 1891. 



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VouU. 



92 



/ 



OHAl^AMIYA, 196 CHANDEL. 

CHANDAURIYA. 

Chanamiya. — A sept of Rsljputs^ not eeparately recorded in 
the Censns Returns, found in Jannpur, Azamgaih, and Gorakbpur. 
They are generally, according to Sir H. M. Elliot,^ included among 
the Bais of inferior descent^ and are sometimes identified with the 
Gargbans. 

Chandanriya. — A Rajput sept found in Faizab&d. 1 hey are 
an offshoot of the Bais of Baisw&ra, who emigrated under their 
leader, Uday BuddhS Sinh, who gained his estates under the protection 
of a noted faqir known as K^li Fah&r. The title of Chandauriya 
from the village Chandaur is said to have been conferred on the sept 
by the Rfija of Hasanpur.' 

'^ Chandel.' — (Sanskrit Chandra, "the moon''). — ^An important 
sept of Rajputs. They claim descent from the mooui Chandra,, up to 
Brahma. According to one version of the tribal legend Hem&vati was 
the daughter of Hemr&j, the&mily priest of Indrajit, the Gaharwir 
Raja of Kashi (Benares), or of Indrajit himself. With her at mid- 
night the moon had dalliance, bhe awoke and saw the moon going 
away, and was about to curse him saying, — " I am not a G^utam 
woman that I should be thus treated.'' When he replied, — *' The curse 
of Sri Krishna has been fulfilled* Your son will become a mighty 
hero, and will reign from the sunrise to the sunset." Hem&vati 
said : — '' Tell me that spell whereby my son may be absolved. " He 
answered : — ''You will have a son and he will be your expiation," and 
he gave her this spell — " When the time of your delivery comes near 
go to Asu, near Kalinjar, and there dwell. When within a short 
time of being delivered, cross the River Ken and go to Khajrain^ 
where Chintaman Banya lives, and stay with him. Your son shall 
perform the great sacrifice. In this iron age sacrifices are not perfect. 
I will appear as a Br&hman and complete the sacrifice. Then 
your absolution will be complete. " The fruit of this amour was 
Chandra Yaima, said to have been born in A. D. 157, and from 
him to Parmal Deo, whose fort Kalinjar was taken by Kutb-ud-dixi 
in 1202 A. D , there are said to have been by one account forty-nine 
and by another twenty-three generations. 

2. By another version their original birthplace was Kalinjar. 
The King of that fort one day asked his family priest what was the 



* SuppUmentary Qlouary, «.r. 
3 SettUmeni Report, 295. 

' Partlj bailed on notes by M. Jnmna Dtn, Teajher of the 8iini«rptt? 8o)k»o1« mad 
M. Kameal.&j. toacber of the Soho< 1 at Mahoba, Hamtrpnr Distrioi. 



1Q7 CUANDKL. 

day o( the month. He answered that it was the full moon (p4fan» 
mdst), whereas it was really the Amftvas or the last day of the dark 
fortnight. When the Pandit became aware of the mistake which he 
had committed, he went home and fell into deep distress. When his 
daughter learned the cause of his sorrow, she prayed to the moon to 
appear at once full, and thus justify her father^s words. The moon 
appeared, and as a reward lay with ber^ and when her father heard of 
this he expelled her from bis house ; so she wandered into the jungle, 
and there her child was bom. There a BanAphar lUjput saw her 
and took her home. Her father was so ashamed of the afFair that 
he turned himself into a stone, and as his name was Mani Rim^ he 
is now worshipped as Maniya Deva. The Chandel asoendancy in 
Bundelkhand between the supremacy of theGonds and the advent of 
the Muhammadans is a well-known historical fact ; it was during 
this period that the great irrigation works in the Hamirpur District, 
the forts of Kalinjar and A jay garb, and the noble temples of Khaju- 
r&hu and Mahoba were built. 

8. All these legends may point indirectly to some flaw in the tribal 
pedigree. We know that the Mirzapur legend of Oran Deo closely 
connects them with the aboriginal Soiris as the Oudh story suggests 
kinship with the Bhars.^ The Unio branch say they come from 
Chanderi, in the Dakkhin, whence they emigrated after the overthrow 
of the Bundelkhand kingdom of Mahoba by Prithivi lUja in 
spite of the bravery of the Baniphar heroes Alah and Udal.' Part 
of them emigrated to Unio as late as the reign of Aurangzeb. 
As for the Eastern branch of the sept they are admitted to be of 
Sombansi origin, but do not intermarry with the leading tribes. 
The Bundelas are by one account a spurious breiHl lietween them 
and slave girls.' One of the Cawnpur families fasten their coats 
on the right side of the chest like Muhammadans. They say 
they do this in memory of th9 De.hi Emperors who remitted 
their tribute/ 

4. In Bundelkhand they are reporte^l* to give their daughteis 

in marriage to JAdons, Sisodhiyas, Sengmrs, 
Kachhwshas, Bluid.uiriyas, and Tomars; bot 



I jrirtap«r Oag^iU^f, 120» §^. Bmi«lt, Clntu of tL44 Barwli. 

< Oudh G««tf<l4«r, lnUodu€t%mn, XXXVI, Indian Antiquary, I, 9S5 if X, 

• EUiott, CkrpnieitB of Vn^, 8S &I. 

« BoelMUHia, I«jl«r« IndU, II, i5S. 



CHANDEL. 198 

they take ^rls only from tribes of the higher rank. After the 
bride is brought to her husband's house Devi is worshipped with 
the accompaniment of singing and dancing, and then the bride 
marks the door with her spread hand smeared with aipan or a 
mixture of powdered rice and turmeric. The ma^mum number 
of wives that a man c^n take is sevQn ; but the usual number is two 
or three. Betrothal is usually performed in in&ncy and marriage 
very early in life. The family barber often arranges the match, 
but now-a-days a regular marriage broker is sometimes appointed. 
Some dower is always given by the father of the bride. A wife 
may be divorced if she contracts leprosy or if she be unfaithful. 
Such women cannot marry again. 

5. When the pregnancy of a woman is announced the ceremony 
of ehauk is performed in the fifth or seventh mftith. The husband 
and wife are seated in a sacred enclosure {chauk), while a Brahman 
recites texts. After the ceremony parched rice and sweetmeats 
are distributed to the brethren. At her confinement the mother 
is attended by a sweeper woman for three days, and by a barber 
woman for forty days. When the delivery takes place, an old 
woman of the family smears her hand with oil and makes a mark 
on the wall of the room, after which the cord is cut. The mother 
bathes on the third day, after which the ceremony of ekarua is done, 
and this is followed by the usual sixth day observance {ehkaihi). 

6. The betrothal [mangnt) consists in the bride's barber coming to 
the house of the bridegroom and marking his forehead {tikti^. 
Their marriage and death ceremonies are of the ordinary orthodox 
form. 

7. Their special god is Mahddeva, who is worshipped by men, 
and Devi by women and children. 

8. In Oudh the Chandels take brides from the Chanhan, 
Oaharwar, Raikwir, Janwar, and DhakrS septs : and give wives 
to the Gaur, Sombansi, and Funw&r. In Azamgarh they leoove 
wives from the Baranw^, Eakan, Singhel, Udmatiyay Donw&r and 
Gaharwar septs : and give their daughters to the Grargbansi 
Uautam, Palwar, Simet, Rajkum&r^ Bachgoti, Kansik, Raghubanai^ 
Bais and Chandrabansi. 



199 



CHAND£L. 



Diifribniion of Chat^dei HdjpHti aeeordimff to ike Cemm of 1891. 



DiSTBICTB. 






Hindaa. 


MalMm* 
inadAiM. 


Total. 


Sfthirsnpar . • 


m 


• 


18 


24 


42 


Miitaffarnagar . . . . 


t 


• 


17 


••• 


17 


Merrill 


> < 


• 


2 


« • • 


2 


BuUndnlmhr . . . . 


• 


• 


265 


1 


266 


Aliu'arh . . . . 


> • 


• 


45 


• • • 


46 


Miitharm • • . . , 


> * 


> • 


38 


10 


42 


Ajrm 


4 


> « 


119 


• •• 


119 


Farnikl.4U'l . . . , 


• t 


• 


1.319 


16 


1.865 


MNinpiin . . . . . 


1 


' • 


220 


45 


265 


Etiwali 


• 


• 


681 


•• • 


681 


KUh 


1 1 


• 


82 


••• 


82 


Bawillj 


• 


• 


342 


• • • 


842 


Biidiuii 


i 


1 • 


1,C)38 


29 


1.067 


MorAdAhAi 


• 


• 


60 


• • • 


60 


8b4hjiili4niNir . . . . 


• 


• 


5.632 


85 


5.717 


rnibhit 


1 < 


) • 


228 


••• 


228 


i*awnpar . . . . . 


1 


• 


12.868 


■•• 


12,868 


Fat«bpnr 


« 


• 


1.756 


4 


1.759 


PindA 


< 


• 


958 


■ •• 


958 


Ilainlrpur • . • • , 


» 1 


• 


554 


M 


648 


An«U)4d 


> « 


» • 


1.659 


S7 


1.686 


Jhioti 


) • 


• 


84 


31 


115 


JAUno 


t 


• 


978 


117 


1.095 


Lftlitpor • • • • 


• 


• • 


125 


• •• 


125 


Bmibtm • • • • . 


i 


• • 


1.944 


58 


2.CM.2 


MirtApor • . • • 


• 


• • 


4.947 


• ■ • 


44^47 


Jaiilipilr • « . . 


• 


• 


! 7.901 

1 


8 


7.909 



CHANDEt. 



200 



CHAKDRABANSr. 



Dittribiition of Chandel Bdjputs according to the Cknsui of iSPi^-ooncld* 



/ 



DlBTBICTS* 


Hindiifl. 


Moham- 
madana. 


Total. 


Gb^zipur 












806 


257 


1,063 


Ballia . 












3,109 


• • • 


3,109 


Gorakhpar • ^ 












3,429 


60 


3,489 


Bftsii 












228 


602 


830 


Azamgarh 












5,186 


88 


5,274 


Lnoknow • 












810 


15 


825 


Unfto • 












2,834 


74 


2,908 


BAd Bareli . 












1,037 


51 


1,088 


Sitapar 












491 


267 


758 


Hardoi 












5,379 


37 


5»416 


Kheri . 












400 


121 


611 


Faiz&b&d 












906 


21 


927 


Gonda • 












391 


••• 


391 


fiahr&ioh 












195 


40 


2^ 


Saltinpar 












751 


131 


882 


Part&bf^arh . 












315 


12 


327 


Clrabanki # 










• 


886 


19 


905 










TOTAl 




71,146 


2.344 


73,490 



Ohandrabansi. — Properly the race of the moon (Ckandrm- 
vanBo). One of the two great divisions of the Kshatriya raoe, of 
whom a full account is given in the second chapter of Colonel Tod's 



it 



Annals of Rajasthftn/' In these Provinces it is the titkT^^ a 
separate sept^ who are quite distinct from the Chandels who claim 
to represent the ancient children of the moon. They are mo«t 
numerous in the Bulandshahr District* 

2. In Azamgarh they claim to belong to the Bhirgava §otfa ; 
they receive brides from the Bisen, Sakarw&r^ Nandwak, B&thanr, 
Palwir, Gautam, Ujjani^ Chandel, Bais^ Udmatiya, Singhel^ and 
Kausik septs ; and marry their daughters to theGargbansi^ Ragfaa- 



0HANDRABAN8I. 



201 



charandAsi. 



hum, SCb^jbanei, Chauh&ni and Sirnet. In Aligarh they take girls 
from the Gahlot, Kachhwiha, R&thaur, BargAjar. SolanUn, Bichhal, 
Jaifl^ Jangfa&ray and Pondir, and give brides to the Chauhan, Oahlot, 
Bargfljar, Punwir, Tomar^ R&thaor, Kaehhwaha^ JanghAra, and 
Dhikra septs. 

hittribmiion of ikt CAamdrabanti RdjpnU aeearding to tke Cemni 

of ISdl. 



DitTBscr. 


Namb«r. 


DirraicT. 


Number. 


SahArmDpnr 






7 


Jh4«« . . . . 


81 


MaiaffismsKAf . 






2 


J4kaB .... 


2 


Mtemt 






40 


Beoartt • . • . 


600 


BaUodtksbr 






S,840 


Ohisipiir 


12 


Aligarh 






1,007 


Bdlia .... 


70 


Mathiira . 






206 


Gorakbpnr « 


121 


Agra 






60 


Basti . . • . 


94 


FirrnkliAbAd . 






411 


Avmgarb 


883 


Mainpnri • 






14 


Kamana 


26 


BUwak . 






10 


TaiAi . . . . 


61 


luh 


• 




16 


B44B«rtli 


22 


MorftdibAd 






IS 


8ltapar .... 


7 


8b41\i4lisopor 






82 


Hsrdoi .... 


63 


Cftwnpar 






14 


Kb«ri ... 


126 


Fsitbpar 






26 


SoltAapar • 


18 


Bloda . 






1 


B4rmbaoki 

Total 


1 




6.788 



ClianildMi^ — ^A Vaishnavm sect which takes its name from its 
foonder, Charan Dis, of the DhAsar caste, who was bom at Dehra^ in 
the Alwar State in 1703. His father was Murii DhAnar, who 
died when his ton, then called Ran jit Sinh, was only five years okL 
** The boy then emigrated to Delhi and lived with some relatbtts 



charandAst. 202 

there. He became a disciple of Baba Sukhdeva Dis, a religious 
faqir of high religious attainments^ at the age of nineteen, at 
Snkra Ti\, near MuzafFarnagar^ who gave him the name of Bim- 
charan Das. Afterwards Charan Das established a separate reli- 
gious order in his own name^ and^ like others^ preached, and made many 
disciples. His principal disciples were Swimi Ramrfip, Grnsain 
Jagatan, and a woman named Shahgolai. Each of these established 
a monastery in Delhi and obtained grants from the Mughal Em- 
perors, which have been confirmed by the British Government. ''^ 

2. Of the tenets of the sect, Prof. Wilson* writes : — " Their 
doctrines of universal emanation are much the same as those of the 
Vedanta school, although they correspond with the Yaishnava sects 
in maintaining the great source of all things, or Brahma to be 
Krishna ; reverence of the Guru, and assertion of the pre-eminence 
of faith above every other distinction, are also common to them 
with other Vaishnava sects, from whom probably they only differ 
in requiring no other qualification of caste, order, or even of sect, 
for their teachers ; they affirm, indeed, that originally they differed 
from other sects of Vaishnavas in woi*shipping no sensible representa- 
tions of the deity, and in excluding even the tulaii plant and the 
^S&lagrama stone from their devotions ; they have, however, they 
admit, recently adopted them, in order to maintain a friendly inter- 
course with the followers of Ramanand : another peculiarity in 
their system is the importance they attach to morality, and they do 
not acknowledge faith to be independent of works ; actions, thej 
maintain, invariably meet with retribution or reward ; their moral 
code, which they seem to have borrowed from the M&dhavas, if not 
from a pui^r source, consist of ten prohibitions. They are not to 
lie, not to revile, not to speak harshly, not to discourse idly, not to 
steal, not to commit adultery, not to offer violence to any created 
thing, not to imagine evil, not to cherish hatred, and not to indulge 
in conceit or pride. The other obligations are, — ^to discharge the 
duties of the profession or caste to which a person belongs, to 
associate with pious men, to put implicit faith in the spiritual pre- 
ceptor, to ador^ Hari as the original and indefinable cause of a11, 
and who, through the operation of Miya, created the muTerte, and 



* Maclagan, Panjdh CemuM Report, 1^, iqq. 
s Ei§ay§, I, 178. 



203 CHARANllAsi. 

\mB appeared in it occasionally in a mortal fonn, and particularly as 
Krishna at Brindaban. 

8. " The followers of Cbaran Dis are both clerical and secular; 
the latter are chiefly of the mercantile order, the former lead a 
mendicant and ascetic life, and are distinguished by wearing yellow 
garments, and a single streak of sandal or gopichandana down the 
forehead ; the necklace and rosary are of Tulasi beads. They wear 
also a small, pointed cap, round the lower part of which they wrap 
a yellow turban. Their appearance in general is decent, and their 
deportment decorous ; in fact, though they profess mendicity they 
are well supported by the opilenoe of their disciples. It is possible, 
indeed, that this sect, considering its origin and the class by which it 
is professed, arose out of an attempt to shake off the authority of 
the Ookulastha Qusiins. The authorities of the sect are the Sri 
BhAgwat and Gita, of which they have BhAsha translations ; that 
of the former is ascribed, at least in parts, to Charan Das himself ; 
he has also left original works, as the Sandeha Sagar and Dharma 
Jih&j, in a dialogue between him and his teacher, Sukhdeva., the 
same, according to Charan Disis, as the pupil of Vyisa and nar- 
rator of the Pur&nas. The first disciple of Charan D&s was his 
own sister, Sahaji Bai, and she succeeded to her brother^s authority 
as well as learning, having written' the Sahaj Prakash and Solah 
Tat Nimaya. They have both left many Sabdas and Kavits. 
Other works in Bhasha have been composed by varioiK teachers of 
the sect. The chief seat of the Charan D&sis is at Delhi, where 
is the Sam^h or monument of the founder. This establii»hment 
conf»ists of about twenty resident members There are also five or 
hvx similar Mathas at Delhi and others in the upper part of the 
Duab, and their numbers are said to be rapidly increasing.'' 

4. Unlike other dissenting sects the Charandasis keep idols in 
their temples and respect Brihmans, who are found as members of 
the sect. Their sacred place is Dehra, the birthplace of their 
chief, where there is a monument over his navel string, and his gar* 
ment and rosary are kept. "The Charand&si breriary {g^ika) 
exhibits more Sanskrit learning than those of the other sects, and 
instead of passing allusions to mythology, goes into details repird* 
ing Sri Krishna's family, and merety popularises the orthodoi 
Sanskrit teaching. 1 hus there is a chapter on one of the Upanishads 
and another from the Bhigwat Purina. Its style is, perhaps, more 
full and expresHive, and lens involved than other books of the same 



CHARANDA8I. 



204 



CHAUBfi. 



class. The S&dhs hold to the vemacnlar, and some time ago are 
said to have resented an attempt of a learned Charan D&si to snb- 
stitnte Sanski'it verse for the vulgar tongue. The breviary contains 
the Sanedha Sagar and the Dharma Jih&j mentioned above. One 
rather striking chapter professedly taken from some Sanskrit book 
should be called NsLsa Kshetra's Inferno. N&sa Kshetra is permit- 
ted to visit the hells^ and to see the torments of sinners, which are 
described in detail, and the sins of each class specified. It is, in fiict, 
an amplification of the Pur&nic account of Naraka, adapted to 
impress the minds of the vulgar. N&sa Kshetra is then taken to 
visit heaven, and subsequently returns to earth to relate what he has 
witnessed.''^ 

Dutribution of the Ciaranddsis aceoiding to ihe Censui of 1891. 



DISTKIGT. 


Number. 


DI8TBICT. 


Namber. 


Mazaffamagar • • 


11 


Cawnpnr. • • 


11 


Meernt .... 


47 


Pftnda .... 


7 


BalaDdahahr • 


25 


Hamlrpur 


10 


Agra • 


7 


Jhinsi • . . . 


1 


Bijnor • • . . 


22 


J^lanii . • • . 


10 


MorAd4b&d 


6 


Tar&i .... 


2 


8hlUijaL4npur . 


^ 


Total 




M = 


161 



ChaubS — [Sans: Ckaturvedika — "one skilled in the four 
Vedas ;^' according to others because they use four fire-pits {pedi)'] .— - 
A sub-caste of Brahmans who have their head-quarters at Mathar% 
whence they are very commonly known as Mathura ke Chaiib£, 
Mathur or Mathuriya. 

2. They are a sub-division of the great Kwagjiya stock, and 
according to Dr. Wilson,' their principal sub-divisions are,^ 
Nayapura, Hargadi, Chaukhar, Eataya, R&mpura, Paliya^ Hardis- 



1 Rajpuidna QoMelUer, III, 215. 
> InMan Ca$U, II, 156. 



206 CHATJBft. 

para, Tibaiya, Jainadnv% and Gargeya. According to another 
account they have seven gotras and sixty-four alt: of these it 
has been found impossible to obtain a full list. The best known 
of the seven goira* are Bhdradw&ja, Dhuma, Sana, Astra, and 
Daksha. Some of their aU are PAnr£, Pathak, Misra, Laps^, 
Roti, Bharatw&r, Jonmand, Ohebariya, Chhiraura, Donrw&r, and 
Tivlri. 

8, The local legend tells that during the Variha incarnation of 
Vishnu, the Daitya Hirany&ksha, twin brother of Hiranya-Kasipu, ^ 
the hero of the Holi legend, came to fight with the deity. Variha 
killed him, but was smitten with remorse, as his antagonist had been 
a Brihman. So he sat down on the VisrAnt Oh&t at Mathura, and 
began to meditate how he could atone for the sin which he had com* 
mitted. From the perspiration which the deity rubbid from his 
body sprang the Chaub^ of Mathura. With their aid he performed 
a sacriBce and cleansed himself from his iniquity. 

4. The Chaubis of Mathura are endogamous. It is said that 
their women can never live beyond the land of Braj. Hence the 
verse, ~ if a^A»ra ki 6eti, Gckmi H gde, Kmrmm pk4U to ant jdi. 
*' Mathura girls and Ookul cows will never move while fate allows/' 

This custom of endogamy results in two exceptional usages- 
first, that marriage contracts are often made while one or even both 
the parties are still unborn ; and, secondly, that little or no regard is 
paid to relative age ; thus a Chaubd, if his friend has no available 
daughter to bestow upon him, will agree to wait for his Brst grand* 
daughter. They will not, if it can possibly be avoided, marry in their 
Own goira ; but instances are said to occur in which this law of 
exogamy is not observed. According to Mr. Raikes* they have four 
varieties of marriage, called in the jargon of the tribe ^«arv<t/ bydk 
or " 6rst class,^' of which the total cost is Rs. 225 ; tittmm or " second 
class,'' costing Rs. 175 ; iifra or ** third class,'' costing Rs. 75, and 
iofM or " mean," where only one rupee is paid by the bride's folk ; 
bat no disgrace attaches to this cheap wedding. 

5. ''They are still very celebrated as wra^tlers, and in the 
Mathura Moh^tmya their learning and other virtue* are also extolled 
in the most extravagant terms ; but either thi* writer was prejudicol, 
or time has had a sadly deteriorating effect. Ihey are now ordi* 
narily described by their own countrymen as a low, ignorant horde 



CHAUB&. 



206 



of rapacions mendicants. Like the Prigwalas at AlIabibAd, they 
are the recognised local cicerones ; and they may always be seen 
with their poi-tly forms lolling about near the most popular ghats 
and temples^ ready to bear down on the first pilgrim that approaches. 
One of their most notable peculiarities is that they are very reluc- 
tant to make a match with an outsider, and if by any possibility it 
can be managed they will always find bridegrooms for their 
daughters among the residents of the town. Many years ago a 
considerable migration was made to Mainpnri, where the Mathuriya 
ChaubSs now form a large and wealthy section of the community, 
and are in every way of better repute than the parent stock. ^^' 
Another peculiarity of them is their notorious love for bkang and 
sweetmeats. All ai*e Yaishnavas and worshippers of Sri Krishna. 

6. Their women are well known for their beauty and delicacy of 
foim. A native traveller' writes : — '' The Chaubainis are in the 
grandest style of beauty. The whole class is superb, and the general 
character of their figure is majestic. Their colour is the genuine 
classical colour of the Brahmans of antiquity. '^ It is peculiar with 
them to celebrate a number of marriages the same day in order to 
save expense. Their greediness is proverbial — Aehehe bhai aial, 
prdn gae niial — *' A life is well lost that is lost in gorging sweets.^' 



DUtfibntion of CkaubS Brdhmam aeeording io ike Census of 169 1, 



DiBTBICT. 


Number. 


i DiSTBICT. 


Number. 


iJebra l>dn 




1 

9 


1 

• Mainpari . • • 


1,061 


Sab 4 ran pur 




17 


Et&wah . 


122 


Muzaffarnagar . 




3 


, Etab ... 


320 


Meerut . 




19 


I3areilly .... 


248 


BnlandBhabr • 




243 


Bud&an .... 


300 


Aligarb . 




109 


: Mor&d&b&d . 


388 


Matbura . 




5,036 


Pilibbit .... 


90 


Agra 




2,293 


C awn pur 

1 


166 


Farrnkb&bAd . 


• 


90 


;AikbAb&d 

t 
i 


185 



■ Growse, Mathuraf 10. 

3 BbolanAtb Cbandra, Travels II, 36. 



chaub£. 



207 



chauhAk. 



DiHribmiiom qf Ckambi BrdAmams aeeording to the Censu9 of iSPi— oonold. 



DUTEICT. 



JbAnti 

Lftlitpor 

Bentfei . 

Mirupar 

Gkiiipar 

Ooimkhpnr 



Number 



1 
4 

27 

83 

78 . 

lU I 



DiSYBICT. 



Kumaun . 
Tarii 
Lnoknow 
Sttapnr . 
Bahr&ioh . 
8alt4npar 



Malei 



Total 
6.452 



Namber. 



2 
3 
9 
129 
84 
6 



11.020 



Females 6,668 



I, Chanlian.— An important sept of RAjputs. The Biihmanical 
le^nd of their origin is thus described by Colonel Tod* : — ** Again 
the Brahmans kindled the sacred fire, and the priests assembling round 
the fire-pit [agnikunda) prayed for aid to Mahadeva. From the 
fire fountain a figure issued out, but he had not a warrior's mien. 
The Brahmans placed him as guardian of the gate, and hence his 
name Prithiha-dwira. A second issued forth, and being formed in 
the palm {ckallu) of the hand was named Chal&ka. A third 
appeared and was named Pram&ra He had the blessing of the Rishis, 
and with the others went against demons ; but they did not pre* 
Tail. Again Vasishtha, seated on the lotus, prepared incantations; 
again he called the gods to aid ; and as he pouriKl forth the libation, 
a figure arose lofty in stature, of elevated front, hair like jet, eyev 
rolling, breast exi^anded, fierce, terrific, clad in armour, quiver filled^ 
a bow in one hand and a brand in the other, quadriform {Ckaim* 
fMmga), whence his name ChauhAn/' Another account derives the 
name from the Sanskrit Chaturbihu, the name of the first king of 
the tribe. (General Cunningham' shows from inscriptions that even 
as late as the time of Prithivi Rlja, the ChauhAns had no claim to 
be sprung from fire, but were content to lie considered descendants 



I AnmaU, 1. iCTi. 



chauhAn. 208 

of the sage Bhrigu through Jamadagnya Vatsa^ and he suggests 
another explanation of the fabled descent from fire, which does not 
seem very probable. According to tradition the famous city of 
Analpur, or Analwara Patau, the capital of the Solankis, was said 
to have been founded by Vana Baja Solanki, who named it 
after Anala, a Chauhan cowherd, who pointed out the site to him. 
According to another version, the place was originally established by 
Anala Chauh&n himself. As the date of the event was unknown, 
and was certainly remote, Anala was placed at the head of all the 
Chauh&n genealogies as the progenitor of the race. Then, as Anala 
means '^ fire,'' it naturally follows that the cowherd was dropped 
and the element of fire adopted as the originator of the race. He 
adds that in early times the name is written Chahuwftn in agree- 
ment with the Chahum&n of the old Shaikhiwati inscription of 
A.D. 961, and is pointedly derived from the Hindi ehdh "desire or 
choice ,'' which is an abbreviation of the Sanskirit ichehha. Dr. Buch« 
hanan^ derives the name from eiiniapavana, " the thought purifier/' 
and the low grade so-called Chauhans of Bi jnor say they are so named 
because when crossing the Indus with Mftn Sinh's army in 1 586 
A.D., they lost the four requisites {c^au "four'', kdn "loss") of 
Hindu communion, religion {d^arm), ceremonies {riii), piety (daya) 
and duties {k^irma), 

2. Of the Oudh Chauhins, Sir C. Elliot writes^ :— " In all 
probability they followed closely on the Dikhits in the date of their 
immigration. They colonised a tract of land which lies south of 
Dikhtiyana, with the Panw&rs, B&chhals, and ParihArs between it 
and the Biver Ganges. Chauh&na is the name popularly given to 
this tract, which is properly said to consist of ninety villages. The 
traditional cause which led to the migration is as follows : — A certain 
Bfija of Mainpuri married a second wife in his old age, though hia 
first wife had borne him two sons. The bride expostulated with 
bbr family at being given in marriage to so old a man, and stipula- 
ted that if she bad a son he should succeed to the estate and the 
title. The Baja agreed, and signed a written acknowledgment to 
that effect. After some time he died ; but bis wife had already borne 
him a son, and on his death she produced the bond which the Rija 
bad signed. All the brotherhood agreed that they ought to 



I Eattem Indiih U, 4S8. 
' ChronieUB of UndOf 42, sq. 



209 chatjhJLn. 

by it. The two elder brothers left the country in diB^^ust and set- 
tled in Ondh. The traditions of different villages in Chaohina 
differ as to the names of these two brothers, and it is stated that only 
one of them remained here and the other went on to the borders of 
the Gomati and settled in I^auli^ where there is now a large Chan- 
bin colony. Bnt as the whole of the great colonies of Bachgotis, 
Bajknm&rs, Bajw&rs, and Khftnz&das, who mle in the Faizabid and 
Sult&npur Districts^ are Chauh&ns disguised under various names, and 
originally emigrated from Mainpuri about the same time, it is safe 
to trust an isolated local tradition as to any close connection existing 
between any of these two colonies. It is sufficient to remark that 
they ate all of the same poira, and therefore belong to the same 
•tock/^ 

8. The most conspicuous families and those of the bluest blood 

Tb« ChMhMit of th« •^ ^^^^^ ^' Mainpuri, Ksjor, PratApner, and 
awg«..jiuimii.Dii4b. Chakamagar. Ihe Mainpuri family,* the 

head of the sept, is said to have settled in the Central Du&b in the 
twelfth or beginning of the thirteenth century. They are generally 
represented to be the lineal descendants of Prattp Rudra, who was 
son of Rina Sangat, the great grandson of Cbahir Deva, the brother 
of Pnthivi Rija, the last Chauhin King of Delhi, who was conquered 
by Shah&b-ud-din Ohori in 1193 A. D. It is almost certain, how- 
e\'er, that the real founder of this impcrtmnt branch of the Cbauhins 
was Deva Brahma, a less distinguished cadet of the same house. 
Shortly after the defeat of Pnthivi R&ja and the fall of the Chauhftn 
dynasty, Brahma, accompanied by a numerous following of kinsmen 
ami retainers, left his original seat at Nimrftna and settled at PratAp- 
ner, nemr Bhongfton, in the Mainpuri District. The founder of this 
branch was PratAp Rudra, who is constantly mentioned in the 
Makhzan-i-Afghini of Niyimat-ulla as having played a prominent 
part in the reign of Muhammad Ala-ud*din and Bahlol Lodi. He 
held BhongAcn, Kampil, and Patiyili, and was confirmed by Bahlol 
Lodi as Governor of that part of the country. In the war between 
Bahlol and the Sharqi monarch of Jaunpur, RM PratAp and Qutb 
Khin, the Afghin Governor of the adjoining District of Ripri, 
acted in concert, sometimes on one side and sometimes on the other, 
and presumably on account of the assassination of Narasinha Deva, 
si«n of Rid Pratip, they organised a conspiracy against Sultin 



I Mmimpmri MiUm^mU Bt^ori, 17, iff. 

Vol. II. 



ohauhIn. 210 

Bahlol and compelled him to retreat towards Delhi, leaving the Jaon- 
pnr King in possession of the Central and Lower Du&b. A tradi- 
tion nins that a Chanhdn being sorely pressed by his son-in-law, and 
smai'ting under the sense of disgrace, as the father of a married 
daughter seemed to entail upon him, called together his son and 
bound them by an oath to save his family from future contempt by 
killing every female child that might be bom to them. Since then 
the sept has borne an evil reputation for the practice of infanticide.^ 
4. One family in Lucknow are called Bakhuki because it is said 

Tnditioiit of other *^* ^^® ^ ^'^^ had to lay an evil spirit, a 
bmnohea. Brahma XUkshasa, before he oould oooopy tiie 

village. Another story is that this &mily had a Churel as their 
ancestress.' In Mathura' the sept is classed as pure, because they do 
not allow widow-marriage. The Bareilly^ branch say that ten gene- 
rations back (1500-*1560 A.D.), Nandhar Deva and Grandhar 
Deva came to Parauli in Bud&un, and thence moving on expelled the 
Bhils from Bisauli. Ihe Oorakhpur branch are alleged by Dr. 
Buchanan^ to have intermarried with impure Hill tribes, and to 
have a Chinese caste of features. In Bulandshahr* one branch ac^ 
cepted Isl&m as they murdered the Muhammadan Qt)vemor of 
Sikandarabad, and another adopted widow-marriage, and have been 
expelled from the tribe. The legitimate Azamgarh branch traces 
its origin to Sambhal, in the Morad&b&d District.^ 

6. In addition to the above, who claim legitimate descent, there 

Inferior branches of ^® ^^^^ ^^^ position is more than doubt. 
the sept. fai, g^eh are those in Morid&bid and Bijnor, 

some of whom say they were originally GhJilot, others Ghuir, Bais, 

P&nwsLr, and so on.^ They appear to be divided into three class e s— 

Chaudhari, Padh&n, and Khftgi. The last of these are the lowest, 

widow-marriage being permitted among them. The Chaudhari do 

not give their daughters to the Padhin, but take theirs. 

They, as a rule, worship Mah&deva and Devi. In Mor&d&bftd, by 

one account, they take their name from eiMa, " a rat, '' which would 



i Baikes, NoUt, 8. 

s SetOement K^l, IXVU. 

* i6id, 84. 
^ /6id, 82. 

• EMiem InAia, II, 402. 

* BAja Lachhman Sinh, if smo^ 164, tg. 
7 BaiiUmeftd Report^ SO. 

• 0$mui tUpart, 1865, Table IV, 6. 



211 



CHATJHlir 



X^rrbfo rules. 



ooimeot them with distmotly non-Aryan noes like the Mosahar. 
They are said to have been driven into the Snb-Himalyan Tarfti by 
the advancing Th&kors and Ahars. Similar and probably akin to 
theee are the Abw&I of the hill, who also claim Chanhdn origin.^ 
6. To the west of the Province the true Chaoh&ns usually seek 

alliances for their daughters with the Kaohh* 
wiha, Badhaoriya, Baghel, and R&thaur, and 
the humble Chauhin will take a wife from the Parih&r of BundeL 
khuid or the Jidon of Karauli. In Rid Bareli their sons marry 
Bisen g^li, and their girls Kalhans and Burheliya youths. In 
Faiz&bftd they marry their sons to Bais and Gautam girls and their 
daughters to the Panwftr^ Chamar Gaur, Sflrajbans, and Baikw&r. 
Their ancestor is said to have married a Kalhans maiden. From 
Bulandshahr it is reported that the Chauhins give brides to the Pan- 
wir, R&thaur, Gbhlot, fKlokchandi Bais, Kachhwftha, Sisodiya^ and 
othei high class Rijputs ; and marry BargAjar, Pundir, Katheriya, 
Bichhal, Gahlot, and other high caste R&jput girls. In Un&o they 
usually marry their g^ls in the Kachhw&ha, R&thaur, Janw&r, 
Gahlot, or Panwftr septs^ and their sons to the Sombansi, Sakarwire, 
or Chandel. In Gonda they give brides to the Bhadauriya^ Sengar, 
Rithaor^ or Bisen : their sons to the Bais, Bisen or other respectable 
Bijput septs. The bastard Chai^Jiins marry much lower caste 
people." 



DUtribmtum of Ciamkd* Rdjpmti according to ike (7«m«# of 139 L 



DxaTEion. 



DthimDikii 

Mniaffsrnafir 
MMntl 



Bokndthahr 



AUgtfli 
Maihiini 



Hiadiu. 



4,046 



7.041 



10.5S9 



18,944 



16.344 
8.885 



S48 
7,766 
40M 

179 
7.836 

61 

416 



Total. 




4894 
81.016 
11.097 
19.708 
81.180 
16^6 

4.841 



Vot. 11. 



I AikiMoB. HimmUfon QoMdU^r, 111. 876. 



o8 



ohauhIk. 



212 



Duiribuiion of Ckaukdn S^fpuU aeearding to ik$ Cennu of 1891 —conid. 



DisTBion. 



Farrnkhib&d 



Mainpari • 
Xi&wah • 
EUh 

BaraiUy • 
BiJDor • 
Badinn • 
Moiid4bAd 
Shihjablnpar 
Pilibhlt • 



Cawnpar 

Patehpar 

B&nda 

Hamlrpar 

AllahiUd 

JhAnsi 

JUaan 

Lalitpar 

Benarti 

Minap«T 

Jannpor 

Ghixipnr 

Ballia 

Gorakhpur 

Batti 



Hindos. 



11.939 
6.496 



24.680 

9.897 

13.706 



7,011 

77390 

6.868 

87,886 

9.016 

%082 

8,794 

8,847 

1»498 

683 

1.488 



763 



6.616 



Asamgarh • 



678 
691 
1,676 
1.680 
1,866 
8,181 
3.461 
1,749 
8,986 




164 
7 
16 
168 
948 
839 



%•• 



883 
1,888 

876 
18 

106 
76 
48 
19 

683 

39 

9 

84 

868 



989 
666 
867 

4,640 
10,463 

8,986 



TOTAI.. 

18.093 
6.608 

84,696 

10,066 

14.649 
7,860 

77,890 
6,661 

89.064 

9,391 

8,096 

8.900 

8,983 

1,541 

668 

8,006 

798 

6,684 

6QS 

844 

1,696 

8,669 

'8.018 
8,488 
9,110 

18,80t 
6361 



ohauhAk 



213 



CHAUPATA KHAIIB. 
OHAX78BKL 



DisirHuHan tfCkaukdm SqfpuU aeeording to ik§ Census qf 2892^wmc\d, 



DllTEIOT. 


Hindiii. 


Mnhamma- 
duift. 


Total. 


Kqiiiaiii 


134 


••• 


134 


TatAj 


7,997 


... 


7,987 


Loekaow 


6,746 


161 


6,^96 


UnAo 


10,640 


16 


10.666 


BAABmli ...... 


0,189 


797 


6,986 


BlUpiir 


6,662 


8,424 


8,986 


H«fdoi 


6,712 


t • • 


6,712 


Kbtfi 


4,' 27 


2 766 


7,393 


Faii414a 


6.868 


1,978 


7,836 


OoDda 


8.997 


40S 


3,799 


BA:.r4ir!i 


2,678 


68a 


9,523 


8a1Unpar 


^in 


1,478 


6.903 


FkrtAbgarh 


8.066 


144 


32 9 


BAmbMiki 


3,356 
397,343 


810 


4.ll»6 




6i.363 


461.706 



•^Chanpata Khamb.— A RAjpot eept found in small numbers 
in the Benares division. According to Mr. Sherring^ in the city of 
Benares they are chiefly engaged in the manufacture of 6ne wire 
used in the frames on which cloth of various description is woven« 
They trace their descent to two Sarwariya Brfthman brothers, Baldeo 
and KuldeOy who settled at PathkhanU, in the Jannpur district. 
BAja Jay Chand is said to have given hi sdaugfater in marriage to 
Baldeo, on whidi Kuldeo, to mark his anger, erected a pillar {tl^ami), 
and the d^soendants of Baldeo are hence called chaupaU or *' ruined.'^ 
diamani — (Ckaku^ four ; s^na, an army).— A sub-caste of Banyas 
found principally in the Meerut, Agra, and Rohilkhand Divisions. 
They are said to be a spurious branchof the BArshaeni (q t.). They 



> Bi%d% THUS. T. 



CHAT78ENI. 



214 



OHBBO, 



hold very low rank among Banyas. Till recently all the higher 
castes refused to eat and drink things touched by them. They say 
they came from Mathura^ and claim descent from ChanAra, the 
wrestler of Bija Kansa, from whom Cham&rs also say they are 
sprung. Another story is that they are descended from one Bija 
Phonda of Chanderi by an unmarried woman named Kundaliya. 



Disiribufion of Chauseni Banfai a^^eording to He Cen$u$ of 1891. 



DiRTBICT. 


Number. 


DlBTBIOT. 


Kamber. 


Mozaffarnagar < 




SO 


Btah • • • . 


783 


Meerut • • i 




86 


Bareilly • • . . 


424 


Bulandsliahr • « 




6,244 


BiJDor • • • • 


6 


Aligarh • • 




2.177 


Badinn • • • . 


1^1 


Mathura • • 




423 


Morid&b&d 


U022 


Agra 




106 


Sh&bjahAopnr . 


2 


Farrokhib&d • 




76 


Pilibhit .... 


160 


Mainpuri • 




6 


Cawnpar . 


6 


VfAivAK 




s 






jStLawaD • • * « 


o 


Total 


11,803 



Chero. — ^A Dravidian race of labourers and cultivators found in 
the hill country of Mirzapur where they number according to the 
last Census 4,881. The word may be possibly of non- Aryan 
origin. It has been connected with the Hindi ekela (Sanskrit 
chefaka, ehedaka ''a slave''). Sir O. tJampbell's^ theory that 
that Chero-Khero, ELharwftr is not probable. The ethnology of the 
Cheros has been to some extent obscured by the &ct that they are 
in Bengal perhaps the most advanced of the Dravidian races. Colonel 
Dalton calls them the last Kolarian tribe dominant in the Glangetic 
Provinces.' They are said in ShAMbAd to have been rulers of 
the country extending from Charanadri, the modem Chunir^ to 



1 Jovirnal Atiaiic Society of Benzol, 1866, Part II. Aooordinir to Dr. J. Mafr 
tbry wore perbaps the Kikataa of the Sanskrit writers— >^nci«ti< SanskrU 7«c(t, II, 
868. The Kikataa appear to have been residents of the modem ~" 

s D€9eripHve Sihnoiogy, 126. 



21-1 



I . 



'. .'•: 



* 



• •> /. ■''".' i " r/ ••.'«">-.■ huftf qt r,"> ■. ^'W/; /-J .'i{^ C,r,\iA .^ •' 



V'l ■". l;. 



. I. . . I • 



1 ,. 
1 .- 






• , 



30 I., li 



■ I ■ 



"a.— 



i...'l.Vjrj 



y 



» 1 



I 

, ."■ ' Iilivh'.t , 

I 

• ' C , (.a VI., .11 

I 

• I 



• N't. '" . 






41' 4 



.1 l.t'JJ 



1 



-•■ 



Tu:.'.L . II.'- 



!• 



p 



I » 



■ • ■ ." .\j •/.■»'":i W^ ■ ' l!l*-v lUii.-tH »■ ;j.voj'i)i11J \% M 

•*. .'.1'' i.'i w'-t^ Oil- llti./ii i-4//.- (Sail k:j! 
'• .: -^ :.v ' ;. ^"r 'i. ('m -.iilr'l.'V ^ lh**orv •':•,* 

: .4 ' . ! ' I ! ' '■■•■' T . ..■ . I ■ rt » . 

• 1 . '1 > ■ ■ ' • . • 



t . <■ 



\ .1 






\ • -It. 



■ I 

■ * * . 






1 . 



I - 



'. 1 



V I' * 



i i 



■ ■ ■ • • 



216 OHBRa 

Gridhaya kot (Giridhi), and from the Gangos to the hills which 
now fonn the boundary of South Bihftr, including the entire extent 
of the country in the Patna division south of the Ganges. The 
names of the Kol R&j and the Chero lUj are now descriminately 
applied by the natives of the South Bihir to the kingdom of the 
aborigines.^ Aooording to Dr. Buchanan Hamilton they extended 
aa &r as Goirakl^r or Kosala, and destroyed the &mily of 
the Sun in Ajudhy% as well as that of the Moon in Magadha.' 

2. A tradition recorded by Mr. Forbes * states that Kesho 
NirAyan Sinh, a Bundya R&jput, and Rija cf GarhgCkmti, in Bun- 
delkhandy was blessed with an only daughter : being anxious to 
learn the future that was in store for her, he sent for a learned 
Brfthman and requested him to draw her horoscope. The Brihman 
did so, and declared it was ordained that the young girl, if married 
at ally oould wed no other than a Muni, or one to all intents and 
purposes dead. On learning this the R&ja determined to go to some 
holy shrine and offer {saniaU^f) his daufi^ter to the first Muni ho 
oould find. He started accordingly taking his daughter with him, 
and when passing through the Morong,* he one day encamped 
in a tope of trees near to which there was a mound. Enquiring 
frcHu the people what this mound was, he learned that it was the 
living sepulchre of a very pious Muni Chamman Muni Rishi. The 
Bija immediately called for spade and shovel, unearthed the holy 
man, and made the girl over to him. From this marriage sprung 
the Chero or Chauh&nbansi Rajputs. 1 heir son was Chet Rid, who 
expelled the Rathaur lords of the country. After him the folk>wing 
Chero RAjas ruled Kumaon— Chhattardis Rid, Udit Rl^ Udand 
Ri£, and Choftn Rid, whose son, PhQl Chand, conquered Bhojpur or 
South Bihar. The Cheros entered Pyaman in 16U A. D.,and 
ruled the district for nearly two hundred years, when they wen 
expelled by the British. 

S. General Cunningham accepts the account that they were 
oonquered by the Saura tribe in ShahabAd and Benares. In ShahibAd, 
the ancient KaruUia Desa, all old buildings are as<*ribM] to them. 
Even as late as the time of Akbar a Chero eliicf is said to have kept 
possession of Chayanpur, one of the chief towns in the diiitrict. 



> CmUulU R4vir^, CXXXVII, 35L 

* KnMiem India, II. ail. 

■ BtttUw^tnt Report of PnUman, 2S, •q^ 

< Ihk U proUblj ill Murasf. now one ti tbt VmpiX DistrlelB. 



CHEBO. 216 

General Canningbam thinks their power must have oeased before 
the accession of the P&la dynasty. One ancient chief or ruling 
family among them appears to have been known as Chero Chai«^ 

4. There are no Cheros now in Ohazipur ; but Dr. Oldham de- 
scribes those on the Oh&zipur frontier as honesty industrious cultiva- 
tors^ not differing from Hindus of the agricultural classes. The 
family records of the Hayobans BAjas, formerly of Bihiya, and now 
of Haldi^ notice a conflict between the Chero and Hayobans chiefs 
which lasted for hundreds of years^ and terminated in the triumph 
of the B&jputs. As late as the rdgn of the Afgh&n Emperor 
Shir Sh&h the power of the Cheros was formidable^ and on his 
overcoming Maharta^ a chief of the tribe^ he indulged in transports 
of delight. On the Kaimiir plateau the last famous robbers were 
Nora and Kora^ who were captured in 1858.' Their village was 
Chirvi^ called after the tribe^ as are the Cherand Pargana and 
Cherand Island in the S&ran District.* 

5. But in spite of their Br&hmanical traditions and extensive 
conquests they are undoubtedly^ as Dr. Buchanan Hamilton as- 
serted^ of Dravidian origin.^ Colonel Dalton remarks that in Chota 
Nfigpur their physical traits have been considerably softened by 
their alliances with pure Hindu families. He describes their 
features as of the Mongolian^ or^ as he should rather have said^ of the 
Kolarian or Dravidian type. They vary in colour^ but are usually 
of a light brown. They have, • as a rule, high cheek bones, small 
eyes obliquely set, and eyebrows to correspond ; low, broad noses, 
and large mouths with protuberant lips/ in other words; they 
are not appreciably different from the other Dravidian tribes, like 
the Kols, Majhwftrs, etc. This is further shown by the fact that 
in Mirzapur they are popularly known as Baiga, the devil priest^ 
which is the special business of the non- Aryan races. 

6. There is no trace in Mirzapur of the division into Blrahhasir 

and Terahhazar of Palamau.* South of the 

Son they have two exogamous sections, Mahto 

and Chaudhari : others call these sections Nigbansi, and pretend 



1 Beportit Arehaologieal Survey, XV, 60, XYU, 131, tq : XXII, 75. 
» Probably Kunwara, ** Prince, •* Neura, Neola, " weasel." 

• Memoir of OhAeipur, I, 51. 
4 Batlem India, I, 24. 

• Deicriptiv€ Ethnology, 126. 

• Tribei and Cadei, 1, 199. 



217 CHKRO. 

that tbey are like their brethren in Chota Nif^^ur, descendants of 
the Nig or dragon/ and Pandobansi, who saj they are connected 
with the five Pandavas; another statement of the sections shows 
the composite character of the raoe — Kol, Chero, Hardaha (from 
the iar^H tree, adina cortiifolia), Kariha, Panariha, Kntaha 
Sinduraha (^Hhose who use red lead^'). Some of these are possibly 
of totemistic origin. The Census Returns give another list — Bard* 
bansi, Bardhin, B&mbansi, Oaya, Khar, and Surajbansi. 

7. Their custom of exogamy even is uncertain. By one account 

first cousins on the father's side cannot inter* 
marry, while marriage of cousins on the 
mother's side is permitted, and a paternal uncle's son can marry 
a maternal uncle's daughter, but not 9 tee vered. On the other 
hand, the more Hinduised Cheros profess to regulate exogamy by 
the stock formula — ciaciera, mamera, pkupera, mauiera, which bars 
the Une of the paternal uncle, maternal uncle, paternal aunt, 
maternal aunt. There can be very little doubt that until compara- 
tively recently they used to intermarry with Bhuiyas, as is proved 
by niunerous local traditions. The Bhuiyas, on the other hand, say 
that they have given up intermarrying with Cheros since the Cheroa 
have taken to intermarry with Kols, and the Cheros at any rate 
give Kol as one of their sections. South of the Son it is generally 
asserted that Bhuiyas and Cheros are the same. From all which 
it would appear that Kols, Cheros and Bhuiyas are of one parent* 
stock, and have separated by a process of abscission in comparatively 
recent times. 

8. There is no trace of polyandry among them. It is noticed aa 
_ peculiar to the Cheros that, unlike the allied 

Dravidian tribes, whenever they go any dia- 
tanoe from home, as to the jungle after cattle, to pay their rent, etc., 
they always bring their wives with them. It is a tradition among 
them that formerly the custom was that if a man remained six 
months absent from his wife, she was at liberty to form a fresh con- 
nection : but it is said that this is now obsolete. The standing price 
for a bride is five rupees, and it is entirely a question of means how 
^ many wives a man has. Monogamy appears to be the rule. Some 
Cheros admit that concubinage is allowed, and that a widow or 
divorced woman may go and live with anyone she likes ; but this 



> DaltuB, be. ciL, Its. 



CHBBO. 218 

custom^ too^ appears becoming gradually discredited. Girls are said 
to be allowed little liberty before marriage ; but il seems certain that 
many marriages are carried out when pregnancy is the resnlt of an 
ante*nuptial intrigue/ in which case the alliance is recognized on her 
father giving a tribal feast {boik bhdi) ; but if her paramour be of 
another caste she is permanently excluded. Like those in CShota 
N&gpur' the Mirzapur Cheros profess to marry their children 
between the age of five and ten« Any relation may act as the nego* 
tiator (agua). Though her &ther receives the bride-price it is spent 
on the marriage^ and he is expected to give her a dowry as tax as his 
means will allow. The customs regarding divorce, widow-marriage, 
the levirate, and succession, are the same as among the Kols. The 
Gharjaiy&n marriage, where the youth serves for his bride on pro- 
bation in the house of her &ther, is common.* 

9. The general scheme of relationship agrees with that of the 

Kols. A &ther is iilia, iMia ; other's brother, 
Idka ; mother, didi ; sister, hakin ; father's 
mother, dji ; elder paternal uncle's wife, hatki idti, younger paternal 
uncle's wife, e^^n^^i kdki ; elder brother's wife, biaufi ; joxmger 
brother's wife, dulkin ; or bride, son's wife,pa/oAfjfa ; maternal uncle, 
mAm% : mother's mother ndni j mother's sister mauii j mother's father 
mdna; mother's gprandfather, pamdna; wife's father, makio, or 
'' leader ; " wife's Other's wife, maktodin /' sister's husband, dr 
{ydr, friend), brother-in-law's father, maltoj younger brother of 
wife, bdbu. A man names his wife by his wm^^Lallm ki maitdri^^ 
''Lallu's mother." A father is sometimes addressed as bkaiffa 
or '' brother." They remember genealogies only to three generations, 
and in the case of females only as &r as the gprandmother. Thej 
call clansmen living in the same village ganwdm bhdu 

10. The Cheros mark their approach to Hinduism by having 

puberty ceremonies which are not usual 
among the allied Dravidian races. On eadi 
occasion they sacrifice to Durga Devi and the colleotive villago 
gods {deokdr). Cocks, hens, pigs, goats, and liquor constitute the 
offering which is made by the village Baiga, who first bathes and 
then before the platform of the deity makes a oowdung fire, into 



1 Wesiemmrok, Bittory of HMman Marriagt, 23. 
s BiHiejr, loc ct<., 1, 201 • 
* Westoromrck, loc cit , «oe. 



210 OHBEO. 

which he poura a mixture of eugar^ butter^ Befiamam and * rioe, and 
saySi — Dik bdba kamdr kdraj iokarSkifpa se kogail; iejdnab ; kam 
mmnauld rakU, to /^i— '' Village Lord I Our business has been com- 
pleted through thy favour I Know this I Accept the offering we 
owed. *' After this he sacrificee the victim, which the brethren 
divide, the head being the Baiga^s perquisite. The worship is sup- 
posed to keep evil spirits from the mother and her expected baby, 
I'he other birth ceremonies are the same as among the Kols. 

IL The binding part of the betrothal ceremony is the payment 

of the bride-price, five rupees. If the father 
of the girl annul the engagement he is forced 
to return the bride-price, and is severely dealt with by the tribal 
oouncil besides. 

12. There are three varieties of marriage,— Ciariauva, which is 

the respectable form ; dola, which is used by 
poor people and in which the ceremonies are 
done at the house of the bridegroom, and sagdi, for widows. The 
ritual is the same as among the Kols, but the Cheros make more 
use than they do of BrAhmans in fising the lucky time, and even 
now in respectable families Br&hmans attend, but do not carry out 
the service. Such people are clearly in rapid progress towards 
complete Hinduism. 

12. Similarly in the case of funeral ceremonies they are beginning 

to employ BrAhmans and to do the regular 
irdddha, while they still retain some of the 
non-Arjran practices noticed in the case of the allied Dravidian races. 
18. Their chief deities are Sain, a vague female form sometimes 

known as Devi, Sitala, the goddess of small 
pox, and the Dih, or aggregate of village gods, 
which are worshipped both by men and women. Fowls, goats, and 
pigs are saorifiocd to the Manes, the victim being fed on some rice 
and marked on the head with red lead in the name of the sainted 
dead before being sacrificed. During the period of mourning they do 
worship to the disembodied spirit {prei) with an offering of a 
young pig. For their special worship in the Hindu form they employ 
a low body of Sarwariya BHihmans. The worship of the rillage gods 
is done by a Baiga of their own tribe, and this local priest is generally 
the president of the village tribal oouncil. The Baiga pretoids 
to great personal purity, and is supposed to fast on the day 
he makes the offering. They have apparently quite abandoned the 



CHERO. 220 

system of triennial sacrifices which prevails among the Eastern 
branch of the tribe ;^ but their tribal traditions show that their 
disoontinnance is comparatively recent. The site of the Cfaero 
shrine (deohdr) is usually under a nim tree where rude earthen^ 
ware images of horses are collected. The offering very often takes 
the form of what is called newa;, balls of sweetened flour fried in 
butter. These after being offered are eaten by the family of the 
worshipper and the Baiga. All their sacrifices are done in public, 
except those to Dulhadeo, the godling of marriages, who is little 
more than a household deity, and whose worship is in the hands of 
the women. 

14. Their festivals are the Anant Chaudas, on the 14th day of 

the light half of Bhidon ; the Jiutiya^ 
during the fortnight sacred to the dead 
{pitra patika), in Ku&r, when women fast for a day and night to 
procure long life C/fw) for their sons and husbands; and the 
Phagua or Holi. Some Sundays are consecrated to the spirits of 
the dead, and are called pretak, when a &st is imposed, and on 
Sundays generally as well as at the Anant Chaudas, they do not eat 
salt. They do the Phagua like ordinary Hindus. In the 
Pitrapaksha for ten days they pour water on the ground in the 
name of the dead, and on the eleventh day shave and put on clean 
clothes. On that day each &mily gives the Br&hman two and a- 
half 9erM of uncooked grain {iidka ). The only &mily festival is 
the Jiutiya, which some obsei-ve to bring good luck on the family, 
and some in the hope of male offspring. One platform in the house 
is the residence of the sainted dead and the Devi. They are much 
afraid of the ghosts of persons drowned {ImrMa), and whenever 
they pass a place where such an accident occurred they raise hands 
in an attitude of supplication. 

15. Ancestor worship is fairly well established, but not 

universal. It can form even the subject of 

Ancestor worship. ... , , 

a joke as in a proverb common among these 
people — eiir kawar hhUar, tab deota pilar — '' First eat four mouth- 
fuls, then think of the godlings and the sainted dead.'' Sickness 
in a family is attributed to the anger of the ancestral ghosts : in 
such cases fowls and goats are sacrificed in the house, and a few 
drops of liquor are poured on the ground. On the tenth day after 



Bitl«7, Trihn and CoMtu, 1,202. 



221 CHBBa 

a death the more Hindaified Cheroe give the family prieet (pmroAii) 
a pair of loin-cloths {dAoli)^ a drinking veeeel (/o^), a tray {Udlt), 
and grain always in the ratio of one and-a-quarter sen, maande, 
measnree {paieri). The ghosts of the dead if not propitiated appear 
in dreams and prescribe the necessary offerings. If the injunctions 
g^ven by, them in the first dream are not obeyed^ the next time they 
nt on the chest and squeeze the throat of the offender. Ghosts 
{bA4l) habitually haunt cremation grounds. Neglect of funeral 
ceremonies does not necessarily involve the spirit becoming a Bh&t, 
but those who are killed by a Bh&t invariably become Bh&ts them- 
selves. Tattooing in its present form is little more than ornamental ; 
but it is clearly connected with puberty ^^ and is based in case of 
women on a religious motive. If a woman die without being 
tattooed, Paramesar will tattoo her himself with the thorns of acacia 
{babii}^- Women pay special reverence to the fig tree (pipal), and 
bow when they pass near it. They have the usual meeting omens. 
They do not follow Hindus in giving two names to children. They 
swear by touching a cow-tail or the feet of a Brihman or by 
standing in water while they make a solemn assertion to speak the 
truth. Poverty, leprosy, or loss of children follows a broken oatk 
16. Many of these women have a reputation for witchcraft 

and the power of casting the Evil Eye. Such 
people are hated by the Baiga, who gets them 



oat of the village if he can. It is believed that these witches 
specially select young men and children as their victims. The head- 
quarters of the Ojhas who deal with such cases are at two places called 
''the house of Ood'' ( heogkaripa), in Nagar Untiri, District 
Lohirdaga; people attacked by witchcraft visit these Ojhas with 
trays of flowers. There are also local Ojhas usually of the Kharwiri 
Majhwftr, or Bhuiyir tribes, who prescribe in cases of witdioraft 
and instruct disciples. A favourite method of injuring an enemy is 
to measure his footsteps in the dust with a straw, and then to mutter 
a spell over it. This brings on wounds and sores in the foot. There 
is a special word for this, pingna.^ Disease is popularly believed to be 
due to demoniacal agency,' and people are particularly cautious to dee* 
troy cuttings of their hair, nails, etc., lest they should come into the 



I W«H«rviarek, History of HuwMn Marriofs, 177. 180. 

* This U poMibly d«riT9d from wd^ footi Af. io mor* lortoocMlj. 

• 8p«B0«r. FrUu^lm ^ Botioify, I. »«S. 



CHEBO. 222 ohhIpi. 

hands of witches^ who would thas obtain oontrol over their victimB.^ 

17. The only meat from which Cheros habitually abstain is that 

of the cow^ and the prohibition of its use is 

Social onfltoiDB. _ . ... r«i • , 

based on religious motives. Their taboos are 
the same as those of the Kols. Men and women eat apart. They 
salute Brsllimans and other superiors in the paSlagi form^ to others 
they salim. When they meet a superior they very often take off 
the turban and stand on one leg. They will eat food cooked in 
butter {pakka khdna) only from the hands of Br&hmans. They^ 
in feet, affect a good deal of ceremonial purity like the Cheroe 
of Palamau and the Kharrias.' Kalwirs and all the wandering 
fianyas who go about the country for grain will eat pakka khdna 
and drink water from their hands. Their usual occupations are 
cultivating, ploughing for others, cutting wood, collecting lac and 
other jungle produce. They will not breed silkworms, which is 
considered a most disreputable occupation and left to Bhuiy&rs and 
Chamslrs. They have an elementary communal organisation (eka) 
in which the residents of three or four villages join for general 
business, fiut this seems to be on the decline. There is no trace 
of a periodical distribution of fields, but only the lands near the 
village site are habitually cultivated. The others are under a sys* 
tern of biennial fallow. In all but the cleared and cultivated lands 
the right of pasturage is unrestricted. Cheros have a reimtation 
for honesty and good conduct, and they are liked in villages better 
than Bhuiyas or Bhuiy&rs : but they are lazy cultivators. 

18. Like all these jungle races they keep their houses separate 

from each other, partly through fear of witch- 
craft practised by neighbours, to avoid infec- 
tion, the work of evil spirits, and with this object sick people con- 
stantly change their houses, partly through fear of fire, as their houses 
are very inflammable. This is also the rule with the Bhils.* 

Chhipi.^ — (Hindi, chkdpna, "to print,'' Sans: k9hip, "to 
pour '').*-The caste of calico printers and chintz stampers, of whom 
there are both a Hindu and a Muhammadan branch. The Hindu 
branch have a tradition that they were once R&thaur R&jputs. In the 



> Spenoer, Principles of Sociology^ I, 243. 

> Dalton, Ethnology, 160, Note; Bisley, loe, cit,, I, 202. 
* Bomhay Qatetteer, VI« 26. 

4 Baaed on enqairiea made at Mirzapnr and notoa by BAbn Biadao SahAj, Haad- 
maater. High School, Farrakhabad, and Nawib Mnhammad All KhAn« BolMidaliahr. 



228 ohhIpi. 

Mkme way the Bhavsftrs or calenders of Bombay have a tradition that 
when Parasuribna was exterminating the Kshatriya raoe they were 
B&jpnts living at Mathora, and, fearing the same fate as their 
brethren, became followers of one BAmdevji, a mendicant, and came 
to Mirwir. This lUmdevji being a calender his followers at first 
were called Chhippas. Their present name they derive from the fact 
of their having placed faith {bkdv) in this mendicant.^ 

The Eastern Chh!pis refer their origin to a place which they call 
Dheri Avarerachh, somewhere in Bnndelkhand. Dheri is a village 
in the Samthar State which lies between Jalaun and Jhinsi, and 
Avareraohh is a oormption of Irichh or Erichh, a town in Pargana 
Moth, of the Jhinsi District, which is even to the present day noted 
for its manufacture of chintz.' 

2. The internal stmcture of the caste is very intricate. In 

Mirzapur they name seven endogamons snb- 
castes — Palhariya (from paliianda, the stand 
on which the dye-pots are placed); Bulbulha (from Mbnl, the night- 
ingale) ; Dnnsna (said to mean '' a large needle *'); SAdh or '' saints, '* 
Who pretend to special purity and will not eat meat or kill animals ; 
SArajbans, '* children of the Sun ''; Kanaujiya or Kanaujiha, who 
say they come from Kanauj ; and Pariya, or '* those who keep 
yonng bofiEalo calves/' These are the explanations current among 
the members of the caste, and must, of course, be accepted with 
caution. In Fatehgarh there are two endogamous sub-castes-^ 
BeU or Dilw&ri, that is Dehliwil or '' residents of Delhi ; '' Oola, 
''mixed, '^ or Mirwiri or Sanganeri, who take their name from a 
place called Sanganer, which is said to be somewhere near Jaypur. 
These, again, are divided into a number of sections. Thus of the Reli 
are named the Milku ; Cliliuriyapel ; Ajudhiya ; Nauchhirak ; Sima- 
wir; P&nisap; Kupendiya; Kachhot; Banawir; Oadhaiya, and 
many others. The Gk>las are said to have seven hundred and fifty 
sections, such as the DharivnA ; D(isay6 ; Mertwir, and Oothalwir. 
In Fatdigarh the rule of exogamy appears to be that a man cannot 
marry in his own section nor in a section in which a near female 
relation is already married. In Bulandshahr they are reported to 
have throe endogamous sub-castes^-Jeni ,or Jaiui, Reliya, and 
Tink, and they do not marry in their own family or in that of the 



* Bom^y Qmt4iU^, V, 78. 

< QmmUmr, lioHK-Wui Pr^vmcm, I. 40. 



CHHtPL 224 

maternal uncle. The Eastern ChhipiB state that they follow the 
standard formula ckachera^ mamera, pkitphera^ mausera, which hars 
the line of the paternal uncle^ maternal uncle, maternal aunt, and 
paternal aunt. 

8. According to the Census lists which record two hundred and 
two sub-divisions of the Hindu and twenty-one of the Mahummadan 
branch, their sections follow the rule so oonunon in these occupa- 
tional castes. Some are of local origin and others imply some real 
or supposed connection with other tribes. Thus among local terms 
we find AjudhyabSsi^ Chhatarpuriya, Desw&ri, Kanaajiya, Mirw&ri, 
Mathuriya, PaehhSin, Panj&bi, Purabiya, SribAstav ; while in the 
second class come Agarw&l, Agrahari, Bais, Baiswftr, Bftgri, Chamftr, 
Chauhin, Chhatri, Chiryam&r, Ch&rihAr, Darji, Dhakarya, Jidu, 
Kachhiya, Koliya, Eori, iSftjput, B&thaur, BAwat, Buhela, Sakar- 
w&r, Surajbansi, T&nk, Tomar, and Ummar, most of which are 
derived from the names of tribes and sub-castes or septs of Banyas 
and Bajputs. 

4. They marry their children in infancy. To the east poly- 
gamy is allowed to the extent of having two 
wives at one time if the first be barren. To 
the west, though polygamy is tolerated, it is said to be rare. There 
is nothing peculiar about their marriages, which are conducted in the 
orthodox way. Intertribal adultery seems to be little regarded, 
but an intrigue with a stranger involves expulsion from caste. There 
is among the Hindu branch at least no regular form of divorce, 
but a man with the leave of the tribal council can expel his wife 
for infidelity. Divorced women can marry again with permission of 
the tribal council. The levirate is recognized, but is not compulsory 
on the widow. 

5. To the cast of the Province they very seldom belong to any recog- 
nised Hindu sect. Devi and the Pinohonptr 
are their tribal deities. Devi is worshipped 
on the 1 4th of Philgun with an offering of coooanuts, sweets {bmidtkn, 
halwa) cakes (pUri) and garlands of flowers. The Pftnchonptr are 
honoured with sweet cakes [malida) and loin-cloths, which the wor- 
shippers put on after offering them to the godlings. To the Wert 
the Belis are N&nakpanthis and the Golas Vaishnavas. The BeUs 
worship Nanak especially on the Uanga S&twin and at the Basaiit 
Panchami, when the halwa sweetmeat is offered to him and then 
distributed among the worshippers. Women especially worship 



225 CHalpr. 

Shaikh Saddu. In BulandBbahr thej worship M4ta or the Bmall-pox 
goddo88^ Miran Sahib, and Chamar Devi. Their tribal Haint is Nam« 
deva, of whom they know nothing save that he was the first printer. 
One person of this name is one of the authors of the Sikh Grantb 
«nd another or perhaps the same is regarded by the Marathas as 
their oldest poet, and is said to have been a contemporary of Kabir, 
and to have lived in the twelfth or thirteenth centurj'. Of the 
Nimdeopanthis who recorded themselves to the nimiber of 1 0^**^58 at 
the last Census, the unity of the deity and the uselessness of cere* 
monial appear to be the leading characteristics of the creed. Like 
IU£disi Chamirs and Senapanthi Nais, the Nimdeopanthi cotton 
printers have been separated from their caste-fellows by the superior 
purity of their belief, and now form a separate sub-caste, shown in 
the caste returns as Nimdeobansi.^ They employ Brahmans as 
their priests; to the east these are usually Sarwariyas; to the 
west Saraswat, Kanaujiya and Gaur Brahmans serve them. They 
burn their dead in the orthodox way, and throw tlie ashes, if possible, 
into the Ganges or one of its tributaries. On the day of the Diwali 
they worship the dies with which they stamp the cloth as fetishes. 
The more careful perform the annual nrdtUka during the piirapak- 
ika or fortnight sacred to the sainted dead in the mouth of 
Kuir. 

6. The great centres of the calico printing trade in these provinces 
Oeevpntion and eooUl ^^ Luckuow, Fatehgarh, Bulandshahr, and 
■***^* Mirzapur, where it is largely in the hands of 

a colony of Sadhs from Fatehgarh. In Luckuow, according to 
Mr. Hoey,* there arc three different olaHstos of wtton printers who 
pass under the same name and usc> similar dyt*s. TIh> first class is 
the 8tam{)er of real or imitation gold or silver U*af on eoloureil i^otton 
fabrics for use as {mlanquin covers, curtains (paniu), UhI covers, 
{likdf), quilts, etc. The process is simple but ingi*nious. The 
Chhipi makes a mixture of gum, chalk, and glue. He stain]>s the 
pattern on the fabrics with this mixture by means of a wooden die. 
He then lays strips of silver leaf over thi* {latt^Tu tracHnl in this way, 
and taps it gently with a pail. The leaf atlhiTes to th^* gummy 
lines of tlu> patU>m stainpiHl, and comes away fn»m the unstani{)tHl 
surface. Tlie process of staiupln;; an imitation tif Hilver differs 



I (>n«i«« He^Hiti, }i%trih'Wtgt Trw ii •»*•<«, l^^l . j». *J35. For a 'tirth<*r rti nnt of 

Vol II , 



OuhIpi. 226 

The ChMpi in this case mizM pewter {ranfa), gvm, glue, and ch&lic 
and stamps the pattern right off. After it dries he mba it over 
-with a piece of wood (miin), and this gives a gloee to the inferior 
metal. The second class mark patterns on mnslin for «nbroi- 
derers {cMkandoz), and the third prints cotton fabrics in fast colours 
for nee as quilts, sheets, bed covers, table cloths, eta. The Chhipi, 
as a rule, ranks fairly high in social estimation. To the east of 
the Province he does not drink spirits or eat any meat. All Hindns, 
including Brabmans will, it is sud, eat pakki cooked hy him, and 
tribes like the Kahir will eat iaeheki prepared bj him. In Fatch- 
garh he will eat pakki prepared by A^arwila Banyas, and kaekeki 
by Gaur Brfihmans. Water they drink from the vessel of a 
Brfihman or Banya, but th^ will smoke only from the pipe of a 
member of the tribe. Br&hmans will eat pakki prepared by tbem ; 
NSis and M&lia will eat kaekeki cooked by them, and drink from 
their vetteli. 



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cuiSHTc. 228 

Ghishti ; Chishtiya. — The best available acoount of this class 
of Muhammadan faqtrs is that of Mr. Maclagan^ : — '' The Chishtis 
trace their origin to one Abu Ish&q, ninth in succession from 
Ali| the son-in-law of Muhammad^ who migrating from Asia 
*Minor^ settled down at a village called Chisht in Khurasan and 
became thus the religious preceptor of a large body of Musalmans. 
One of his successors, Khw^ja Mutn-ud-din Chishti, a native of 
Sanjar, in Persia, having migrated to India in the time of Ghiis-ud- 
din Balban, settled in Ajmer, and was the means of establishing 
the order in ladia. His Khalifa or immediate successor was 
Khwtlja Qutb-ud-din Bakhti&r K&ki, who is buried near the Qutb 
MinS^r at Delhi, and Qutb-ud*din^s successor was the celebrated 
Bsiba Farid Shakkarganj, whose shrine is at Pikpatan in the 
Montgomery District. The surname of this saint is said to be 
derived from the fact that owing to the purity of his body all he ate 
became sugar ; if we may trust another story, he nourished himself 
by holding to his stomach wooden cakes and fruits when he felt 
himgry. This miraculous but inexpensive provender is still pre- 
served. An immense fair is held at this shfine every year, and the 
object of every pilgrim who attends is to get through the narrow 
gate of the shrine on the afternoon or night of the fifth Muhamun. 
The saint is adored by Hindu sas well as Musalm&ns, and to be a 
disciple of Bdba Farid does not necessarily imply being a Chishti, 
aud^ again, the descendants of the saint and his relations, carnal and 
spiritual, have formed themselves into a separate caste of men who 
are found on the Satlaj in the Montgomery District, and who, 
though bearing the name of Chishti, are now in all respects an ordi- 
nary lay caste, quite apart from the religious order of the same 
name. 

2. '' Baba Farid had two disciples, one of these was Ali Ahmad, 
surnamed Sabir, whose shrine is at Piran Kaliyar near Burki,' and 
whose followers are known as Sabir Chishtis, the other was the 
celebrated and mysterious Niz&m-ud-din Auliya (1232*1824 A.D.), 
around whose tomb are collected some of the choicest monuments of 
ancient Delhi, and whose desciples are known as Nizftmis. 



» PanjAh Censut lUport, 193. 

' Tho Piran Kaliyar fair is held on the Ganges Canal, abont foar milea ttortli* 
east of Rnrki. Its dato is the first of the month Babi-nl-awwal. By Hindiis it U 
largely attended, and is by them supposed to celebrate the death of B4|a Karma. 



229 CHI8HTI. 

S. '' The Chiflhtis in repeating the profession of faith lay a par- 
ticular ftress on the words Ilia Uldiu, repeating these with great 
violencei and shaking, at the same time their heads and the upper 
partsjof their bodies. The sect is said to be specially affected by 
Shiahs, and it is distinguished by its adoption of vocal music in its 
religious services. The members of the order are worked up by 
these religious songs to a high pitch of excitement, and often sink 
down exhausted. They frequently wear coloured clothes, especially 
clothes dyed with ochre or with the bark of the acacia tree. Their 
principal shrines in the Panj&b are the tomb of Nizim-ud-din 
Auliya at Delhi, the Khing&h of Miriin Bhik in Ambftla, the shrine 
of Biba Farid at Pftkpatan, and the Kh&ng&h of Hazrat Sulaimftn 
at Taunsa in the Dera Ghfizi Kh&n District/' 

4. The Dargfth of Khwftja Mmn*ud-din Chishti at Ajmer is an 
object of veneration and pilgrimage to all religions and sects. The 
Emperor Akbar made a pilgrimage on foot to this tomb, and the 
Banyas of the Darg&h B&zar daily lay their keys on the steps of the 
shrine before opening their shops. Khwaja Muin-uddin Chibhti is 
said to have died in the year 12,6b A.D. at the age of ninety-seven, 
and to have come to Ajmer at the age of fifty-two. At Madina a 
voice is »aid to have come to him from the tomb of the prophet 
directing him to go to Ajmer and convert the infidels. " He obeyed 
the call, and on his arrival at Ajmer rested on a spot, now known 
aa the Kangara Masjid in the Dargah, where at the time the King's 
camels were tethered. From this he was ejected and went and 
took up his abode on the hill, which overlooks the Ana^agar, the 
margin of which lake he found covered with idol temples. The 
idolators, enraged at the slaughter of kids by the Musalmans, con- 
spred to massacre them ; but coming in sight of the Khwaja, they 
remained rooted to the spot, and though they tried to ejaculate 
a dm ! Hdm ! could 4>nly articulate tiahim ! Ha him ! In vain did the 
idolators, led by the great sorcoror Ajaypal, and the Deota Shidi 
I)eO| renew their attacks. They were defeated on every occasion, 
and finally begged furgivenebs of the Khwaja, and inviteil htm to 
come and take up his abode in the town.^ '' One |)e(*uliar olMier\'ance 
at the Dargah is the looting of bi>i!eil rice from great cauldrons 
which are filled by pious wurshippers. 

&. Another famous plaiv of Chinhti i>tlgrimage is the tomb of 
the saint Salim ChiMiti, by whone interccsiiion a son was bum at 



> /rijpuMna UMAtitttT^ II. SI89. 



CBISHTI. 



280 



CHf^BIHlB. 



Fatehpur Sikri to the Emperor Akbar, and named Salim after the 
saint. He was subsequently Emperor in the name of Jah&ngir. 



Distribution of the CiisAtis according to tie Centua of 1691. 



DiSTBICT. 


Number. 


DiSTBICT. 


Number. 


Dehra Ddn 


• 




108 


£&Qda 




45 


SaharanpTir 


• 




486 


HamirpuT 






312 


Mnzaffamagar « 


> 1 




16 


Allab&b4d 






15$ 


Meerut 


» 1 




6 


Tialitpar • 






14. 


Bulandsbahr 


a 




260 


Jannpur . • 






183 


Aligarh . 


> « 




88 


Gbazipar 






152 


Mathura • 


1 




20 


BaUia . 






10 


Agra 


t a 




62 


Basti 






837 


Farnikbftb&d 


• 




3 


Azamgarb 






955 


Mainpari • 


• < 




32 


Laoknow . 






45 


Et&wah . 


1 




17 


UnAo 






8 


Etali 


1 1 




44 


B&d Bareli 






117 


Bareilly • 


1 * 




175 


Sttapnr . 






68 


Bijnor 


» 




115 


Eheri 






18 


Bndann . 


• 




08 


FaizAb&d . 






38 


Mor&dAblld 


» 




53 


Gonda 






377 


Sb&bjab&npur 


• 




20 


BabiAich . 






36 


Pilibblt . 


• 




76 


SulUnpnr 






888 


Cawnpur . 


• 




2 

44 


B4rabanki 






227 


Fatebpar . 




TOTAI 


[. 


5,141 



Churihar. — (Sanskrit ci«da-idra),^A maker of glass bangles. 
Another name for the caste is Manihar (Sanskrit mani, a " jewel/' 
kdra) or Kaehera {idci, Sanskrit idcAa, "glass''). The Lakhera 
makes bangles from lac {IdH, Sanskrit lakska). The bangles 



231 OHtyRIHAR. 

are orDamcnted with foil {pamni), beads (pot), counterfeit stones 
{MMgimsy 

2. The caste is, judging from its sectional divisions^ of mixed 
origin* Out of one hundred and eleven names recorded in the 
Census Returns^ the number of local sections is remarkable^ such aa 
Baksariya, Bhojpuriya, Dakkhinfiha^ Gop&lpuriya^ Kanaujiya, Kftnh* 
puriya, Makanpuriya, Naikanpuriya, Purabiya^ Sarwariya^ Sankar- 
puriya, Shaikhpuriya, Sikandarpuriya, Sriv&stab^ Sispuriya, Sital- 
puriya, Sukalpuriyai S&rajpuriya, Tijpuriya. Besides these are 
some named from or oonnected with other castes^ as Bais, 
Chauh&n, Jul&ha, Kachhwaha, Kakan, NftrbAf, Sengara, and Tarki- 
h&r. Others are occupational, as Sabungar (soap- makers) , Mirdaha 
(heralds), Jonkw&r (leech men). The Jhusiya take their name 
from the old town of Jhusi on the Ganges in the AUah&b&d District.' 
Another is Todarmalij which takes its name from Akbar's revenue 
minister. Besides these are the Bannut, Chelaha, and Solasinghi, of 
which the origin is doubtful. All these sub-divisions are endogamous 
and practise the ordinary Muhammadan rules of prohibited degrees. 
In Mirzapur they represent their head-quarters to be Allah&b&d> and 
say that they emigrated from tliere some five or six generations ago. 
They do not admit male outsiders into the caste, but admit females, 
wbo are converted to Islim and married to members of the caste 
after passages from the Quran have been read over them and the 
clansmen feasted. 

3. They practise infant marriage, marrying children between 

Uie ages of five and ten. They have the 

If arriaf* rnlM. 

usual three forms of marriage — ekmrhMuwa, 

where the bridegroom goes in procession to the bride's house and 

marries her there ; dola, practised by poor people, where the bride is 

brought home quietly and the clansmen entertained ; and $agd% for 

widows* &larriage is ])erformed in tlie usual Muhammadan form, 

and the binding portion of the ceremony is the rua^l' .ig of the Sharah 

by the CUbd or some literate person represeit ing him. A widow 

may marry the younger brother of her deceased husband, but the 



> For details and oalcnktion of proflU, ••• Hoey, Jfone^ropfc on 7V«<i^ anil 
M^nmfmeimrtt, 147, »qq. 

' JhiUi moit baTe been ciooe ao important placa. It was tbe bea<l-4)iiarter« 
uf tbe kinfdom of Harl>oDS, and is connected with tbe legend ot OorakbeAtb. 
aUiet. BuppUmtntal Oio«Miry, i.r., Uarbong U r^ : OiUttUft, N.-IT. P.. Vlll. 
Pari 11. isa. $^. 



CHtjEIHAR. 232 

levirate is not enforced. If a woman commit adultery or is 
tually disobedient to the orders of her husband^ he can divorce her 
by leave of the tribal council (panehdi^at) , A woman cannot 
divorce her husband, but can complain to the council if he is fiiithless 
to her or ill-treats her. When a husband divorces his wife he gives 
her three and-a-half rupees. They have a special tribal rule of 
succession^ partly following Hindu and partly Muhammadan rules, 
but adhering closely to the.former. 

4. They are Muhammadans of the Sunni sect, but have various 

tribal deities of diverse origin. Kitika is one 
of the forms of Hindu mother worship.^ 
Sahja Mai is the feminine element in the quintette of the Panchon- 
ptr. Her worship is common in Bihar.' Hardiha or Hardaur 
Lslla, one of the agregate of the collective village gods {Deohdr]^ and 
three Muhammadan saints known as Ghaus Pir, Barfi Pir^ and Ghazi 
Miyan are also venerated. These deities are worshipped in the 
months of Karttik and Jeth with offeriags of fowls and rice boiled 
in milk with sugar (khir). They bury their dead in a graveyard 
like ordinary Muhammadans. At the festivals of the 'Id and Baqar 
'Id they offer food to the spirits of the dead {purkha log). To those 
who have died a violent or unusual death special ofEerings are made 
of rice milk [khir) at the 'Id, and the halwa sweetmeat at the Baqar 
'Id. Some females on certain days in the week offer a fire offering 
{horn) to the traditional teacher {uiidd) of the trade, whose name tbey 
have forgotten. 

5. Their primary occupation is making glass bangles.' Many 

have taken to agriculture and dealing in hides 
occnpation Mid sooial ^^^ ^ioTii^. The women have a good reputa- 

tion ; they are not secladed, but go about 
village f idrs selling bangles. The use of liquor has been prohibited 
by the council in quite recent years. They eat the flesh of the oow, 
goat, sheep, camel, fowls, fish, and all kinds of deer. They will not 
eat food touched by a Mehtar, Hela, Cham&r or Dom. Women will 
not eat food touched by any Hindu. All Muhammadans eat and 
smoke with them^ and they say that Doms and Cham&rs will eat food 
touched by them. 



1 See Monier WiUiams, BraKtnanitm and N%ndu%$m, 227. 
< Qrierflon, BehAr PtoMani Life, 403. 

s k fuU list of the imploments nied will be found in Oriertoa B§M/r P§mttm€ 
lif$, 108, $qq. , and Rural and Agricultural Gh$$ary, f.v., ChMki^. 



233 



CHtyBIHlR. 



UhiribuHott of the CMrihdn by the Censui of 1891 



DI8TBICT. 


Nnmber. 


D18TBIC r. 


Nnmbtr. 


Mathun .... 


21 


Lalitpar .... 


lis 


Agm .... 


155 


YtdikhIA 


54 


mnda .... 


2a2 

1 


Bahr&ioh 


89. 


AllfthibAd 


7 
92 ' 


ToTAt 




Jb&nti .... 


708 



235 DABOAB. 



D. 



Dabg^r— (SanB : darvatdra, ''a maker of any spoon-shaped 

»l "). — The caste who make the raw hide jars in which oil, clari- 
fied batter, etc., are carried. 

They are also known as Kuppds&z, from iuppa^ the -leather 
vessel which they make (Sans : k4pa, kuiupa). They have a Hindu 
and Muhammadan section, but no regular sub-castes. They are 
divided into got rat, of which the most common to the east of the 
Province is the Srib&stab, who take their name from the old town 
of Srftvasti, in the Oonda District. 

Others are Dehliwil, Dari, Moehi, Sripat, and Bengar. The 
Census Usts give for the Hindu branch Bankar, Benbansi, Dhalgar 
or '' Shield-makers/' Goliwala, J&ti, Kanaujiya, and Srib&stab, and 
for the Muhammadan Panjabi. 

It is possible that they are an occupational olEshoot from the 
Chamirs. 

2. The Dabgar makes usually two classes of vessel, the kuppm^ 
^^ or large oil and butter jar, and the pkuleli^ 

a sort of little phial for holding scented oil, 
which may be seen in the bazars hung up over the shops of the 
Gandhi or perfumer. These vessels are made of the clippings 
{kaifu) or the scrapings {g^dar, ckktlan) of raw hides. These he 
cuts up, crushes and bruises in water till they become a soft, pulpy 
mass. This he plasters over a mould of soft clay made in the shape 
of the vessel which he proposes to produce. The leather pulp is 
laid on in layers. He then shapes the neck on an earthen ring and 
dries the vessel in the sun. The inner core is extracted and the 
mouth-ring left to give stability to the vcsmI. Vessels of this kind 
are doubtless a very primitive survival of the leather bottle which 
was universally used by all nomad tribes.' 

S. There is nothing peculiar in their marriage customs, and their 

Mamift and toeiAl ^^ "^ exogamy is of the ordinary type. To 
eosioaM. ^^ ^jj^ ^f ^jj^ Pro^-ince they are worshippers 

of the Panchon])ir, to whom th(>y offer a mixture tif peppei and sugar 
{mirckwdn)^ which is jx^ured im the shrine, and the remainder dnmk 
by the worshipiiers. Sometimes they albo offer in the same way 
cakes {p^ri), sweets, and, when serious trouble comes, a he-goat. 



> 8ehit<Ur, Ff^kiituHc AmtiqmUits^ MO. MifU, 



DABGAR. 



236 



bIdupanthi. 



Distribution of Dabgars according to the Cchmus of 189 L 



DI8TBICTS. 


Hindiu. 


Mnbam- 


Total. 


8ah&ranpnr • . • . 


. • • 


5 


6 


Matburik 


... 


1 


1 


Et&wah 


••• 


65 


65 


ShMijah&Dpar • • • . 


82 


• • • 


32 


Pilibhit 


83 


••• 


88 


Cawnpnr 


53 


••• 


63 


Fatehpar 


6 


21 


26 


Hamirpnr . • • • • 


.*• 


6 


6 


Allab&b&d .... 


41 


10 


51 


J&laun 4 • • • • 


• • • 


16 


16 


Qb&zipar . • • • . 


132 




182 


Ballia 


230 




230 


Qorakbpar .... 


330 




830 


Ba«ti 


88 




88 


Azamgarh . • • • 


223 




22s 


Kheri 


76 




76 


Gonda . . . • 


... 


6 


6 


Babr&icb 


60 


• •• 


60 


Total 


1,353 


129 


1.482 



Dadupanthi. — A Vaishnava sect which derives its name from 
DiAu, a Dhuniya or cotton-carder by caste, who died in 
1703 A.D. He was, according to popular belief, a direct successor 
of R&manand, and the line of descent is given— Mmanand, KabCr, 
Kamil, Jamil, Budhdhan, and D4du. Dfidu was bom at 
Ahmad&bad, in Gujarilt, and at the age of twelve migrated to 
Sambhar, and then to a place called Naraina, about fifty miles 
south-west of Jaypur. There, at the age of thirty-seven, a voioe 
from heaven enjoined him to renounce the world and pass his life in 
ng good to mankind and in devotion. His biographer, Jin 



237 bIdupanthi. 

QcfU, in a biography containing 2,864 linesi deficribee how he spent 
hiB li£e in the country between Ahmadabdd, Delhi and Agra, teach- 
ings discussing, and making many disciples. He seems to have 
lived a good deal at Amber, the old capital of Jaypur. He had 
frequent interviews with the Emperor Akhar at Fatehpur Sikri, and 
some wonderful stories are told of his miracles and adventures th?re. 
Finally in the neighbourhood of Naraina he was absorbed into the 
godhead in 1603 A.D. He is said to have had fifty-two disciplet 
who spread his doctrinest hrough R&jputina and the neighbouring 
Provinces. 

The chief of these were Rajab, Gharib Das, and Sundar Dis, 
and others also are named, such as Jaisa^ Prayag DAs, Bakhnagi, 
Sankar Das, Bfiba Sanwari Das, and Mftdho Dia. Of these Rajab, 
the first disciple of Didu, was a Musalmin, and his Hindu fol- 
lowers are sometimes known by the name Uttaradhi, as distinguished 
from the N&ga, who are Hindus. The latter take their name from 
the Sanskrit ttagnaia, '^ a naked ascetic/' 

2. The D&dupanthis are usually divided into the Virakta, or 
*' those void of attachment to worldly objects, '^ who go bare-headed, 
wear only a single garment, and carry a drinking vessel ; the Naga 
or '' naked ascetics,'' and the Yastimlh&n, or '' those who wear 
clothes" and lead a family life. They have, in fact, like most 
religious communities in India, an exoteric and an esoteric order. 
The exoteric or uninitiated are the householders and disciples of the 
Swimi SAdhu, or initiated order. These householders (jrikattka) 
read, believe, and practise certain of the doctrines of the B&ni or 
book of songs, which embody the rules of the sei^t, and furnish the 
Didupanthi Swami with food and accommodation when he visits their 
Tiilaget. They are not put out of caste for becoming disci])lea 
(ckeU)^ and so retain all their marriage and social rights and privi- 
leges. 

Those of high caste retain their BrAhmanical cord (faneu) and 
other cfaarms, and are frequently found in the temples at idol worship. 
Tliey regularly attend the fairs {mela) of the sect and provide for 
the support of the mendicant members of the community. 

8. The esoteric branch are known as Swami, " master/' Sailhu, 
** saint ; " Sant, " holy man," or Guru, ** teacher." Tliey renounce 
the work! and live under rules of celibacy and chastity, which are veiy 
strictly enfort'ed. Some of them are teachers (ysri), of whom 
many are good scholars and have a large following of disciples to 



dIdupanthi. 238 

whom they toach the bdni. These wander about tho countiy 
and are entertained by the faithfnl. Others are mere beggars with- 
out any learning. They usually beg from door to door^ wear ochre- 
ooloured clothes^ and the bead necklace which is forbidden by 
the strict rules of the order. Others practise worldly professions. 
Thus some of the richest money-lenders in Jaypur are Dftdupanthis ; 
others are doctors^ who have no knowledge of sdentifio surgery or 
physic, and mwely know some Sanskrit verses and charms for the 
treatment of disease ; a few keep grocery shops ; others sell milk. 

4. The Naga or Military Dadupanthis live in seven camps or 
villages in the neighbourhood of Jaypur. Their pay is one anna 
per able-bodied man a day. Th^ are occasionally sent out to 
coerce revenue defaulters. They are nev^ all oat on duty at the 
same time, and while they are employed they are paid at the rate of 
two annas per diem. Those left at home cultivate land, breed 
camels or lend money. Their founder is said to have been Bhim 
Sinh, a younger brother of one of the R&jas of Bikaner. They 
have done good service to the State in former times, and were faith- 
ful in the Mutiny. They are simple, quiet men, but now hardly 
deserve the name of soldier. They are recruited by adoption from 
all the higher Hindu castes, and as a natural result of a generation of 
peace their numbers have much reduced. 

5. Dadu appears to have taught the unity of Gk>d. ** To this 
day,'' says Mr. Coldstream,^ ^'the D&dupanthis use the phrase 
Sat Rdm^ the True God, as a current phrase expressive of their 
creed. He forbids the worship of idols and did not build temples ; 
now temples are built by his followers, who say that in them they 
worship '• The Book.'' " The worship," according to Professor 
Wilson, ''is addressed to R&ma, but it is restricted to the Japa or 
repetition of his name, and the RAma intended is the deity negative- 
ly described in the Vedanta theology." In feet the doctrine of 
DMu is sometimes described as pantheistic. The religious works of 
the sect contain many of the sayings of Kabir. The chief of these are 
the D^ubani, the Sakya-granth and the Janamlila, which contains 
an account of the Guru and his disciples. In the Paujfib the celi- 
bates of to-day wear white cloths in contrast to most other S&dhs 
who wear ochre-coloured clothes. They abjure flesh and wine, and 
they shave both beard and moustache. They wear necklaces and 



> MaoUgan, TanjdJb SettUmeni Report, 147. 



dIdupanthi. 



289 



dafAxi. 



have white round cape on thoir heads^ to which is attached a piece 
of cloth which hangs down the back. 

6. At the CensuB of 1891 there were only five membere of this 
sect recorded in these Provincee, of whom four were found in the 
Sahlranpar and one in the Muzaffamagar District. 

Diiifibniion of tie Nd§ms and Dddupantkii according to tic Ccncui 

of 1891. 



DlSTBICTt. 






D&dopanthia. 


NAipM. 


Total. 


Dehra DAn 






• • • 


3 


3 


S»)i4raiipiir 






4 


14 


18 


Mntaffkmagar . 






1 


4 


6 


Aligarb 






• • • 


26 


26 


Agrm 






• • • 


43 


43 


llainpnri . 






• • • 


% 


2 


EUh 






• • 


4 


4 


ShihjahAnpur 






... 


7 


7 


Vatebpar • 






••• 


8 


2 


BilldA 






• •• 


1 


1 


Hamlrpar 






••* 


5 


6 


AlUhibid 






••• 


3 


3 


Gorakbpar 






• • • 


4 


4 


BMi 






••t 


2S0 


280 


OarbvU . 


» 4 




• • • 


13 


IS 


Tariki 






• • • 


1 


1 


Total 


6 


411 


410 




Malea 


336 




Fematea 


76 



DafaliJ — A tritic of lie^p&rs and musicianB who arc found 
throughout the Province except the Ililln, and take their name from 



* Maialy baaad on Informatiun oollaeUd at llirtapnr. 



dafAli. 240 

the daf or tambourine which they play. Aoeording to their own 
account they are allied to the Mad&ris ; but there is this difference, 
that the Dafalis worship Sayyid S&lir Ohizi, of Bahrsdch, and the 
Mad&ris, MadSr Sahib, of Makhanpur. Both are called Darwesh, 
but the Dafalis try to distinguish the tribes by calling themselves 
Darwesh and the Madaris Durwesh. They say that they are the 
descendants of Roshan Darwesh, to whom they make an occasional 
offering of cakes and bum incense. 

2. In the Census Returns they are recorded under sixty-eeven 

sections : but these appear to have no influence 

Tribal organisation. . « • i 

on mamages. Some of these are purely 
Muhammadan titles, as Ans&ri, Quraishi, Lodi, Madariya^ Mirftsi, 
Muj&wir, Sadiqi, and Sunni : others are Hindu names, as Jit, Jhojfaa, 
Rftjput, R&nghar : others are local, as Bahraichi, Dakkhin&ha, and 
Uttarslha. They have a council {paneidyai) under a hereditary pre- 
sident {chaudhari), which generally meets at marriages and funerals 
and settles cases of breach of tribal rules. Offenders are usually 
fined in sums varying from five to ten annas. The money thus col- 
lected is spent in feeding the clansmen. 

3. They practise the ordinary Muhammadan law of exogamy, 

but object to marry their daughters into 
families which reverence different saints or 
godlings. A man cannot marry a second wife in the lifetime of;the 
first without her consent. Divorce is permitted for infidelity, and 
also if one paii^y become an idiot, lunatic, or suffer serious mutilation 
But in all cases the divorce must be with the sanction of the tribal 
council. Widow-marriage and the levirate with the usual restric- 
tions are both allowed. Divorced persons can remarry in the tribe, 
provided they were not divorced for any serious violation of caste 
custom. The usual service [tharah] is read at marriages by one of 
the tribe who is known for the nonce as Maulavi. 

4. There are no ceremonies during pregnancy, except the tying 

round the woman's neck of a charm to ward 
off the evil spirits which attack the mother. 
When parturition is delayed she is given water to drink in which a 
sword has been washed, and the person who draws the water muat 
do so with his ri£:ht hand only. When the^child is born a Chami- 
rin is called in to cut the cord. She remains in attendance only one 
day, and her place is then taken by the wife of the barber. The 
mother is isolated for twelve days; but she is allowed to cook and do 



241 ]>af1li* 

other household work. On the twelfth dav is the baraki. when a 
dinner consisting of urad pulse, rice and meat is given to the brother- 
hood. When the dinner is over some sweetmeats are offered to 
Ghazi Miyin, and then distributed among those present. When the 
diild is a year old they take it and the mother, if possible, 
to the Ganges in the month of Bhidon during the asterism 
{nahh^ira) of Magha. The mother makes a little paper boat^ 
and in it she puts a garland of flowers^ a lamp, sugar, and 
bread, to which some add betel, and lets it float down the stream. 
This, a custom derived from their Hindu neighbours, is known 
aa Ghmga pujaiya. When a boy is seven years old they perform 
the rite of circumcision {Muiaimdnt), This is usually done at 
the 'Id, Baqrid, and Muharram. The friends are invited ; a 
fquare is marked out in the courtyard, and the friends sit round. 
The boy is bathed by the barber and dressed in new clothes. Then 
his Other's sister's husband {pk Upha) takes him in his arms to the 
nearest mosque to pray. On their return the boy is given a dose of 
ma*JHm, and when the narcotic begins to take effect he is placed in the 
square by his uncle (phiipha) and seated facing the west. Then the 
barber i)erforms the operation invoking God and the Prophet. The 
only application wwi for the woun<l is some rose water. After the 
operation is over the boy's father gives a turban, loiOy and a few 
annas to the barber, and each of the friends present puts a pice or two 
into his cup. After this a dinner of meat and bread is served. 
When the wound is cured the barter bathes the boy again, and 
receives some grain and a money present.* When they adopt they 
usually adopt their son-in-law, or in default of him preference is 
given to a brother's son. No adoption is valid unless publicly com- 
municated to the assembled clansmen. A feast is given anil the 
adoption formally declared. 

5. As an instance of a low cai^te Muhammadan wedding that of 

a Dafali mav be described. The betrothal is 
arranged by some fnend of both ])ariies. 
When both parties agree, on an auspicious day ielected by the \nllage 
Pandit the bride's father takes to the house of the bridc*groom a 
ring and handkerchief on her bi^ialf. These are accepted, and the 
boy's father announces to the assembU»d friends that the marriage 
will take place. On this the girl's fit her payn two and-a-half annas^ 



I For Um rafttUr ciroomeiatoo ritiul. ••• Lam, M»<i«rfi ffi^yf lidna, 1, 71. 

Vol. 11. q 



bafIli. 242 

and the boy's father five annas, and with this sngar is bought and 
served round, after being offered to God and the Prophet. Next 
morning the girPs father returns home. Some time after the boy's 
father pays a visit to the bride and makes her a present of bangles 
{churi)y a suit of clothes {tul kapra)^ a bodice {rholi)^ and some sweets. 
After a meeting of the tribesmen the wedding day is fixed. Poor 
people, however, send the girl beforehand to her husband, and any 
ceremony they can afford to do is done at his house. On the day 
before the wedding is the ratjaga, when the women sit up all night 
and spend their time making sweet cakes (gulgula). These are 
offered next morning to God and the Prophet, and to the spirits of 
the ancestors of the family. They are then distributed among the 
guests. The bridegroom is bathed and dressed in a yellow coat 
{idma)y trousers, and a turban. A large chaplet [nehra) hangs down 
from head to knee. He rides to the bride's house followed by his 
friends playing on the dafla. They halt under a tree near the village, 
and from there the boy's father sends a present of bangles, clothes, 
curds, oil, and henna. Then they come to the girl's house, where the 
service is read by some old man of the tribe who can read or repeat 
the words. Some sugar is put close by which is distributed among 
the guests, and the mai^riage feast, consisting of sugar, rice, and curds, 
is served. This is known as skaiardna, or " the sugar feast." Next 
day the bride's father gives presents to her barber, bangle-maker, 
water-woman, and the village watchman, and then starts for the 
place where the bridegroom's party are staying, with a basket con- 
taining vessels, grain and anything else he can afford to give as the 
dowry of his daughter. He places these before the father of the 
bridegroom, and asks his forgiveness for not being able to give more. 
The bridegroom's father says the same, and they exchange compli- 
ments. After this the dowry basket is passed round, and all the 
friends present contribute as far as their means will go. ThiB is 
termed "the giving of the dowry'' (jahe$ dildna). The husband 
then takes his wife away, and when he returns home he entertains 
his clansmen on curds, sugar, and rice, and next day gives th^n a 
ree:iilar dinner of bread and meat. 

Every one present contributes two annas as dowry. After this 
the Ganga pujaiya is done, as already described at births, and the 
wholo Inisinoss ends with an offering of rice, curds, and sugar to 
GliAzi Miyan, wliieb is divided among the audience. 



243 dapAli. 

6. The funeral is carried out in the usual way of Muhammadans. 

When it is over the mourners assemble at the 

DMith 06r6moDi68« 

house of the deceased and drink sharbat. On 
the fourth day they again assemble, and some verses of the Qurftn 
are read over a vessel containing some sweets {6aid9^a), grain, and oil. 
This is known as iul parhan, and the contents of the vessel are 
divided among the audience. The clansmen are fed on nrad pulse 
and rice, and the faqir in charge of the grave is given a present. On 
the tenth and twentieth day bread and meat are offered to the spirit 
of the dead man, and on the fortieth day a final dinner is given, and 
next morning they put the clothes, beads, and water vessel {badkana) 
of the deceased on his bed and take them to his grave, where they 
are left for any one who wishes to carry them away. An offering of 
food is made to the family dead at the Shab-i-bar£t. 

7. Their tribal deities are chiefly Kilika, Sahj&di, and Ghizi 

Miyan, three of the quintette of the Pinch 
Pir. To K&lika areoffcred in the month of 
Aghan bread and rice cooked in milk. Sahjadi is worshipped at the 
same time. Ghazi Miyan^s day is the first Sunday in the month of 
Jeth, when his wedding is celebrated. Animal sacrifices are made, 
and the meat is consimied by the worshippers. They also worship a 
number of local martyrs {siaAid), and they are in great fear of 
various demons and ghosts. 

8. The Dafili is a beggar, and goes about with a wallet {jiori) 

in which he collects what he can get. But 
he also acts as a sort of hedge priest to the 
lower class Musalmins, and ofliciates at marriages, funerals, and the 
Uke, for people who cannot afford to pay for the services of the 
regular Qazi. Thi^y beg in beats, and each house has its body of 
parishioners (j^'jmdn). One of their chief duties is the exorcising of 
evil spirits by beating the drum, and driving the effects of the Evil 
Eye from children. When a man's children do not live he gets the 
liaBli to tie a string {baddhi) round the neck of the liaby. They 
are particularly coniipicuous at the fairs of Gliazi Miyan, whoM 
slirines thc^y tend, act as his priests, and receive the offerings. 



Vol. 11. «J2 



dafIli. 



244 



DALSBA. 



Distribution of the Dafdlis aeearding to the Cemui of 169U 



DI8TBICT8. 


Nnmber. 


D18TBICT8. 


Number. 


Debra IMn 


• • 


98 


J&laun • • • • 


83 


Sab^ranpnr • 


• • 


4^161 


LalitpOT . 






••• 


Mozaffarnagar « 


• • 


1,797 


Benaiea • 


« 




2^12 


Meernt « 


• • 


1,783 


MirzapQT . 






1,739 


BnlandBliabr 


k • • 


11 


Jannpnr 






2,442 


Aligarb • < 


» • • 


211 


GhAaipor 






662 


Matbnra • 


• • • 


52 


Ballia . 






489 


Agra 


• • • 


118 


Gorakhpar 






2,206 


Farrakb&b&d . 


1 • • 


360 


Basil . 






2,416 


Mainpari 


» • « 


153 


Azamgarh 






1,189 


Et&wah . 


■ • • 


209 


Tiirld . 






216 


Etah 


k • • 


408 


Lnoknoir 






378 


BareiUy • 


• • 


1313 


UnAo . 






865 


BiJDOT • 


1 • • 


162 


BAdBarali 






882 


Budaun . 


• • 


788 


Sltapor • 






677 


Mor^^b&d 


» • • 


315 

1 


Haidoi • 






287 


Sb&bjab&nptir < 


• • 


666 


Kheri 






90 


Pilibblt . 


k • • 


472 


Faia&b&d 






1,934 


Cawnpur 


• • « 


149 

1 


Gonda • 






2,214 


Fatebpur 


• • • 


289 

1 


BahiAioh 






1,770 


B&nda • 


1 • • 


250 


Salt&npar 






IfiM 


Hamtrpnr 


» • • 


121 


Pariibgarh 








Allab&bAd 


t • • 
• • • 


1,998 
21 


B&rabanki 






1,885 


Jb&Dfii 


Total 


42,075 


Dalera.^— A tribe of basket-makers^ day-labouiere, and tliievaa 



1 From notes by Pandit Janardan Datt Josbi, Depnty Collector, Barwlly, and 
fijport, ln$ptctor'Q9A9raX of Police, N.*W. P., 1869, p. 125, iqq. 



245 DALEBA. 

foand in Bareilly and the Tarfli. The name is derived from the 
Hindi daliyti^ '' a basket/' A common half humourous derivation 
\m from diler^ '' venturesome/' According to the tribal tradition 
a BargAjar Th&kur once violated a Kadi&r woman and was 
exoommunicated. His descendants are the present Daleras. They 
are supposed to be closely allied both to Khigis and Malllhs. Their 
head-quarters in Bareilly are at the village of Ginganwa, in Tahstl 
Aonla. They are also found at Munjkhera, in the Bulandshahr 
District. They have no distinct traditions regarding their place of 
origin, except that they came from somewhere in the South about a 
hundred years ago. The Bareilly story is that they were driven 
from Meerut and Bulandshahr by a &mine. 

2. Their sections, of which the last Census Returns enumerate 
forty-four, do not throw much light on their origin. Many are 
derived from well-known tribes, as Bais, Band, BargAjar, Chauhan, 
Chiryamir, Gurkha, Jidubansi, Kinhpuriya, Mall&h. 

8. Some of these are perhaps of totemistio origin, such as the 
ifArriAM ml Sirisiya of Bareilly, who will not cut or injure 

the iihi tree {acacia tirisa). Their mar- 
riages are carried out according to the standard ritual in force among 
the higher Hindu castes. 

4. The Daleras will not thieve at night, and carry on their opera- 

Mtthod. a thkfing. ^^°* principally at fairs, bathing places, and 

the like. At such places a Dalera takes his 
teat near a pilgrim and pretends to cook. While his neighbour's 
attention is occupied, the Dalera steals his vessels or other property. 
When he steals a brass pot, he goes into the water and with an iron 
•pike he carries, makes holes in it, which prevent the possibility 
of identification. Sometimes they make a mock disturbance in a 
bAxir, and in the confusion snatch articles from shops which they 
rapidly pass into the hands of a confederate. Or they go dressed 
as Th&kurs or Br&hmans and make a boy steal while they keep the 
shop-keeper engagitl. If the lads are caught they never give their 
oorrect age or address. The thief gets a double share of the booty, 
and most of the gains are spent in drink. If a boy is arretted his 
well-dressed companions intercede for him. In tlieir methods of 
orime they closely resemble those of the Barwirs and Sanaurhiyas. 



DALERA. 



246 



dAngi. 



Distribution of the Dalerai aecordin§ to ihe Census of 1891. 



DI8TBICT8. 


Knmber. 


DISTRICT!. 


liambof. 


Bareillj 
Bijnor 
MorlidlkUd . 


2,009 
23 
29 


Pilibhtt . 

Gorakhpar 

Tari^i 

Total 


6 

1 

105 




2,233 



Dangi.^ — An agricultural tribe found chiefly in Jhansi. The 
caste professes to deriveits name from a certain Bilja Dang, a 
Raghubansi Rajput, from whom they trace descent ; but the word 
probably means no more than " hill-man " (Hindi, danp, " a hill''). 
They profess to be immigrants from a place called Nirver, in the 
Gwalior State, with which, however, they appear to hold no connection 
by marriage or pilgrimage, selection of bards, priests, or barbers ; and 
those at present resident in the JhSnsi District have come chiefly with- 
in comparatively recent times from the Datiya and Tikamgarh States. 
They have nothing in the way of a genealogical tree or traditions 
connected with ancient sites or monuments which would throw any 
clear light on their origin ; but there seems good reason to suspect 
that they may be connected with the Gond and similar races of the 
Central Indian plateau. 

2. They have no sub-tribes, but are divided into a number of 

exogamous gotras, among which we find in 
Jh&nsi the Patra, Nirveriya, Disauriya^ 
Chakauriya, Madhpuriya, Dhauriya, and Pariya. Of these the 
Nirveriya is derived from Nirver, their original settlement, and 
though local enquiries have failed to explain the meaning of the 
other terms, they are probably of similar local origin. Of the sixty* 
seven names given in the Census lists very few can be connected 
with those of other tribes, except perhaps the Basoriya, Luniya, 
Niy ariya, Pahriya, and Sarwariya. The others appear to be of purely 
local origin, and this would lead to the inference that the tribe haB 
been little, if at all, exposed to foreign influence. 



Sub-divisions. 



1 Based od a series of notes hj MunHbi R&dha Baman, Deputy Collector, JbAiwL 



2 17 dAnoi. 

5. There is no regular tribal council ; bnt there are certain per- 
_ .. . , sons who are rec^arded in each eroup of 

TnbU ooanoil. ^ , 

villages as headmen {muk^ifd), and they 

afisemble a meeting of the adult householders whenever a case 

occurs demanding enquiry. They deal principally with questions 

of marriage, excommunication, and restoration to caste privileges. 

4. Marriage is forbidden between members of the same 

-, _. , Qolra and between first cousins. There are 

no prohibitions of intermarriage based on 
difference of social status, geographical or local position, worship or 
occupation.^ But intermarriage of persons belonging to different 

religions is not permitted. When the bride arrives at her husband's 
house, his kinsmen make her small presents, which are known as 
muckdi or munkdikhdi^ " the showing of her face. " There is no 
restriction on the number of wives : a man marries as many as he 
can afford to keep. All the wives are much on the same footing ; 
but the first wife is known as Jethi or senior, and is held in more 
respect in the family than those junior to her. They all live 
together unless they quarrel, wliich is very unusual : in fact tlie 
senior wife often urges her husband to marry again, as she thus 
obtains an assistant in house and field work. North of the River 
Betwa at least concubinage is permitted. Polyandry is prohibitixl. 
Little girls are allowed a considerable amount of freedom ; but if an 
unmarried girl is detected in immorality, she is excommunicated, 
and her whole family as well, unless they discard her. The age for 
marriage is, for girls seven or eight ; for boys twelve or thirteen. 
After betrothal the €*ngagement is not voidable on account of disease 
or physical defect. The mat(*h is arrangi>d by the parents, but those 
a little higher in the social scale employ a Brahman and liarber. 
The consent of the parents is al>solutely neeessar}*, and the parties 
have no freedom of choice. No price is paid for either bride or bride* 
groom, but when the betrothal [tikn) is being p€»rformed, the friends 
of the bride are expected to give the boy a present. Even idicjcy, 
lunacy or impotence ap]H'aring aftt»r marriagi* are not grounds for 
annulling it. Divorce is perniitti>d on the ground of ailulU'ry in the 
wife. It is gi»nerally done by word of mouth, and the woman is 
turned out of iXre house. But usually, even if tlk«re hi» no n*^*ar 
tribal enquiry, the hiisliand d<»es not divonv his wife with4»ut taking 
the opinion of four or Hw^ of tlu» leailing c-lausuivn in an informal 
way. A divorctJ woman cannot U* remarried in the re^lar way 
bat another man may take her as his roiMnibine, in which easi> he 



bInoi. 248 

must give a dinner {roft) to the clansmen. Children by concnbined^ 
provided that they are women of the caste, have the same rights as 
offspring by regular marriages ; but children who are the result of 
illicit connections which have not been condoned, or whose mothers 
were not members of the caste, are not admitted to tribal privileges 
and cannot marry in the caste. 

5. Remarriage of widows is prohibited; but a man may take a 
' . , widow of the caste to live with him without 

widow marriage* 

any ceremony, except the assent of the lead- 
ing clansmen and the giving of a tribal feast. The levirate is 
allowed with the usual limitation, that it is only the younger brother 
who can claim the woman. But the widow is not compelled to live 
with her brother-in-law, and may set up house with an outsider, in 
which case the children of her first husband remain with his rela- 
tions, and she loses all rights of maintenance in the housdold of 
her former husband. Her children by the first husband inherit his 
estate. If the first husband was childless his brothers inherit. 
There is no fiction that the children by the levir are supposed to 
belong to his dead brother. 

6. There are no special observances during pregnancy. The 

Cham&rin midwife attends and cuts the cord. 

Birth oeremoniei. ,% • i. a. A^ j.t i x 

Dunng accouchement the mother adopts a 
sitting posture, and is held by the women of the family. After 
parturition is over the wife of the village barber acts as nurse. On 
the Dashtaun or tenth day the clansmen and friends are fed ; the 
relations of the mother send her presents {puek) and soaked gram 
is distributed. There is no indication of the couvade. For ten days 
the women and her relations are considered impure and are not 
allowed to touch other people or engage in worship of the gods. 
There are no special customs in connection with twins. 

7. There is no special ritual in force at adoption. The clan 

people are invited; the men are fed on 

Adoption. Puberty. . i ^i it 

sweets and the women on soaked gram. 
There are no observances at the attainment of puberty. 

8. The person who goes to the boy's house to arrange the 

betrothal gives a cocoanut, some money, and 
a packet of betel {pdn). This is the bind- 
ing part of the ceremony, and the betrothal is then irreversible. 
Betrothal generally takes place when the girl is five or six years of 
age, and the consent of both parents is essential. There is no rule 



249 dAkqi. 

for the repayment of the expenses if the marriage does not take 

place. 

9. Seven days before the actual marriage ceremony the bride's 
father sends a letter {lagan ki ehitthi) to the bridegroom's father 
fixing the date and honr of the marriage. A sum of money 
already agreed on accompanies this letter. When the procession 
starts to fetch the bride, they halt outside her village at a place pre- 
pared for them called the Janrdnsa. In the evening they march 
in procession to the bride's house, being met half«way by her 
friends. At the door the iiia ceremony is performed, and another 
present in money equal to that sent with the iapan is made to the 
bridegroom. The bridegroom is then taken inside, where he throws 
a tan on the marriage shed {mandap) and returns to his party. 
Next day, after the dinner, and generally at night, the actual 
B^anwar or perambulation of the bride and bridegroom round the 
•acred fire and the '' giving away '' of the girl [kanjfdddn) are 
performed. The parents of the bride are not allowed to be present 
at the Bhanwar ceremony. On the third day the third dinner 
{roit) is given, and the ceremony of permitting the girl to go with 
her husband (bi*fdi) is done. Here, again, the bride's &ther makes 
a third present equal in va'ue to the jirevious two, which is known 
as Ma or '' cup. " It is optional with the parties to }>erform the 
ceremony of changing the seats of the married pair \laulpatta). 
In case this ceremony is performed at the marriage it is not neoes- 
■uy to repeat it when the bride is leaving for her hiu»band's house. 
If done, then it is known as Chanht, and the presents made at it by 
the farther of the bride must equal in value half the presents matle 
at the marriage. 1*he binding part of the marriage ceremony is 
ttie perambulations round the tire and the giving away of the bride. 
1 he only api^arent survival of marriage by capture is the ceremony 
of fikm or d*$rwdza performed the firnt day. In this hb maternal 
uncle takes the bridegroom in his arms inside the houi^e of the 
bride, and there he strikes the marriage hut with a fan. As ho is 
going away the women of the fanuly beat the nian who in <*arry- 
ing him with their fists and shout, *' He has t»tnick the mamdap 
and is going away.'' 

9. The dead are cremated and the a^hes finally consigned to the 

Ganges. Imnu*diate!y after death the 

coq>toe IS covered with a piece of calico, 

white for men and red fur women, and a few p^in leaves are 



/ 



DANGI. 250 

put over the head and breast. No offerings are made^ nor is the 
body washed at the house. When they reach the cremation ground 
(ghdt) a fire is lighted and the corpse laid with the head facing the 
south* Offerings of sesamum {til) and barley are made, and sesa- 
mum, barley and honey placed on the eyes of the corpse. The 
pyre is then lit by the heir^ and he finally breaks the skull {kapdl 
krii/a) to release the spirit. On the third day the relatives and 
clansmen are shaved. In the ease of males the obsequies go on for 
thirteen days^ and on the last day at least thirteen Br&hmans or 
more are feasted. The usual Srdddha is performed at the Kan%at 
or Pitrapaksha in the month of Ku&r. It is incumbent on the head- 
man of the family during each of the sixteen days to pour a libation 
of water in honour of his deceased ancestors before he touches food 
or drink. The death ceremonies are carried out by the^&mily priest, 
and in his absence by any Brahman. There is no trace of the sister's 
son or other relatives on the female side exercising religious functions. 
10. The rules of ceremonial purification are carefully obeyed. 

Thus, if a person commit suicide on account 
of the misconduct of another, the offender is 
rigorously boycotted and is considered to bear the guilt {hat^a) of the 
death. The same is the case with a man who has killed a cow, 
buffalo, or cat. The impurity after child-birth lasts for ten days. 
The death impurity lasts for ten days, except in the case of infants, 
when it is reduced to three days. The period of menstrual impurity 
extends to five days. The impurity due to death, child-birth, and 
menstruation is removed by the performance of the stated cere- 
monies, and by bathing after the expiration of the fixed period. But 
in the case of impurity due, as above described, to suicide or the 
killing of a cow, the matter is much more serious. The offender in 
order to purify himself is obliged to bathe in the Granges, to feed 
the clansmen and Brahmans, to perform the marriage ceremony of 
the Tulasi plant and the Salagrama, or to pay all the expenses of 
the marriage of a pair of poor children in the caste. The interdict 
lasts until this expiation is undergone. 

11. Dangis are Hindus and worship all the ordinary deities, such 

as Ramacliandra, Krishna, Mah&deva, Durga, 

etc. They also worship the village god lings. 

Thus Sitala is worshipped in the months of Asarh, Kuftr, and Chait, 

with an offering of boiled rice and cakes, pice and cowries ; the food 

18 taken by a Brahman, the cash by a Mftli. Ilardaul, the cholera 



251 DANGI. 

godling, is worshipped in Asarh, and during epidemics of the 
disease. His offerings are cakes, sweetmeats, and packets of betel. 
All these things, except the cakes, are taken by a Brahman. Sitala 
has usually a regular masonry shrine, while Hardaul has only a 
platform. These deities are chiefly worshipped by women and chil- 
dren, adult males seldom visit their shrines. At marriages they 
propitiate the sainted dead, whom they call dera ^ilra, but they 
hare no definite idea of their nature or functions. An old snake 
represents BhAmiya or the godling of the hamlet, and is worshipped 
in the month of As&rh (June-^July). Their sacred trees are the 
pipal {I^icus religioio) and iheehhonkar (ProioptM npicigern), EWI 
spirits (bkUt, prei) are propitiated in cases of sickness supposed to 
be due to demoniacal agency. It is said that Brahmans have no 
objection to eating paiki rati from the hands of Dangis. Their priests 
are D&b£ or TiwAri Brihmans, and are received on the same footing 
aa other Brahmans. Sometimes they have a Guru in addition to a 
Pnrohit ; sometimes the same man fulfils both functions. They iiave 
a special festival known as the maur ehhut or '' loosing of the mar- 
riage crown,'' when in the month of Bhadon the marriage crown of a 
pair who have been married during the year is thrown into the wati*r. 
The only festival at which drunkenness is ])ermitted is the Holi. Tlie 
cows of the family are worshipped at the Diwili and horses at tlie 
Daaahra. 

12. Oaths are made in the name of the Ganges and the Tulasi 

plant ; in the name of the gods ; by holding 
a lota full of Ganges water ; by holding a 
■on or grandson in the arms ; by going to a shrine and opening the 
door at the time of swearing. Taking a false oath involves loss of 
property, disease, and death. Exorcism of evil sjnrits is in the 
hands of the Syana, or '' cunning man. " Sickness due to the 
Evil Eye is relieved by waving some mustard and salt round the 
head of the patient, and then throwing it into the fire. 

IS. Meat is forbidden; some will not eat onions. They will not 

touch a Bhan^i or Basor, or a person guilty 
of Ilatya, as above descrilied. Women are 
not alk>wed to touch the Salagrama, aiul children uinler U^n are not 
permitt€:d to join in any rfligious celebration. Tliey ol>siTve the 
tunial taboo against the wife calling her hunltaml by his name. It 
is said that at Uie Akhtij festival, on tlie tliird of tlio light half of 
Bais&kh, ttie wife, in order to bring luck on tik* Ihuim*, is obliged t4> 



dInOI. 252 DARYBSH. 

call her husband once by his name. They abstain from wine^ the 
flesh of monkeys, beef, pork, flesh of cloven-footed and uncloven-foot- 
ed animals, fowls, fish, and all kinds of vermin. The head of the 
family does not eat the baingan or egg-plant {Solanum melongena) 
from Asai'h till the Deouthin feast in K&rttik, and this vegetable is 
not eaten on the eleventh day of the light and dark fortnights in 
each month. Women and men eat apart^ and before eating two 
morsels are offered to the gods with folded hands, and a libation of 
water is poured on the ground. The use of intoxicating drugs is not 
forbidden, but excess use of them is considered disgraceful. 

14. Their form of salutation is Bdm! 

Salatation. 

Edm I with the hand raised to the forehead. 
15. They will eat close to Ahirs, but not out of the same disL 

They will take food cooked by • a Br&hman 
and will drink water from the hands of a 
M&li, K&chhi, Dtumar, or N&u. They will not smoke out of the 
pipe of a Basor, Bhangi, or Cham&r. 

16. The Dftngis are ordinary cultivators 

Oooupation. u j- ^ 

and practise no handicrafts. 



Duiribution of the Vdngi nccortling to the Cetieui of 1891, 



Districts. 


Nnmber. 


Sh&hjah&npur 


• • 


. • • • 


9 

2,186 


J41aiiD •*..••••• 


74 


TjalitDur • . - - - .... 


94 






Total 






2,363 



Darvesh.-^A general Persian word for a faqir. Mr. PlattB 
derives it from the Zend root drigh, " to be poor, to beg," and com- 
pares the Sanskrit d^rbh, root dribk and daridra. The term in 
these Provinces does not seem to denote a special caste ; but Mr. 
Ibbetson' notices in the Panj&b that there seems to be a colony of 
people of this name, who cultivate land, play musical instrumentB, 
beg, make ropes, go to a house where there has been a death and 

> Panj^b Eihnografihy, para. 523, 



BEBVESH. 



253 



dabtadIsi. 



chant the praiseB of the deceased, hang about mosques, and so forth« 
They are hardly ascetics, yet the small number of women seems to 
show that they have not yet formed into a separate caste, and are 
•till recruited from outside. 



Dutribuiion of ike Darvenh aceordiug io fie f Census of 189 1, 



DiSTBICTfl. 


Namber. 


PlBTBICTl. 


Namber. 


Farmkbibid • 
Mainpiiri • 
BtAwah 
Pilibbh 


890 
2 
8 


Allah4b4d . 

Jannpur • • 

Sitapur 

Kheri • * • • 

Total 


13 
76 

498 
92 




1,076 



Daryadasi. — A VaishnaTa sect in the Ohizipur district, 
founded by one Darya Dis, a Vaishnava mendicant of the Koeri 
caste, whose followers now number 2,310. 

Darsi.-* (Persian dars, " a seam '') the tailor caste : pedantically 
known as Khaiyit (Arabic iia/yd^, ''to sew''}. — The caste is purely 
occupational and consists of a Hindu as well as aMuhammadan 
branch. Like all similar so-called castes it shows a tendencyto break 
up into endogamous occupational branches, such as the Rafugar or 
darner of old clothes, the Khaimadoz or tent-maker, and the Dastar- 
band or maker of the elaborate turbans, such as are worn by oflSce 
clerks and native servants. The patron saint of the Muhammadan 
branch is Ibrahim or Abraham, who, according to them, practised 
the craft. In the month of Siwan they make offerings to him of 
rice stew {puldo ) and cakes. These Musalmin Darzis take the 
titles of Shaikh and Khalifa. 

2. The Hindu Darzis arc made up, as is shown by their exoga- 
mous stib-dlvlsionii, of various elements. Thus, among the five hun* 
dred and twenty-six sections of the Hindu and one hundred and 
forty-six of the Muhammadan branch, we find the names of many 
well-known tribes and castes, such as Agariya, Agarwala, AtishbaZy 
Bichhal, Baddhik, Uaid, Bais, Baiswir, Bamhan, Baniyina, Bar* 
gAjar, Benbans, Bhat, Chamir, Chaudeli, Chauhin, Chhatri, 



DARZI. 264 

Dhstnuk, Gujar, Gaur, Jadon, Janwar, Kachhw&hiya^ Kiyasth, 
Kharwar, Koli,.Maratha, Mukeri, Ojha, PanwS.r, R&jput^ Rathaur, 
Raghubansi, SakarwaritSolankhi, Sfirajbansi, Taga^ Tank^ Tomar, 
and Turkiya. With these are many local titles, such as Bareli, 
Bathmi, or Srivatsav, Bhadwariya, Bhagalpuriya, Dilliw&l, Hard- 
wai'iya, Jaiswar, Jalalpuriya, Kanhpuriya, Mathur or Mathuriya, 
and Sarwariya. The Kayasth caste has contributed many recruits 
to them who call themselves Sribastab or Sribastak Kayasths &om 
Dundiya Khera, the head-quarters of the Bais Bajputs. The name 
18 derived from the town of Sravasti, now Sahet Mahet in the Gonda 
district. In Garhwal the Hindu Darzi is known as Bora, most of 
whom seem to be of the Dom tribe. In the Western Districts their 
endogamous sub-divisions are Rathaur, Mathuriya, Mahor, and 
Saksena (from Sankisa) : of these the Rathaur, who claim descent 
from the Rajput tribe of that name, are the highest, and Mathoriya 
and Mahor, who aie often contemptuously termed Chamar Sujiya 
or Chamars' tailors, are the lowest. In Benares, according to Mr. 
Sherring, their sub-divisions are Sribastav, Nimdeo, Tinchara, 
Dhanesh, Panjabi, Gaur, Kantak, and Saksena. Among sections 
locally important we find the Zahuri of Saharanpur : the Chauhin 
and Jogi of Muzaffainagar : the Sadiqi of Sitapur : the Turkiya of 
Kheri, and the Pirzada of Gonda. The Musalm&n Darzds follow 
the ordinaiy rules of Muhammadan exogamy ; but it is said ihaA 
there is now-a-days a tendency to replace these by the usual stand- 
ai'd Hindu formula. Widows remarry by the sa^di or idj form, 
and the levirate is optional. 

8. Tliough most of the Darzis in the east of the Province pro- 
fess to be Sunni Muhammadans, they still 
cling to many Hindu usages. -They worship 
K&lika, Bhawani, and the*Panchonpir, among whom they particular- 
ly reverence Ghazi Miyan.* These are worshipped in the month of 
Jeth, when the wedding of Ghazi Miyan is commemorated. The 
offerings to them consist of rich cakes {malida), bread^ fowls, 
sweetmeats, melons, cucumbers, gram-flour, and cakes made of pulse 
and pumpkin (konirauri). They bury their dead in the usual 
Muhammadan form, and lay offerings to the spirits of their deceased 
ancestors at the ^Id and Shab-i-barat. They are said to eat beef 



1 In Gujarat on tho sixth day of tho birth a pair cf soistora ooTered with oloth 
it laid down, and the child mado to bow to them.— Bom6av QoMHteer, V, 78. 



% 255 DARZI. 

more freely than ordinary Muhammadans of their class. Those who 
are Hindus follow the rites and customs of the hi^i^r castes. 

4. The ordinary Darzi is a very low-paid and hard-worked crafts- 

Occnpatioii and .ociAl ^^^' According to Mr. Iloey* in Luck- 
^*'** now the rate for making men's jackets 

(angarika) is from three to eight annas according as the work is 
plain or more or less ornamented : for men's drawers (marddna pde^ 
jdma) one and-a-half to two annas : coats {kurta) one and-a-half 
annas : jackets (saluka) one and-a-half annas. The only articles of 
female apparel made by them are drawers {pd^dma), which are 
either of the ordinary tight pattern {eiuriddr), or wide with gussets 
{kaliddr), such as are worn by dancing women and servants. Some 
are master-tailors, and these, according to Mr. Hoey, make as much 
profit by each workman as his daily wages, one and-a-half annas to 
three annas per diem. Their women are said to be constantly 
divorced, and there are few women who have not changed, husljands 
m ore than once. 

5. The occu}>ation is an ancient one. In the vocabulary of 
Amara Sinha there are two words for workers with a needle — 
iunmavdfa, ''or those who dam'' (tlie modem Rafugar), and the 
other the ianckika (repritk*ntetl by the modern SAji), a general 
tailur. The profession of tlk> latter was of sufficient importance to 
necessitate tlie establishment of a special tribe and a mixed class. 
Tlie lawful issue of Vaisyas by a S&dra woman were, according to 
tlu* ancient law l>ook of Usanas, destined to live by it and were 
called Sauchi or " needle-men. "". The occupation is a poor one 
and held rathrrin (Nintempt. The village proverb runs, — Darji ka 
pmi jab takjiia tab fab $Um— ** tlie tailor's brat will do nothing 
but st'w all his life long." Another i^,-^ Darzi ki itii kkabkitdsk 
ifftf/i, kibki tdt M^«— .*'the tailor's needle now in embroidery, 
now in canvass.^' 



* Monti^r^ph on Trni^ and Mamti/afiuMt, lOOi. 
2 IUi«ndim UU If lira, /iiiio-iry«iiiJ, 1. iSi. 



JDABZI. 



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pasitImi. 260 

Dasnami. — An order of the Gnsains. The word means '^ the 
ten names/^ and is derived from their practice of affixing a special 
name to define the endogamous sections. The term Sanny&si pro- 
perly means a person who is undergoing the stage {asrama) of 
meditation and abandonment of the world prescribed by the early 
law-givers. But it more specially means a follower of the reformer 
Sankara Acharya. He is sidd to have had four pupils^ from whom 
ten orders were derived. Fadaman Ach&rya founded the Ttratha and 
Asrama classes ; Sarupa Ach&rya the Yana and Aranya; Tamaka 
or Tank Ach&rya the Giri^ SSgara and Parvata; Prithodar or 
Prithivi Ach&rya the Puri^ Bh&rati and Baraswati. The lists^ 
however^ disagree in the enumeration of the ten classes. In these 
Provinces they are usually given as l%*atha; Asrama; Yana; 
Aranya ; Sarasvati ; Puri ; Bhirati ; Oiri ; Parvata^ and Sigara. 
Mr. Maclagan, writing of the Panjftb, says : — '^ According to some 
the order is divided into four divisions (called maiJ^, *^ the hut of an 
ascetic ''); the Joshi Math, containing the Oiri, Puri, and Bharati; 
the Sangri Math, containing the Yana, Aranya,, and Tiratha ; the 
Nar&gani Math, containing the Parvata and Asrama ; the Brahma* 
chari Math, containing the Saraswati and Dandi. The fact that 
there are ten groups of Sannyftsis is well known, but different 
versions are given of the names. Of eight lists which I have before 
me from different parts of the Province, the Oiri, Puri, Aranya, and 
Bharati appear in all ; but one or other of the following names, Ast&- 
war; Jati; Bodla; Dandi; Datta; Acharya; Kar; Nirambh, or 
Pari, is often substituted for one or other of the remaining class 
names. According to some accounts only eight of the classes are 
really Sannyasis, the Bharati being Jogis and the Dandis Yaishna- 
vas. Three classes only, the Nirambh, Asrama, and Saraswati, are 
allowed to wear or use arms. Five of the sub-divisions are said to 
be recruited from Brahmans alone, viz,, the Saraswati, Ach&rya, 
Aranya, Yana, and Anandi, the others being open to the public A 
man of any caste may become a Sanny^i, but in practice the order 
is made up of Brahmans and Khatris mainly, and according to 
some the true Sannyasi will partake of food only in the house of a 
Br&hman or a Khatri/'^ 



1 Fanjdb Ceiwiw RepoH, 112. 



/ 



BASNllfl, 



261 



bhIkara ; bhIkba. 



DiitribMtion of Datndmi Ouidimi according to fke Centm of 1891. 



DlSTRICTt. 


Number. 


DlSTBICTt. 


Number. 


Dehrt i^txk • • • 


168 


Lalitpiir 


25 


SahAranpnr . 


• • 


5 


Beoaret 


• 


• • 


1.899 


Ifusafl'arDagar 


• « 


U19 


Minapnr 


• 


• • 


4,268 


Meerut • • 


• • 


6,083 


Jatinpar 


• 


• • 


3,638 


Bulandihahr • 


• • 


2;i7l 


GhAiipiir 


• 


• • 


2,891 


Aligtrh • 


• • 


9M 


Ballia . 


• 


• • 


3,804 


Agim . 


• • 


M24 


Gorakhpor 


• 


• • 


7.010 


FiimikhAUd 


• • 


899 


Btati . 


• 


• • 


2,693 


Hsinpori • 


• • 


U69 


Kamtno 


• 


• • 


2,944 


EtAwah 


• • 


277 


Taiii . 


• 


• 


724 


fiuh • 


• • 


1,816 


lAokoov 


» < 


» • 


738 


Btreilljr 


» • 


4023 


UnAo . 


• 


• • 


2.289 


BiJDor • • 


• • 


667 


BA4Bmli . 


> 4 


• • 


2,621 


DudAon • 


» 


2,766 


Sttapnr 


9 


• • 


4.414 


MoridAlAd • 


» • 


2,018 


Hardoi 


> 1 


» • 


1.128 


ShAhJAhAniwr 


> • 


1.483 


Kb«ri . . 


> < 


• 


8,631 


Pilibhlt 


» • 


1»622 


FdtAbAd . 


1 


> • 


6,871 


CawDpar • « 


• 


1.336 


QondA. 


« 


• 


11,478 


FaUhpor 


• 


709 


BahrAieh . 


« 


) • 


8.634 


BAnda . 


• 


296 


Stupor 


• 


• 


2,048 


Ifamlrpar 


• 


488 ' 

i 


PftHAbgmrb . 


• 


• 


1,807 


AllahAUa 


• 
• 
• 


279 

1 


B4rmbMiki . 


• 


• 
• 


<006 


JhAn.i . 


Torn 


108.320 

t 


J4Uan • • • 


877 i^ MalM . 


6ft.347 




F«DftlM 


• 


47^78 


Dhakarm ; Dhakra. — A M-pt of RijpuU who have been identi* 


fuHl with tho Ti 


kkoraii 


(M of Ptolen 


ny.» To the 


Wtf«t of the Pronnon 



t J. W. MeCrimlW, IaJiaa A%iH^n% XIII, 378. 



bhIkasa ; dqIkba.. 



262 



they claim S{irajbansi origin ; but this is not generally admitted. 
Some are said to be emigrants from the banks of the Narbada ; but 
the main body of the sept in these Provinces say that they came 
fi'om Ajmer in the beginning of the sixteenth century and occupied 
the country now traversed by the East Indian Railway from Etawah 
to Barhan. In Hardoi ^ some say that they came from Dharwar ; 
others from Mainpuri^ of which place their ancestor was Raja, and 
expelled the Thatheras. They were notorious in the eighteenth 
centuiy for their lawlessness^ and we learn from the letters of 
Ezad Bakhsh' that in the neighbourhood of Agra they gave the 
Imperial officers much trouble and rendered the commimications 
between that city and Etawah insecure. ** Their chief stronghold 
was then Balampur^ in the Chandw&r pargana^, whence they issued 
in bands and harassed the country far and wide up to the very 
walls of Agra. Their lawless conduct brought about its own 
punishmentj for before the close of the century we find that they 
had greatly diminished in numbers^ and that thdr possessions had 
dwindled down to a few scattered villages.'' They seem to have 
gained their power by a close alliance with the Bhadauriyas. In 
the Mutiny they broke out again and endeavoured to seize their old 
fort at Barhan from the Raja of Awa ; but they were defeated by a 
combined force of Jadons and Mewatis. Since then they have sunk 
into insignificance; but they are a turbulent, ill-conducted sept, 
always ready for petty acts of violence and cattle-stealing. 

2. In Unao the Dhakara give girls to the Gaur, Panwir^ 
Chandel, Gaharwar, Bachhal, Janwar, Nikumbh, Ahban, and Kachh- 
waha: they take girls of the Gaur, Chandel, Ahban, Janwdr, Chauhan 
and Bais, and claim to belong to the Bharadvaja gotra. In Aligarh 
they receive brides from the Gahlot, Pundir, Chauhan and BargAjar 
septs; and give girls to the Chauhan, Gahlot^ Sakarw&r, Panwir, 
and Rathaur. 

Distribution of the Dhdhara Bdjputi aeeording to tie CemuM 

of 1891. 



DiSTBICTS. 


Number. 


DlSTBICTI. 


Niunber. 


MooTut • • • 
fialandsliabr . 


3 

256 


Aligarh • • 
Mathara • • • 


851 
83S 



» SetiUment Report ^ 89. 

' Elliot, BuppUmtntary Qlouary, t. v. 



y 



/ 



I 



^^^^^^^^^^^^K D1•t^'';,^K Kllt^'GAil. ^_jfl 


^H Af< 

^B IknJ, 


■■ , . - .] uo. ■ 

n 1 r.lei. if 1 


■ 1 1 

1*": 


^^^1 DWVAicn. k«ulM«. ^H 


^H MMU4 ^^fl 


■ ^ 'H 


^1 11^ ^^1 


1" J 






1 J 



DHAkARA ; DHAKRA. 



263 



DhIlOAR ; I)h1k0AR. 



Distribution qftk§ Dkdkmra BSjpmtt according to ike Ctmtuo of 1891^~toneid» 



DiSTBICTt, 


Number. 


DiSTEICTt. 


Number. 


Agrm .... 


6,178 


PUibbIt 


% 


Farrakkibia . 


170 


GawnpQr • • • 


2i 


Mainpnri • 


1,4S2 


AIUb4b4d . 


t 


EtAwah 


957 


J41aan* • 


150 


Etmh .... 


494 


Lalitpnr • 


8 


Btreilly 


8 


BmU • • • . 


11 


BadAan 


289 


SHapiir . • 


89 


MoT4d4b4d . 


87 


Hardoi 


uoi 


8hAbjah4Dpor 


28 


Kbori . • • . 

T6TAL 


47 




11.096 



Dhalgar— (Sans: dkdlakdra). — A small occupational caste who 
make leather shields, a profession now almost extinct. They are 
allied to the Dal>f2^r (q. r). The Census Returns show their sections 
as Bankar, Benbansi, Daras, Dhaba^ Koliwftla, Sribistav, and Fhldtu 

Di$irihution of the Dhdfgar$ according to ike Ceneui of 1891. 



DirrBtcn. 



Nnmber. 



Fait4b4d 
Qonda 



Total 



40 
5 



45 



matamt 



Dhangar.— A Dravidian tribe found in some of the eastern 
districtn of tlic Province.^ They are only sh«)wn in (forakhpur, 
but there are certainly a few in the south of Mirzapur, who are, how- 
ever, possibly not re^^lar residents. According to Colonel Dalton 



I la CMitrU 1b«1U a eommon luime for them U Halkar. TIm tale mas that a 
DhAagar of tba Mafhal Vicaroj't bodj-froard aaad to aalota hit maater aTtfy dajt 
bat ii*T<>r to wait aft«r ha made hia bov. la apita of raa»aBstraiieaa ha eoBttaoad 
the prartiea, and aa a paaiahmaat tha Viearoy ordarad tha door throof h whieh 
ih«* Dhinfar oame to ba eloaad with sworda. Tha DhiBffar rtfardlaa o# wovada 
IMtancKl oB and mada hU bow. Tha Viearoj waa ao plaaaad thai ha oallad hia 
Uatkar or '* ■tabbcnu '**fi<r4r QoM4H4m,W90i BaaiWy 0«Milatfr, XVI. M. 



dhIngab. 264 

'^ the Ehumkh or Orftons of Chutia N&gpur are the people best 
known in many parts of India as Dhingar^ a word that from its 
apparent derivation {ddn^ or dhdng^ *' a hill ^') may mean any hill- 
man^ but amongst several tribes of the southern tribntary Mahals 
the terms Dhaugar and Dhingarin mean the youth of the two sexes 
both in highland and lowland villi^es^ and it eannot be considered the 
national designation of any peculiar tribe/'^ According to Mr. 
Risley, Mr. Oldham says in a note on some historical and ethnical 
aspects of the Bard wan district that the M&IS Pahariyas call their men 
of fighting age Dhangar or Dhingariya. The MalS are cognates of 
the Oraons, the typical Dhangar labourers of Chota Nigpur^ so that 
on this showing the word may well be nothing more than the 
Oraon for an adult. According to another interpretation the name 
has reference to the fact that persons working as Dhingars receive 
the bulk of their wages in nnhnsked rice (dhdn)? In Bilispur^ in 
the Central Provinces, they are regarded as a sub-division of the 
Kanwar^ who are the largest sections of the aboriginal population 
next to the OondS| and have there taken to wearing the; Br&hmani- 
cal thread.' In Sambalpur they are said to be emigrants from 
Chota Nagpur/ and in Sslranggarh they act as weavers and village 
watchmen.^ M. St. Martin veiy doubtfully connects them with the 
Tank Rajputs^ the Tangana of the Mahabh&rata^ and the Tanganoi 
or Ganganoi of Ptolemy.^ The people known as Dhingar, in the 
Dakkhin/ whose name is derived by Dr. J. Wilson from the Sans- 
krit dhenukdra^ 'dealer in cows/^ are described as a quiet and 
innocent race of people who wander about with their flocks and 
herds. Their religion, manners, and language are to a great extent 
like those of the Kunbi, but the temples at which they worship are 
mere piles of large unhewn stones. The founder of the Holkar 
family of Malwa sprang from this race.^ 

2. The Mirzapur Dhingars say that the Munda K'ols, the 

Khariyas ^ of Chota N&gpur, the Ouriyas, 

Tribal orgAiUAaiioxL ^^ 

Dh&ngars and Urain or (Mon are all 

1 DtMcripHne EiKnologyt 245. 

> THhtM and Cattw, I, 219. 

> Central Province QaMeitser^ 106. 
4 Ibid, 458. 

> Ibid, 468. 

• J. W. MoCrindle, Indian Antiquary, XITI, 876. 

7 There is an aoooant of theie Bombaj DhAogara in the Oa§§it€ir, ilV, 856^ •§» 

• Ibid 1, 222 : III, 225. 

• For theee people, tee Ritlej, Tri6«t and Ca$t§», I, 466. 



265 dhAnoab* 

endogamoHB divimons of the same race. They name eight exogamous 
septs, most or all of which are certainly of totemistic origin. 
Thus Ilha is said to mean a kind of fish which this sept does not 
eat : Kajur is the name of a jungle herb which members of this 
sub-division do not use : 'Jink, which is possibly the same as the 
IXrki or bull sept of the Oraons. In Chota N&gpur members of 
this sept cannot touch any cattle after their eyes open.^ On the 
other hand, Colonel Dal ton describes the Tirki sub-division as pro- 
hibited from eating: young mice {iirii).* 

The Lakara sub-division, which is apparently identical with that 
called Lakrar among the Or&pns, who must not eat tiger's flesh,' 
derive their name in Mirzapur from the hyseoa {laiar baffka)^ which 
they will not hunt or kill. The Bara sept, who are evidently the 
same as the Barar of the Orftons, who will not eat from the leaves of 
the Bar tree ( Fieus Indiea), in Mirzapur will not cut this tree. The 
Ekka sept in Mirzapur say that the name means " leopard,'^ which 
they will not kill. In Chota NSgpur the same word is said to 
mean " tortoise, '^ and to be a totemistic sept of OrAons. This is the 
Ekhar sept in Colonel Dalton's list.* The Tiga sept, in Mirzapur, 
say they take their name from a jungle root of that name which 
they will not eat : but the Oribn Dhangars of Bhagalpur have a 
Tig sept which they say means " monkey."' The last of the Mirza- 
pur 5«epts iB Khiha, which they say means " crow, " a bird whidi they 
respect and will not injure. This is evidently the same as the Kha- 
khar sept of Orions, who will not eat the crow.* Prom all this the 
identity of the Mirzapur Dh&ngars with the Bengal Orions is 
oonclusively established. At the same time the diverging significance 
of these totemistic titles within a limited area is interesting. The 
Census lists supply a much more Hinduised set of sections includ- 
ing the Beld&r, Bdw&r, Benbansi, Janwir, Jhuar, Pauwir, and 
SrilJbtam. 

5. Colonel Dalton's description of the Orftons applies very close- 
ly to their cognates the Mirzapur DhAngars. 
" Although the Oraons when young are pleas- 
ant to look upon from their good humoured and guileless expression, 



I RU1«7, TViU« and CasUs, II, 227. 

> I>e9€ripiiv4 EihmoU>^, 254. 

> lh%d. tbi. 

« BiaUj, lo€. t%t^ 1. 261. Dmcriptirt EthmMgy, 2:^ 
•BUUj.kK. (^I..II. 822. 
• iMlUiB, k>c cil., *.i&i. 



bhAngar. 266 

they are on the whole to be regarded as a dark oomplexioned and 
by no means well-favoured race. When we see nnmbers of them 
massed together in a market^ the features we find to predominate 
are excess of jaws and mouthy thick lips pushed out by the projec- 
tion of the jaws^ a defect which age increases^ the teeth becoming 
more and more porrect till they appear to radiate outwards from 
the upper jaw. The forehead is low and narrow^ but not as 
a nile receding ; and the eyes have nothing very peculiar about 
them^ often bright and full, with long lashes and straight set, some- 
times small and dim, but not oblique. These upper features give 
them a human and intelligent expression notwithstanding the Simian 
characteristic of the lower. There is the indentation usual in the 
Turanian races between the frontal and nasal bones, but the latter 
are more pronounced than we find them in the Lohitic tribes. The 
colour of the majority is darkest brown approaching to black.^ '^ 
Mr. Bisley adds that no signs of Mongolian affinities can be 
detected in the relative positions of the nasal and malar bones ; the 
average naso-malar index for a hundred Oraons, measured on the 
system recommended by Mr. Oldfield Thomas, comes to 113'6.* 

4. The Mirzapur Dhangars say they emigrated from a phoe 

named Barwai somewhere to the south about 
nine or ten generations ago. They say that 
they occupied a narrow valley called Sathorwa, where they used to 
beset and rob travellers. At last a General of the Emperor made 
terms with their leaders, Jura Mahto and Buddhu Bhagat, and on 
promise of giving them a rent-free estate {jdgir) induced the tribe 
to lay down their arms, and then ordered a general massacre. The 
few survivors escaped to Mirzapur. These two leaders, Jura and 
Buddhu, are the deified heroes of the tribe. It is said that their 
heads spoke seven days after they were decapitated, and advised 
them to emigrate. 

5. They have a tribal council [panehdyat) presided over by a 

hereditary president, the Chaudhari, which 

Tribal councU. . - . i • • - 

meets for caste business on occasionB of 
marriages and deaths. For caste oftences the punishment is usually 
the providing of a feast including rice, one or two goats and ten 



1 Dalton, Xoc. ctf.,250. 
• Ttihes and Caitet, II, 139. 

Tho Or4oDB of Benfral aro found to be extraordinarilj fertile. They haT« 7,7M 
children in erery 20,000 pereont of both ■exes^CfiuiM Report, 175. 



267 dhIngaiu 

bottles of liquor. If a girl intrigues with a clansman, her father 
has to provide two dinners to the clansmen, and she is then restored 
to caste. Her lover has to provide the same feast if he seduces an 
unmarried girl in the tribe. The pair are then married. If a girl 
is detected in an intrigue with an outsider she is permanently 
expelled, and so with a man who intrigpies with a strange woman. 

6. The totemistdc septs are exogamous^ and in addition the 

children of tL9 mother^s brother, the sister 
and father's sister are barred. Polygamy is 
permitted only when the first wife is barren, and then the consent of 
the Chaudhari and clansmen is required. The marriage age is ten 
or twelve for boys and girls. The bride-piice is two rupees, and is 
invariably fixed by caste custom. No physical defect subsequently 
ascertained can annul a marriage ; but both parties are carefully 
examined by the relatives before the engagement is made. A man 
may divorce his wife if he discovers that she is a witch, and habi- 
tual mlultery on the part of husband and wife justifies divorce with 
the U^ve of the council. Women who have been divorced can marry 
again, but the general feeling is against the practice, and it is not 
allowed in respectable families. Tlie institution of the Bachelor 
Hall, descril)Gd by Colonel Dalton among the Or^ons,^ does not 
prevail among the Mirzapnr Dhangars. 

7. The levirate prevails, and a widow can marry an outsider by 
Wiaow-DuuTiAfT* and Um i^i^di only when her younger brother-in-law 

^^"'^ gives up his claim to her. The only cere- 

mony is tliat the lover comes with a yellow sheet to the widow's 
hiiuse. She puts it on and comes home with him, when he gives a 
feast to his clansmen, and it is essential that the cooking should 
be done by tlie new-made wife. By remarriage a viidow loses all 
right to the profierty of licr first husband. 

In the case of the levirate the property of the first husband 
passes to the le^-ir, and when they grow up, the sons by the first 
marriage are entitled to a share in all the property of their step- 
father on the same scale as his sons. There is no fiction of attri- 
buting the sons of the levir to his deceased elder brother. 

8. Adoption is unknown. The heirs of a man are his sons : but 

the eldest son gets sometliing more than the 

BllCO— IJOD. 

others. When the father and sons live joiot- 

I I>9»eripiit€ llAnoIo^, SA7. 



dhInoar. 268 

]y and distribution takes place after the father's death, all the sons 
share equally^ no matter whether any part of the property may have 
been acquired by any particular son. 

Grandsons get their proportion of the share that would have 
fallen to their fathers. The widow has a sort of life interest in her 
husband^s estate, but is liable to expulsion for unchastity . Daughters 
have no right of succession. But a girl who is ill-treated by her 
husband is entitled to return to her own home and be maintained 
by her brothers. 

9. The birth ceremonies resemble those among Bhuiy&rs (;. v.). 

Domeatio oeremoniea. ^^ *^® ^^^ ^7 *^ ciioiH Oeremony is 

Birth. performed, and after tins the mother is pure. 

The husband does not cohabit with his wife for two months after 
her confinement. 

10. The betrothal is solemnized as among the Bhuiyas by the 
, . exchange of platters of liquor between the 

parents of the parties. After this both 
salute in the form known as R&mrahii.^ Notice is given of the 
day of the ceremony. This is called din dharna. The pair revolve 
round a branch of the iiddh tree [Hardwiekia binaia), and a water 
jar (kalsa) fixed in the marriage shed {mdnro). Before the pro- 
cession starts, the bridegroom's mother sprinkles some water over 
him with a branch of rice stalks, and waves the water jar over his 
head to keep ofE evil spirits. The binding part of the oeremony 
is the rubbing of red lead by the bridegroom on the head of the 
bride. After marriage the bridegroom has to eat rice and pulse 
{ikickari) with the bride, and refuses to do so until he gets a 
calf or eight annas from his father-in-law. The bride walks bdmid 
the bridegroom on her way to his house, and is supposed to weep 
bitterly all the time. When she and her husband reach the door, 
they have to walk in over a series of baskets arranged in a double 
line, while the women sing the song of rejoicing (ioiar). Then 
the bridegroom salutes his male relations outside the house. Inside, 
the bride, shading her breast with the comer of her sheet, touchee 
the feet of the senior women, and they reply with the blessing iuidr 
akibdl barhS"^^^ May your husband live long." 



> Aooordiniir to the Bengal Betonis the Orion man marries earlier thaa aaj 
of the other Dravidians, nearly five yean earlier than the Mnnda KoL Thirteea 
and-a-half it the general marriage age for girls of the aboriginal tribes, bat ths 
Bhoiya, Orion, Agariya, and Karmi giye their daughters in marriagt alittU aiidsr 
thirteen years. — OmiBUM Report, 200. 



260 dhJLkgab. 

1 1 • The dead arc cremated exactly as is done by the Bhniyas ; 

after the mourners return from the cremation 

Death oeremoniM. . .i i ,^ % 11 

they come to the house of the deceased and 
there some butter is thrown on a fire lighted in the courtyard^ and 
tlic mourners pass their hands through the smoke and rub their 
bodies. The ashes of the dead are thrown into a neighbouring 
Btream. Ihey have no idea of the careful preservation of the 
bmes as described by Colonel Dalton among the Orions.^ On 
the day of the cremation all the women walk in a line to the river 
or tank close by. They are very careful not to touch each other 
with their toes, as they walk one after the other. The woman 
thus struck is believed to lose her son or husband during the 
year. When they arrive at the water the red powder is washed 
of! the parting of the widow's hair. The chief mourner is impure 
for ten days, during which he places a leaf platter {dauna) full of 
food daily on the road by which the deceased was remo>'ed for 
cremation. On the tenth day the male relatives shave and return 
to the house of the deceased, where the chief mourner sacrifices 
a pig in the name of the deceased, and cutting ofE its feet and 
snout buries them in the courtyard and covers them with a stone. 
Then striking this stone with another stone he says,<^*' I have 
buried you here, never to come out ; you are to rest here no matter 
how hard an exerciser {Of to) or anyone elee tries to wake you.'' 
Then he pours some liquor over the stone. There is no priest 
employed in the funeral ceremony, and no formulie of any kind are 
recited. 

12. The Dhingars in Mirzapur are nominally Hindus, but 

worship none of the regular Hindu deities. 
Their deities are Bama Bhawani, a female, 
who may be the same as Barhona^ a deity of the Kurs, identified 
with Varuna, the spirit of the waters,' and Ooraiya Deva. Bama 
Bhawini is worshipped by some once a year, by others four times a 
year with the sacrifice of a he-goat, a she-goat, and a pig. Goraiya 
is the god of cattle, and is worshipped every year on 15th Kirttik, 
A {vig and a white and black oock are sacrificed to him in the cattle 
pen, and sume liquor is poured on the ground* They carry on the 
usual worship of the village gods ( Jii) through the Baiga. When 






bhInoab. 270 

small-pox prevails the women worship Sitala BhawSnL Her 
offering, which is conditional on the recovery of the child from the 
disease, consists of bread and a sort of sweetmeat {ialwa). If the 
child recovers he wears all his life a silver image (nrjana) of the 
goddess, with her figure gilt, round his neck. All the worship, except 
that of the village gods, is done by the head of the household^ and 
the worshippers consume the flesh of the victim. 

IS. In Bhadon they observe the Ntigpanchami by eating better 
F hvaI ^^^ a^iOi usual, but they do not make any 

special worship of the snake as Hindus do. 
In Magh they have the Ehichari, when they eat pulse, parched 
grain, and scsamum. They do not light the Holi fire, but they 
celebrate the Phagua by drunken revelry and foul abuse of women, 
particularly of the brother's wife {bhaujdi). 

14. Old wells and tanks are the special abode of malevolent ghosts. 
_ , , These are propitiated throuefa the Ojha. who 

Demonologry andancea- ^ -^ * ^ ^ ^ * 

tor worship. is bclicved to have special control over them. 

They have no special ancestor worship, because they consider the 
spirits finally disposed of by the pig-sacrifice already described. 

15, The women tattoo themselves only on the arms. In this th^ 

differ from the Or&ons, who are tattooed in 
childhood with the three marks on the brow 
and two on each temple that distinguish the majority of the Mnnda 
women. ^ There is no special pattern and nothing resembling 
a tribal tattoo. The women wear bracelets {mtUki^a), pewter 
anklets {pairi), necklets {Aansli), ear ornaments {uiarna), bead 
necklaces [gurija). They eat beef and pork, and almost any 
meat except that of the lizard, jackal, alligator, and monkey. 
They use liquor and smoking and chewing tobacco. The use of 
liquor they believe keeps off malaria. They will not touch or name 
the wife of the elder brother. They treat their women fairly well, 
consult them in family affairs, and follow their advioe. Their bnsi* 
ness is generally to work as ploughmen. Their wages are four ierM 
of grain for each working day, a rupee and-a-half at the end of the 
agricultural year, one blanket and half a bigha of rent-free land* 
They also get food on the Panchaiyan, Khichari, and Phagua festi* 
vals. They have no regular communal organization, but they are 

1 Dalton, Dt»cripiiv€ Eihisology, 251. 



dhAkoar. 



271 



dhAkuk; 



very clannish and afraid of strangers. In Mirzapnr they are 
little better than a miserable, depressed tribe of field serfs. 

VUtribution of the Dhdngan according to He Cemui of 1891. 



DISTBICT. 


Benb«nti. 


JanwAr. 


P^wir. 


Others. 


TOTi L. 


Oorakhpar • • 


218 


292 


200 


73 


788 



Dhanuk^ (Sans, dhanuska^ ^'an archer ''), a low tribe who 
work as watchmen, musicians at weddings, and their women as 
midwives. They are most numerous in the Agra division, but 
are found all over the Province except in the Benares, Oorakhpur, 
and Faizabad divisions, and in the hills. Their origin is very 
uncertain. According to Dr. Buchanan' they are a '^ pure agri- 
cultural tribe, who from their name, implying archers, were pro- 
bably in former times the militia of the country, and are perhaps 
not esiK*ntially different from the Kurmis; for any Jaisw&r Kurmi, 
who from poverty sells himself or his children is admitted among 
tiK' Dlinnuktf. All the Dli^nuks were at one time probably slaves, 
and many have been recruited to fill up the military ranks— a 
method of recruiting that has been long prevalent in Asia, the 
armies (>f Parthians having licen composed almost entirely of slaves, 
and the custom is, I lielieve, still pretty general among the Turks. 
A gri>at many of the Dhinuks are still slaves ; but some annually 
pnxMire their liU'rty by the inability of their masters to maintain 
tlk*m, and by thi*ir unwillingness to sell their fellow-creatures. I 
liave alri>ady montioncHl tliat the Dhanushkas or Dhamin Brahmans 
are prolably the original priests of the tribe.'' Mr. Risley* admits 
tliat tlk* only evidence from Bihar in support of Dr. Buchanan's 
th«^ry of the connection Wtween the Dhinuks and the Kurmis is 
timt, aceonling to some authorities, the Chhilatiya sub-caste is also 
known by the name of Jaiswir. Considering, however, how wide- 
hpri'oil tlk* term Jaiswar is for ttu? sul>-castes and sections of the 
minor cantos, this pii*ci» <if evidence is of little value. 



I Almoet entirvlj \mt^\ cm noUt by BAb« Oo|k4l PrmMd« Kaib TdlialldAr W 
I'lu}>hAn'l : umI ChMdhari iHuwhiui Biagh, of Awaijii, EUwak dialriei. 
« Kaifrm /ii«i»4S. I. 166. 
* TrUKS amd CtuUt vj B€%$^1^ I, 230, f^f • 



DHiNUE. 272 

2. At the last Census the Dhftnuks were recorded in the following 
^ , , , ^ important sub-castes:— DhAkara, Dusidk 

Internal atrnoture, xr • i • ▼»- t . 

Kaithiya, Kathanya, Kori; and Bftwat. The 
complete lists show three hundred and twenty sections of the usual, 
mixed type, some the names of well known tribes, others of local 
derivation. A full list received from Et&wah names twenty sub- 
divisions — Laungbarsa (the name means " raining cloves/' and is 
said to arise from the custom prevailing in this sub-division of tying 
a string of cloves round the necks of the bride and bpidgtoom during 
marriage. They do not, however, appear to treat the clove otherwise, 
with any particular respect, and do not forbear from naming, eating, 
burning, or otherwise destroying it), Haz&ri, Kathariha, Lakariha, 
Bhuseli, Garuhaiya, Hdthichighar, Garpetha, Atariluk, Pichhauriha, 
Jashar, Jalaliya, Kaehhwaha, Jugeli, Ruriha, Kharaiha, Taheld, 
Dunhan, Bagheli. Sir H. M. Elliot gives the seven sub-divisions 
as follows : — Laungbasta (probably the same as the Laungbarsa of 
the Etsiwah list), Mathuriya, Eathariya, Jaisw&r, Magahi, Dojwar 
Chhilatiya. In the east of the Province another list^ gives Jais- 
war, Dhanuk, Magahi, Dojwar and Chhilatiya. The Dhinuks have 
no tradition of the origin of these names, and it is dangerous to spe- 
culate on such a subject. But there seems no doubt that the 
Eathariya or Eathariha are so-called because they make a sort of 
mat called iathri, which is one of the special handicrafts of this sub- 
division to the present day. The Lakariha and BhuseU have 
obviously somothing to do with wood and chafE. The Hathidiighar 
are elephant keepers ; the Kaohhwaha and Bagheld must have taken 
their names from the similar Rajput tribes ; while the Jaisw&r and 
Magahi are clearly local names derived from the town of Jais and 
the country of Magadha, respectively. There is little or no reeem« 
blancc between these lists and the BihAr list given by Mr. Risley, a 
sufficient proof, if proof were needed, of the astonishing facility by 
which tribes of this social status modify their internal structure. 
3. Tlic rule of exogamy as stated by the Dh&nuks of Etftwah is 

that (a) no man or woman can marry in their 

Marriaga rules. ..... ..% v*i:3 «^ • m 

own 8ub-di Vision; (o) no child can be mmmed 
in a family in which tlie &ther or mother have been married. The 
age of marriage is usually between seven and eleven. No one can 
have more than two wives at the same time. Unchastity on the 
part of an unmarried girl is punished by a fine imposed on the 

I Baohanan* loc. fit* 



273 dhInuk 

parents by the tribal council. A man can ^t rid of his wife for 
adulter}', but a wife cannot abandon her husband for this cause. 
Divorced women and widows can 1x5 remarried by the form known 
as (iharanna or dharukh. The le>'irate under the usual restrictions 
is permitteil. If a widow marry an outsider she loses all right to 
the ^oods of tier first husband. If he leave children they are hit 
lieirs ; if he dies childless his elder brother, or if he himself be the 
eldest, then the brother next to him in age succeeds. If she marry 
the loir he takes the goods of his deceased elder brother unless he 
has left children. There is no fiction that children by the levir are 
attributed to his late brother. 

4. There are no ceremonies during pregnancy. The mother is 

attended by some old woman of the tribe. 

The only purificatorj' ceremony is the 
chkaihi on the sixth day after delivery. There is no trace of the 
couvade. The only observance at adoption is the feeding of the 
clansmen. 

5. The marriage ceremonies are of the common low caste type. 

In the ret<])ectable form {sAadi, btwdh) the 
ceremony, tlie binding part of which is the 

ruvolutionrt [bhann^ar)^ is done at tlie house of the bride; in dola it 

is done at tliat of the bridegroom. 

0. Tlioy liurn their ailult and bury the unmarried dead. The 

aithes are thrown into any river or stream. 

Dtftib. 

Tlu'y perform irdddka for the repose of the 
souls of the dea*!. The malevolent dead are propitiated in the 
months of Magh and Bh^on. The service is done in the daytime 
but secretly with all tlie doors closed. A fire is lighted and to it 
caki*s (pMri) are ofTen^d, and then eaten by the worshippers. On 
this occasion if the house-holder lie a rich man, he entertains the 
brotherhood; if he is poor, he feeds only his sister^s or daughter^! 
husband* a custom which may be a survival of descent in the female 
line. The ashes of the fire made on this occasion are carefully pre- 
served, and if any sirkmss come upon the household during the year, 
thi*y are rubbi*d on the i>art affected, and a vow is made to rcfieat thn 
service wlun thi» next anniversary comes round. During the first 
fifteen days of the month of Kuar water is thrown daily on the 
ground, in houour of tlie deail» anil flour, butter, etc., are given to 
Hriihmans that they by consuming them may convey them to the 
hungry dead in the other world. A fire is lighted and cakes otfer- 
Vol. II. s 



dhInuk. 274 

ed to it^ and a piece of a cake is attached to the wall ia the place 
where marks have been made representing the deceased ancestors of 
the family. 

7. The Dhanuks are Hindu by religion and are classed as SiktaB 

because they are worshippers of Deri. But 
none of them are ever regularly initiated. 
They make pilgrimages to the tomb of Mad&r S&hib at Makhanpur^ 
in the Cawnpur District^ and in the month of M&gh ofEer a sort of 
pudding (malida) and money which are taken by the Kh&dims in 
charge of the shrine. They also worship the two Miy&ns: the 
great or Bara Miyan has his tomb at Jalesar^ in the Etah District, 
and the little or Chhota at Amroha^ in Morftd&bid. These saints 
are worshipped after child-birth ; if the child happened to be a son 
they offer a he-goat ; for a daughter the offering is a kind of cake 
(gulgula). These are consumed by the worshippers, and so is the 
goat, which is the right of Devi. They are firm believers in the 
demoniacal theory of disease. In such cases a sorcerer is sent for ; 
he sits down with a broom in his hand, which he waves while he 
smokes a Auqqa, and thus drives off the evil spirit which is the cause 
of the mischief. In cases of disease caused by the Evil Eye the pro- 
cedure is similar with this addition that some chillies are waved 
seven times round the head of the patient and then thrown on the 
fire, when the evil influence incontinently disappears in the stench. 
Another plan is for the magician to summon one of his domesticated 
spirits, which puts him under its influence, and he is then able to an- 
nounce with certainty the evil spirit which has affected the patient* 
Another approved plan is to bum a hair from the patient's head, and 
this invariably gives relief. 

H. When they sink a well they erect an image of Hannmto near 

the spot, and on the completion of the work 
feed Brahmans and distribute charity. Be- 
fore sowing a little grain is sifted through a sieve, and when 
the work is done] the oxen are washed and the plough worshipped. 
Before the grain is garnered a little is given to the poor and to Brah- 
mans. 

9. Dhlnuks will eat mutton, pork, the flesh of the cloven-footed 
. , animals, and fish. They drink freely. They 

Soouil rules. ' J ^ ^ 

will not eat the flesh of monkeys, beef, flesh 

of uncloven-footcd animals, fowls, crocodiles, snakes, lizards, jadbala, 

s, vermin, or the leavings of other people. Their salutation ia 



276 



DHiirUK. 



lUm I Rdm I They have the usual ceremonial taboos. Elder relativet 
are addressed not by their names but by their title of relationship. 
Younf;;er persons and all male strangers are addressed by name. All 
female strangers are addressed by name when spoken to by women ; 
but when men address them they call them ^^ so-and-so's wife'' or 
" so and-so's mother.'' If they are immarried they are addressed by 
name. So a husband calls his wife '' so*and-8o's mother." 

10. Their occupation is playing on trumpets at weddings and 

other occasions of festivity. They act as 
servants, day-labourers, village watchmen, 
and their women do midwifery. Some hold land as tenants and 
work as field labourers. Many receive a patch of land rent-free in 
lieu of wages. 

Diitribulion of Didnuh and ihrir iub^eaiUi bf tie Cemui 

of 1891. 



Oocapatioo. 



DiSTBICTt. 


• 

• • ■ 






■5 

•1 

M 

• •• 




•g 


• 


i 
S 


Total. 


D<*bm Ddn 


1 


•♦• 


ISS 


••• 


... 


«5 


914 


8*hiranpar 




■ •• 


• •« 




■ •• 


1 

1 


• •• 


... 


SO 


10 


MosaffATiMgAr. 




••« 


• •< 




• •• 


1 ... 


• * • 


... 


... 


••* 


IfMnmt . 




• ■• 


•• 




• •• 


... 


18,758 


••. 


11.268 


25.091 


BalAodihAhr 




••• 


• •< 




■ •• 


1 

... 


• •■ 


... 


1 


1 


Altfarh • 




• •• 


• • 




• •• 


.•• 


• •• 


286 


854 


610 


If aiharm . 




••• 


• •1 




• • - 


... 

1 


• ■• 


... 


90 


90 


Af m 




216 


• •« 




• •• 


229 


• • • 


156 


M50 


1,744 


FarmkhiliAd . 




• •• 


• •! 




• ■ ■ 


8,0»4 


• • • 


237 


18,524 


15.84» 


Ifainptin . 




379 


• •1 




28 


, 19JM 


• •• 


... 


1.2» 


15.540 


EUwah • 




SM 


• •< 




• ■• 


8,820 


• •• 


423 


6,897 


16.709 


EUh 




99 


ss 


U*7«> 


965 


113 


5U6 


978 


3,819 


BamUj • 




• •• 


IJB9S 


•«• 


... 


• •• 


872 


899 


3.608 


BiJBor • 




• •• 


•.. 


• •■ 


1 


• * « 


■ •• 


$ 


1 


ShibHhiDpv . 




• •• 


S79 


•• ■ 


8,928 


• •• 


2.508 


1,140 


12>4T 


Paibkll . 




••• 


180 


I 


2,133 


• •• 


1.929 


837 


4.574 


Oftwnpar . 




• •« 


• • • 


• •• 


439 


1 3 


• •• 


19,452 


19.iM 


Hanlrpnr 




1 

• • • 




• • 


• •• 


• •• 


■ «• 


••« 


1 



Vol. II. 



• 9 



dhInuk. 



276 



dhArhl 



Distribution of DhAnuk% and their iuh-ccutet 6y ike Cemius of 1891 — eoneld 



DiSTBICTfl. 


• 

1 

P 


• 
P 

Q 


• 


1 


• 

•g 


1 


• 

1 

i 


Total. 


Allah&Ud 




• •• 


• •• 


••• 


••• 


• •• 


••• 


• •• 


4 


Jhinsi 




• •• 


• •• 


••• 


••• 


••• 


5 


5 


10 


JUaun 




10 


• •■ 


•*• 


45 


• •. 


••• 


2,439 


S,4M 


Lalitpar . 




••• 


• •• 


•«• 


••. 


••• 


••• 


- 


•• 


Benares . 




••• 


• •• 


•*. 


••• 


••• 


••• 


5 


S 


Gbizipnr. 




••• 


• •• 


••• 


••• 


••• 


••• 


1 


1 


Ballia . 




••• 


■ •• 


••* 


••• 


• •• 


••• 


1 


1 


TarAi 




••• 


• •• 


••• 


2 


••• 


92 


5 


99 


Lacknow 




••• 


1 


••• 


••« 


••• 


••. 


788 


789 


Uxi4o 




296 


... 


. .. 


••* 


• •• 


••• 


5,218 


5,509 


SItapnr • 




••• 


• •• 


•• 


467 


••• 


••• 


2,235 


2,702 


Hardoi • 




•>• 


• •• 


••.. 


8,808 


• •• 


••• 


8,8H 


11,402 


Kheri 




••• 


• •• 


• •• 


1,121 


• •. 


1,005 


1,405 


8,521 


Faiz&bid. 




••• 


• •• 


• •• 


1 


••• 


••• 


14 


- 15 


Bahr&ich 




••• 


• •• 


• •• 


••• 


... 


• •• 


10 


19 


Solt&npar 




••• 


• •• 


• •• 


••• 


••• 


• •• 


8 


8 


TOTAl 




1,448 


! 2.478 

1 


1.103 


48.446 


18,874 


7,504 


71,886 


146,189 



Dharhi (possibly from Sans. dhrUta, ^'impadenf ), a tribe 
of dancers and singers of whom there is a Hindu and a Mnhammadan 
branch. They have been described under one of their many names, 
Kingariya or Kingriya^ in another place. Another name for them is 
Psiwariya or Fawanriya (from the foot (pdnw) carpet {pdnwrnrm) 
they use. In the hills^ though socially ranked with Dome, they do 
not belong to thcm^ for they properly include only those Khasiyas 
who have been put out of caste for some offence or other and their 
offspring form a new caste with the special avocation of singing 
and dancing. 

2. The Census lists show forty sections. Many of these are local 

as Audhiya, Balr&mpuri, Chaurasiya, Desi, 
Gujarati, Jaunpuri, Haripuriya^ Kanaujiya^ 
Madhesiya, Pachhwahan, and Sarwariya. Others connect them with 
well-known castes or tribes^ as Bansphor, Boriya^ Dhelphor, Dnsldl^ 
Ghosi^ Kewat. 



Internal stroetnre. 



277 



bhAbhi. 



8ockl rules. 



S. The Dhirhi has two distinct functions. In the fixBt place ha 
OooDpatioo ^* * musician and singer, and appears at hoosea 

on occasions of festivity^ such as a marriage 
or when a woman is purified after the birth pollution and rejoins 
the household. lie and the women who accompany him, who are 
usually of equivocal reputation, sing and play the double drum 
(mtidang) or the guitar (tambmra)^ for which he gets presents of 
grain, money or clothes. Secondly, the Hindu Dh&rhi keeps swine 
and acts in many villages as the priest of the local god {Gdnwdeoia, 
deokdr) cleans and plasters his platform, and takes anything in tha 
way of an offering which is not consumed by the worshippers 
themselves. 

4. The Dhirhi from his habits of begging and going about with 

women of bad character has rather an 
unsavoury reputation, and socially ranks very 
little above the Cham&r. They permit widow-marriage, divorce 
and remarriage of divorced women, but if a woman separate 
from her husband without cause she must repay through her 
second husband any charges which may have lx?en incurred in her 
first marriage. Muhammadan Dhirhis have their marriages done, 
if they are well-off, by the Qizi ; if they are poor, by the village 
Dafili. 

The Hindu Dh&rhis sddom or never employ a Brahman except 
to take the auspices and fix a lucky day for the wedding. Two 
common proverbs show the opinion generally held of the Dhirhi— 
Dens lena kdm Dom Dhdrki^on ka, mu^ab^i dusri ekU kai.^-^ 
** Taking presents is the way of pimps and buffoons ; true love 
is quite a different thing. '' Randi i* iamdi, pa kkde Dkdrki, pm 
kkd$ gdri. ** The prostitute's earnings go to the pimp or cabman." 

DUirib%tion of Dkdrkii according to iki Cemiui of 1891. 





HlllDOt. 






DitTBicn 


DoaAdh. 


MadhMTa OtlMrt. 


Total. 


Bolandihfthr • 


• ■ ■ 


• • • •• • 

1 


3 


1 


MathorA • . • . 


* . • 


• • . • • • 


b 


6 


A|^ni • • • . 


... 


• • • * • • 


80 


86 


FarrnkhAlMd • 


•*• 


13 


«7 


79 



<^ 




279 dharkAr. 

(Hindi diar, Sanskrit ^iar«, "a rope/' tdra, 
" maker'') a snb-caBie of the Eastern Dome. They are also known 
as Bentbansi, because they work in cane {bent)^ which some 
corrupt into Benbansi or of the race of Raja Vena. Their sections 
in Mirzapiir are quite distinct from those recorded by Mr. Risley 
in Bihar.* South of the Son there are four sections (kuri) which 
are exogamous : Axil^ which is said to be the name of a fine 
kind of bamboo used in making winnowing fans, baskets, sieves, 
etc. : Neoriya, said to be derived from newar, a young soft bamboo : 
Dauriha, said to take its name from daMriwa, a strong hard 
bamboo used for baskets {damri) which is not attacked by 
weevils : Nagarha, from na^ar, a very high thick bamboo. These 
sections intermarry on equal terms, except the Aril, which is the high- 
est, and with it the others practise hypergamy. This rule of exo- 
gamy is reinforced by the restriction against intermarrying in the 
family of the maternal uncle ( mimit ) and father's sister's husliand 
(pktUpka) for at leost three generations. In Oudh the rule of exo- 
^rarny is said to be that a man cannot marry the daughter of his 
histor and a son cannot be married in a family to which a bride 
lias been given until three or four generations have passed. Two 
sisters cannot l)e married at the same time ; but a man may marry 
the sisU^r of his deceased wife. They also very often marry by ex- 
changing sisters in the form knoii^ni as Ourawat, the simplest form 
of marriage by purchase. ' North of the Son they name three sections 
which are eiKlogamous— Benlans, Bania and Dom ; but the 
Benljans have developed under the influence of Hin«luism regular 
exogamous poiraM, of which they know only two,— Bilkhariya and 
Matar. To the whole trilie, as is shr>wn more particularly in the 
se(*tions south of the Son, the bamljoo is a sort of totem and is 
treated with great respect.^ 

The Mirzapur Dharkirs say that when Parameswar created 
their ancestor he seated him under a lAmh^o and gave him the 
cur^'cd knife {iJmia) with which he was to make his linngby basket 
making, etc. 



> BaAcd on •DqnirtM at Uimpar am! m n**im \tj B*ba 5>4b«»1 DdU, l>«p«l7 
CollMrtor. Htfdoi. 

> Tr%lt$ and Cm§t»$, 11. App. 43. 

* WMUnnarck, Hufury ^tf Human Mattimft, SM, 

* Thm b«mUjo is «ur«lupp«a by tea* ol Um Chtttefosf Hill TribMb Dftlloa* 
Ehnolo^, toe ; Ubboeli, Ori^n •/ Civtl«#«lk«, 



dhabkAr. 280 

2. The tribal council (panehdi/af) with a permanent president 

imahto) and an assistant (ditcdn) is very 

Tribal council. n , mi mi i 

powerful. The council hears the evidence and 
gives its opinion, which may or not be accepted by the Mahto, who 
gives the final order. The usual punishment is an order to feed the 
clansmen for two days on goat^s flesh and rice. For a second offence 
excommunication for twelve years is the sentence, and during this 
time, unless he make humble submission and receive pardon from the 
council, all marriages in his family are stopped, he is not allowed to 
eat or smoke with his clansmen, and cannot sit on the tribal mat {idi) 
at meetings of the council. In Oudh, however, it would appear that 
they have no regularly constituted council. Whenever a case affect- 
ing caste discipline occurs, a meeting of the adult householders of the 
neighbourhood is convened : they appoint a Chairman for the meeting 
and decide the case. They have a sort of local organization 
{eka) for marriages, which generally take place within an assigned 
local area. They seldom go any considerable distance to find wives.* 

3. A man may have as many wives as he can afford: but mono- 

gamy is the rule. In Oudh they say that no 

Marriage rales. 

man can have more than seven wives at one 
time ; but it is needless to say that very few Dhark&rs can afford 
more than one. If a man marries more than one wife, the senior 
wife {jethi mehrdru) rules the household. Concubinage and 
polyandry are prohibited. Women have considerable freedom, and 
intertribal fornication is visited by a fine of a two days' feast to the 
clansmen. The lover has to pay the girl's father in such cases eight 
rupees in cash and to give her mother a cloth — an arrangement so 
common apparently that there is a special name for it, — tndi kdpar^ or 
" the mother's cloth." He then feeds the council on goat's flesh and 
rice, and after this the young couple are recognized as man and wife. 
Dharkars practise adult marriage, the age being seventeen or 
eighteen. The marriage is arranged by the father's sister's husband 
(pAilpka) of the bridegroom. The bride-price paid by the boy's 
father is fixed — eight rupees in cash^ one loin cloth {d^oU}, and one 
hundred cakes (puri). This is used in the marriage feast, and the 
oloth goes to the girl. The parties are so carefully examined before 
marriage that no physical defect subsequently ascertained is a bar to 
marriage. If the wife without reason shown to the satisfaction of the 



* Seo in<«tancen of thin coUeotod by Wei* ier marc k, loc cH , 3S5» 9q, 



281 DHARKAR. 

council refuse to live with her husband^ her father has to refund the 
cash brideprice. If the husliand refuses to keep his wife, the council 
will punish him and compel him to bring her home. If either hus- 
band or wife habitually commit adultery, the injured party may 
divorce the other, but before they can do so the case must be heard 
by the council and the Mahto must give his permission, which will 
not be granted unless the fact is proved by the evidence of eye->wit« 
nesses. If a woman is divorced, she may be remarried in the tribe by 

the form known as 9a$di or dharauna. The children of a regular 
wife and a widow taken in nttgdi rank equally as heirs. If a man 
keep a concubine or even eat from her hand, he is put out of caste 
and not restored till he gives a tribal feast. Illegitimate children 
follow the father, but such a child cannot eat or marry in the tribe. 
Only a widower can marr}' a woman by the sagdi form. He goes 
to the widow's house and proposes for her in a regular form — kamdr 
ghar bi*ddt'\'* make my liome inhabited. '' Iler father receives the 
same bride-])rice as in a regular marriage. Her father gives a feast 
and assembles the council. If at this meeting any person entitled 
to claim the right of the levirate comes forward and says,--" Why are 
you giving my woman to a stranger ? " the council order her father 
to ]tay him the bride-price. 1 hen her lover takes her home, puts 
retl lead on her forehead and palm l(af ornaments (iarif) in her 
ears, and after feeding the clansmen on goat*s flesh and rice the con- 
nei'tion is U^galined. The levirate is recognised under the usual re- 
strictions, and there is no fiction of theafliliationof the children to the 
former husland. A childless man can adopt his brother's son. The 
sons are heirs, but the eldest tum gets sometliing in excess as deter- 
mined by the couiu'il. Daughters have no rights, and after marriage 
even the claim to maintenance is not recngniied. The mother has a 
life interest if there are no brothers of the deceased. The heirs of a 
sonless man are his associated brothers and they are supposed to give 
the widow something unless she is remarried, which is usually the 
case, unless she is disabled by age or infirmity. 

4. Tlie father is called dauwra : the grandfather h%iba : the 

mother ddi : the grandnuither b^rH ddi: the 
ReUiicnaliip. 

father's elder bri»tlH*r Lmra or bitrJta ("great''). 
The wife is always ralleil ** the mother of so-and-so," her son. They 
call a daughter 6a Aim or siiiter, whirh perha{Ni {loints to loose ideas of 
family life. The wife's father is makio ** lemieT. " 



DIIARKAR. 282 

Relations generally are mii or jfdr ('' friends '0* In particular 
they call mil all persons who have the same name as ihranselveSy 
and with such they are particularly friendly. People resident in the 
same village are gaunwa pariwdr, 

5. When the birth pains begin they worship the ancestors with 

the sacrifice of a he-goat and a cock, and 

Birth oeremonieg. ,.i.v tii i*. -i^j 

bathe the woman's hands and feet or, in bad 
cases, her whole body with a decoction of the uark of the Rohina or 
fig tree. The child is born on the ground and the oord is cut by a 
Chamarin midwife, who buries it in the place the child was born, 
placing a bit of iron and a copper pice in the earthen fire pot. On 
the sixth day {chhathi) the Cham&rin retires and the mother is 
bathed by her husband's sister (nanad)^ who cleans thedelivery-room 
(saur) . '1 he house earthen vessels are replaced, and one or two of 
the clansmen fed. On the twelfth day (baraJii) the woman is again 
bathed and the house cleaned. On that day she cooks for the family 
and is pure. Her husband does not cohabit with her for six months 
after her confinement. They have the usual horror of touching 
menstrual blood or clothes defiled at child-birth. The only puberty 
ceremony is the ear-boring^ (kanchhedan)^ which is done at the age 
of eight or ten, after which the child must conform to caste rules 
about food, 

6. The betrothal is sealed by the exchange between the two 

fathers of platters of liquor, one containinir 
two rupees placed there by the boy's fiither, 
which the girl's father takes. 1 hey have the usual matmangar cere- 
mony.' The usual anointing of bride and bridegroom follows^ which 
is begun by the fathers on each side taking up a little oil in a wisp 
of duh grass and sprinkling it on the bride or bridegroom, as the 
case may be. During this time he calls out,—** If my son or 
daughter is happily married we will worship the ancestors {piira) 
with a fire offering of butter and a goat or fowl/' Here follows 
a curious emblematical ceremony. The boy's mother sits on a 
grain mortar {oi^ari) in the centre of the marriage shed, and her 
son is seated in her lap. Then the boy, his mother, and the weddiufj^ 
water-pot {iahaj are all tied together with a string and a fire sacri- 



> The rural proverb runt, E gur khdyen, kdn chheddyen, '* Yoa iiiii«t tat thfa 
tugarand hare your ears bored/' doiufr a thing noUiu voUnt. Chtiatitok, B^kmr 
Provrbi, G8, 

3 For which lee Bhuiya, para. 14. 



283 dhabkAr. 

doe {torn) is done with rogar and butter. The boy's stster holds 
her band over the blaze and collects some lampblack on her fingers^ 
which she rubs on her brother^s eyes. Then the mother comes 
under the influence of the goddess Amina Bhawfini and begins to 
tremble, on which her friends throw some rice over her and take 
her into the house, whence she soon emerges again to do the ware 
ceremony {paraeHaw). She holds a vessel {iofa) full of water, a 
grain pounder {misal), and a tray {Ikdli), on which is plaoed a 
lighted lamp. First she waves a lump of dough five times over her 
son's head ; she does the same with the lota, and i)ours the water on 
the ground. Then she moves the rice«pounder five times over him, 
and with it touches the spot on the ground where the water was 
poured out. He finally salutes her with the pdelagi form, and she 
says,—" Oo son j Oo son I'' When he arrives at the bride's door her 
father meets him with a new basket, the emblem of his craft, in 
which is a new loin-cloth dyed with turmeric. This b put on the 
bridegroom, and the basket is handed to one of his friends. All the 
friends on both sides stand at the bride's door, beat drums and 
dance. In this dance the men fasten rattling bangles {gkmngru) on 
their ankles and play on the tambourine l<iajfa), flute {6dnMMli),9LnA 
largo drum {mdmdar), while they leap high in the air and shout. 
Then they retire to rest under a tree outbide the village. One of 
the bride's friends then comes and washes their feet, after which the 
boy's father sends a loin cloth {dkoii) and one hundred cakes {pdri) 
to the bride. These, when they arrive, are carefully counted, and 
twenty -five are sent back to the bridegroom, who gives a piece to 
each of his friends. 

7. At night the bride and bridegroom are seated in a square 
(ekami) in the bride's courtyard. The father's sister^s husbands 
(apparently a survival of the matriarchate) who manage the business, 
sit on each side of the pair. They join the hands of the boy and 
girl, and putting a ring of grass on her finger pour water over their 
hands while they cry £ar iamj/s ciira^ji r<ii#»— >^' LoQf? lif^ to 
bride and bridegroom." This is said five timet, and water is pooxed 
over their hands five times. Then the pair walk five times round a 
branch of the cotton tree (»€mml) which is fixed up in the marriage 
shed.' Next a curry stone is placed before the pair and on it is 



I For Um rMp«ei p^id to ik« ooiton tr«» aaoaff Ik* KUadbi^ tM Tjrkv. frimi- 
ii94 CiUlvrf, !!• 



DHAEKAR. 284 

laid a piece of betel-nut. The bridegroom holds the bride's foot and 
knocks this off with her toe. This is known as iuri meinm — " to 
obliterate the pile^ '' and is said to imply that the role of the prohi- 
bited degrees has been observed in the marriage.^ Next the 
bridegroom takes some red lead and robs the girl with it from the 
tip of her nose up to the crown of her head, while her sister oomes 
forward and collects {iendur bakorna) any loose g^ns in the comer 
of her sheet. For this she gets a fee of two annas. Next the pair 
go into the kohabar or retiring room, where a good deal of coarse 
merriment goes on at the expense of the brid^room.' 1 he cere- 
mony winds up with a feast and the escort of the bride to her bus- 
band^s house. A day or two after bride and bridegroom take the 
two wedding jars {kalia) to a neighbouring tank. The bride stands 
with her back to her husband and with an affectation of secresy 
throws her jar into the water {kalsa duldna). He then stands with 
his back to her and throws in his jar. Both proceed to search for 
them^ and when they find them fill them with water and bring them 
home. On the way they rest them on the ground and pour a little 
of the bundiya sweetmeat made of gram flour and butter on the 
ground. Then they proceed to the tree under which is the shrine of 
Deonath; the tribal god, and there make a fire offering (J^om) with 
sugar and butter. This closes the marriage ritual, the binding por- 
tion of which is the application of red lead {fenduridn) to the part- 
ing of the bride's hair.' 

8. The tribe appears to be in the transition stage between barial 

and cremation of the dead. In Oudh they 

Death oeremonieB. . 

bury : in Mirzapur they usually bum the 
corpse. The dead are cremated in the usual way on the bank of a 
neighbouring stream. After the cremation is over they pour some 
oil on their toe-rings, which they take off and warm over a fire and 
then return to the house of the deceasedi where they sit silent for 
some time before dispersing. On the third day the chief mourner 
collects the ashes and throws them into running water, and plants 
near the stream a few stalks of reed grass {jhnrai) as a receptacle 
for the vagrant spirit. Water is poured on this daily for ten days. 
On the tenth day is the Ghat ceremony when the clansmen shave 
each other, no barber being employed. Three balls {pinda) of floor 

I Kuri iiitiunH *' a pilo," and also tho ezogpamous ■ection of the tribe. 
3 Fur tho significanotf of this Ceremony, Hoe A*o(, para. 13* 
I Thia reprcaenta the primitive blood coyenant. 



285 bhabkIs. 

are thrown into the water by the chie£ mourner, and he poura thr«e 
handfuls of water on the ground in the name of the dead. While 
he doee this he turns his hands backwards. No Brahman is 
employcil and the part of priest is taken by the sister's eon of the 
deceased, (another survival of the matriarchate)/ for which he 
receives as his fee an axe and a knife. After this the relations and 
members of the council sit round the chief mourner, and his sister^a 
husband {bahnoi) ties a turban on his head in proof that he haa 
taken the place of his father. 

8. They are in g^reat fear of the ghosts of the dead who appear 

in dreams and worry people if they are not 
propitiated. Their sacrifice is done at the 
Phagua (Iloli) festival when a goat, fowl, and some spirits are 
ofTered to them. \Vhen people are sick they make vows to the 
sainted dead (jturkha log), and, when they recover, make ofFerings to 
them. In Oudh they are beginning to get a low Brahman to 
perform a sort of Srdddha. 

9. The Dharkftrs call themselves Hindus but have a special pan- 

theon of their own, the functions of which are 

exceedingly vague. Pahar Pando is a sort of 

mountain god. DArasin is possibly a local development of Jara- 

sandha, the deified King of Magadha. Banhiya Bir (the hero of the 

VLTTti — tdiik) and Di^onath are deified tribal worthies. Angirmati 

Bhawiui (*' the goddess of the blazing charcoal '') is a >'ague female 

divinity. Further north towards the Ganges they worship Birtiya, 

a vague deity who is apparently merely a guardian godling (Sans. 

prifti, ** support, maintenance "), Dulha Deo, the god of marriage, 

and the five saints of Islam (Panchonpir), especially Parihir. Dulha 

Deo in worshipped on a Saturday in the light half of Kfirttik or 

Baisakh. when a castrated goat iiia#i) is ofFercd in the house and 

the woriihippers consume the fleslu He is also propttiat^^l with a 

loin-cloth dyed in turmeric : and when the wornhipper puts this on 

he gets into a state of frenzy, shakes his head ami announces oracles. 

If Dulha Deo is not worshipped he sends fever ami sumlry other 

diseases. The Pandionpir are worshipped with the sacrifice* nf a cook 

and cakes [roi) ; all who worship thimi keep a house shrine in their 

honour. In Oudh tlM*y wornhip Devi with an offering of a goat. 

10, The more Southern Dharkars worship the pantheon above 



5m Labboek, Orifim i/Ci««l«MliM. IIS. 



DHAKKAB. 286 

described collectively every second or third year in the hoofie. First 
they make a burnt sacrifice {kom) with butter and treacle, then offer 
a goat and cock^ and pour spirits on the ground. Any one can do 
this worship, and no Brahman or Baiga is employed. They worship 
the sainted dead at the Holi, Dasahra, and in the month of Knar. 
On these occasions they all get drunk and dance in a special way 
with rattling bangles ighHngru) attached to their ankles to Hbe 
music of the tambourine {fiafio) and the flute {bdnsmli). Then they 
visit in procession the houses of the respectable people in the village^ 
dance, and receive fees {pMriAri), The usual allowance is a sieve 
{sfip) full of any kind of grain. They believe sunstroke to be due to 
the attack of Angarmati Bhawani, who rides in her chariot through 
the sky in the hot weather. She is appeased on such occasions with a 
burnt offering {iom) and the sacrifice of a goat. All the oolleetive 
godlings of their pantheon have their abode in a mud platform 
(chaura) erected in the dwelling house. Traces of tree worship are 
found in their adoration at marriages of a branch of the cotton tree 
which has the special name of Kalyani or *'the auspicious one.'^ 
Among the myriad ghosts which surround them they particularly 
fear the ghosts of drowned people {birna) who infest tanks where 
people have been drowned and push in unwary travellers. 

11. Fields have also their special Bh&ts, and the shrine of a 
person killed by a tiger [baghaut) -is specially reverenced. Their 
special worship of the bamboo consists in their cutting one bamboo 
in the month of Aghan when the general cutting begins. This they 
bring home with marked respect and make a burnt offering {kom) 
before it with butter and treacle. After this bamboo-cutting and 
basket-making go on. The women tattoo themselves in the usual 
way : if they do not, Bhagwan brands them with a torch when they 
die. Friday is their lucky day, and on that day they commence bam- 
boo-cutting. They have the usual meeting omens and the ordinary 

ideas about the quarters of the heavens. They believe in the demon- 
iacal theory of disease. In such cases they get the Baiga to do a 
sacrifice to the collective village gods {deohdr) : a goat or cock is 
the usual offering. In specially bad cases of illness the Baiga or 
Ojha is called in and recognises the particular Bh&t, which causes 
trouble, by shaking about and counting some grains of barley in a 
sieve. WTien a person is attacked by the Evil Eye they get some 
cow-dung ashes, blow into it five times in the name of the sainted 



287 DHABKAB. 

dead, and then rub it on the child. In very bad cases a special 
ofierin^ is made to the spirits of the dead {purk^a lop), 

12. The women wear pewter anklets pairi)^ glass or lac liangles 

(ehirt) on the wrists, and brass rinirs Ickurlui) 

Social oustomi. ' 

on the upper arm, with a pewter nng on the 
big toe. They al)andon this ring on widowhood, and, as has been 
seen in trt'ating of the death ceremonies, it is supposed to have some 
' mystic significance. On the toe next the big toe women wear a 
small ))ewter ring (ekkulki). This is also taken off at widowhood. 
On thi*ir foreheads they wear spangles (tlkuli)^ palm leaf ornaments 
[Urk%) in the ears, and beads (gnriya) round the neck. They swear 
by putting a bamboo on the head, and think that if they forswear 
themselves they lose their children and property. They have now 
prohibited eating beef and punish its use by excommunication : but 
this is quite recent, and hardly pre\'ails generally among the less 
Ilinduised branch of the tribe south of the Son. In Oudh some of 
them will not eat meat during the fortnight (vitrMpakska) sacred to 
the deail. They will not eat fmxl C(X)ked in Imtter {f*ak^a kkdim) if 
touchecl by a Chamar, Dhobi, Patari, Bhuiya, or Dom. They consider 
themselves much superior to the Doms. as they liave abandoned the 
filthy habits comm<»n to the ordinary Doms. F«H)d cooked in water 
[kdckci'i khtina) tliey will eat (»nly if cooked by one of their own 
eaHte. Tliey have the usual Dom prejudice againi«t the Dhobi. They 
will not touch their younger bnithtys wife, thi»ir wife's elder sister or 
the mother (iamtlkin) of their sons^ or daughters' wi\*es and husbands. 
They use spirits and tobacco frilly. Men and women eat apart ; 
men first and women after them : but a verj* old woman is allowed to 
eat with the men. Seniors they salute in the jnielagi form, and re* 
ceive the blessing (<i#m) in return. They are very hospitable and will 
harrow to enti*rtain a guest. As a rule they treat women fairly well, 
but Ijeat them if they misbehave themselves. They are respectful to 
the old. No Dharkar was ever known to read or write. They have 
aver}' strong tribal crmncil, and very seldom come before the courta. 
Tliey work only in Ijamboo, not in reed (ientka). They make win- 
nowing fans OmV), baskets {thmri)^ boxes (petdra), lietel boxee 
(hiUkra), and red lead boxes (pamli). These in the villages aie 
maile alwa)*s on prain wages, and it is only in towns that tbej are 
{laid in ca^h. 



DHAEKAB. 



288 



DHOBI. 



Distribnlion of Dharhdn according to ike Cewvii of 1991. 



D18TB10T8. 



Bansphor. 



Dehra Ddn 

Saliaranpnr 

Allah&b&d . 

BenareH 

Gh&zipur • 

Gorakhpur 

Basil 

Azanigarh 

Lucknow • 

Faiz&bad . 

Gonda 

Babr&ich 

Sultanpur . 

Partabgarh 



Total 



198 



102 
213 
798 
28 
144 



285 
37 



1,805 



Benbansi. 



986 
1»559 



3,588 

4.712 

2.505 

1 

2.274 

1.311 

66 

1,453 

555 



Others. 



13 
32 

4,050 



Total. 

13 

32 

5,234 



19.010 



323 


1,882 


1 


1 


1,53d 


5.228 


379 


5,304 


431 


3,734 


40 


69 


278 


2.696 


485 


1.796 


16 


82 


636 


2,374 


602 


1,194 


8.824 


29,639 



Dhobi^^ — the washerman caste who take their name from 
the Hindi dhona (Sans, dhdv), to wash. Dhobis have no very 
distinct traditions of their origin. In Bihar, according to Mr. 
Risley,* they trace their descent from Gari Bhuiya— one of the 
local gods of that part of the country. Another account makes 
them out to be the offspring of a Kshatriya father and a ChamAr 
woman. In Mirzapur they name as their ancestor a personage 
named Rawat, and say that Mahadeva and Pdrvati^ disgusted at 
the filth of the people of the world, created the Dhobi to keep their 
clothes clean in future. Mr. Nesfield suggests that '^the washer- 



1 Based to some extent on notes by Pandit Bhin PratAp TiwAri of ChimAr, 
s TribeM and Cattet, 1, 283. 



289 BHOBI. 

man represents an impure caste, but is many degrees higher than 

that of the Bhangi, from whom he has sprung. Both are descended 

from the Dom, whose sole wealth, according to Manu, must be dogs 

and asses. The Indian washerman has always been associated with 

the indigenous ass, which carries the soiled clothes down to the 

bank of the river or tank, and takes them back clean to the house. 

No Hindu of any caste, even the lowest, will wash his own clothes, 

and so the Dhobi has been formed into a caste which shall bear the 

impurities of all.^' Mr. Risley disputes this connection of Doms 

and Dhobis through the common use of the donkey on various 

grounds. "In the first place the use of donkeys by the Dhobi caste 

is so far from l)eing universal that it has given rise to the formation 

of a slightly inferior sub-caste called Gadhaiya. Secondly, beyond 

the highly conjectural identification of the Doms with the Chand&ls 

spoken of by Manu, there is nothing to show that the Doms have 

the bintest partiality for the donkey. On the contrary the 

Magahiya Doms of BihAr will not touch a donkey and regard the 

Dhobi with very special aversion/' It does not appear necessary to 

connect the Dhobi with either the Dom or Bhangi in order to 

ai*connt for the low social rank which he holds. One of his chief 

tasks, except among the Dravidian tribes who do the work them* 

selves, is to wash the clothing of women after child-birth, and his 

astkKMation with blood of this kind, which is particularly aliiorred^ 

stamps him as s])eeially impure. Like the Kumhir he keeps asses ; 

but every Dhobi does not necessarily do so, and may use oxen for 

carrying clothes to and from the river. 

2. Like many castes of the same social grade DhoMs assert that 

. . there are seven endogami us divisions or sul>- 

castes. Thus Sir 11. M. Elliot gives the 

feub-cantes as Kanaujiya, Magahiya, Pagahiya, Belwir, Bitham, 

and SriUtham (who take their name from Srivasti) and Bharka. The 

Iant CeuKus gives elewn— Aju'-hyaliiii, Bais, Chithoriya, Detwir, 

Kaithiya, Kanaujiya, Kathariya, Mathuriya, Purliya or Purabiya, 

and Sribdntak A list from Mirzapur gi^'es them as Kanaujiya, 

KeUir, Magahiya, SrihasUb, Musalmin Dh4>bi, Baiswara, and 

Bln»jpuriya. Another fri»m Agra gives— Mathuriya, Bharka, 

Marwari, Purhiya, and Purliij-a Kampu. In Bareilly we find 

Katliariya, Dohliwala, Kampuwala, and Musalmin. All ihcve 

are ondogatnouH. Tln-ir rule uf exogamy, as stated by them, al 

Minaimr ig that thi^ will not m4rry in the family of their mater^ 
Vol. II. 



DHOBI 290 

ual uncle^ father's sister or their own family {iul) as long as anjr 
connection by mai'riage is remembered. The complete Census Ite- 
turn shows no less than 925 sub-divisions of the Hindn and 216 
of the Muhammadan branch. Of these the most important locally 
are the Chauhan^ Chhonkar and Gaur of Muzaffamagar, the Chhon- 
kki- of Meei-ut, the Purabiya of Agra, the Deswali of Farmkhabad, 
the Sakarwar of Mainpuri, the Bakhar, Jalchhatri, Magadhiya, 
Mangasha and Pathak of Bareilly, the Rajput of Moradabad, the 
Bhadauriya, Jalkhatri, and Mahadwar of Shahjahanpur, the 
Deswali and Purbiya of Pilibhit, the Amethiya and Bel war of 
Cawnpur, the Mathur of Fatehpur, the Bel war and Mathur of 
Banda^ the Dakkhinaha, Sarwariya and Uttaraha of Basti, the 
Dakkhinaha^ Deswali^ Sarwariya and Uttaraha of Azamgarh, 
the Purabiya of Lucknow, the Jalpachhar, Magaraha and Sar- 
wariya of RaS Bareli, the Jaiswar of Faizabftd^ the Ujjaini of 
Gonda^ the Bahraichiya of Bahraich, the Jaiswar of Soltanpur, 
and the Mangaraha of Barabanki. 

3. To the east of the Province the age for marriage is twelve 

for girls and fourteen for boys. A match 

Marriage ceremonies. x x xi- x * xu • i> 

maker (a(;ua) at the request oi the girls 
father looks out for a suitable match. When the auspicious time 
(sa^at) has been fixed by the Brahman, he casts the horoscopes 
(ganna ^tra»a),and when these are found to correspond, the parents 
meet and the rite of kori katori is performed. In this the girPs 
father fills a glass full of liquor^ puts into it a silver coin and passes 
it over to the boy^s father with the words lidm ! Ram ! When he has 
drunk he hands it back to the girPs father^ who also drinks out of it, 
and then liquor is served to the clansmen present. This constitutes 
the betrothal [mangni). Then a Brahman is called in for the tikdm 
pdn. In this the girPs father takes one ser of paddy, two packets 
of betel and two betel-nuts. Both fathers hold a cloth in thdir hands. 
The Brahman first throws one packet of betel and one betel-nut into 
the cloth where it is held by the boy^s father, and does the same for the 
girPs father. He next throws a handful of paddy five times into 
each side of the cloth. Both parents tie this up, and it is parched 
and used for throwing over the pair at the wedding. Then the 
Brahman explains to both the fathers the lucky days for the oolleo- 
tion of the sacred earth (matmangara) and for the anointing {iel 
hiirdi), and the pro|)er date for the wedding. For this servioe 
each gives the Brahman a pice and a ration of uncooked grain. 



201 DHOBL 

The girl is feasted that night and returns home the following 
morning, 

4, On the day of the maimangara the women assemble and sing 
after they have anointed their heads with oil. Then the sacred 
earth is collected in the way already described in the case of the 
Bhuiyas. On the day of the anointing five men of the tribe 
erect the marriage pavilion in the usual manner. The barber's 
wife rubs the boy with a sprig of duh grass soaked in oil and 
turmeric. No Brahman attends. On the hkatwdn day the clans- 
men are fed on rice and pulse, and at night they get drunk and 
sing the song known as hirka. Wlien the bridegroom, dressed in 
his wedding garments, starts with his procession, he is carried out as 
far as the door in the arms of his brother-in-law. When he gets 
outside the village his wedding clothes arc taken off, and he does the 
rest of the journey on foot until he approaches the bouse of the bride, 
when he is dressed again. His brother-in-law again carries him in 
his arms to the door of the bride's house, where the wave ceremony 
(patachhan) is done by his future mother-in-law, who moves a rice 
pounder, sie>'e and a lota full of water round his head. During 
this time a Dhdrhi plays the mridang or double dnim, and the 
women l^eat earthen saucers (Hiliya) with pieces of stone. Then 
men sing the biria and the women the Idckdri songs. The wedding 
party then retire to the reception place (jamwdma) where all the 
clansmen assemble. There some food is sent for the bridegroom 
from the bride. Then the bridegroom and another boy who acts as 
his best man (%hdhbdia) eat together. This food is brought by the 
girl's brother-in-law, who receives one anna as his perquisite. Then 
the clansmen have a drink and salute each other. When the lucky 
time arriv(>s for the marriage, they take the bridegroom to the 
parilion and scat him on a stool facing the ea^t. The friends sit 
on eai'h Kide. A pieoe of mango wood is lighted and some clarified 
butter dropped on it with mango leaves (taUo). Ihe men recite the 
auspicious marriage songs {Mnmangata iwdia) and then the bride is 
brought into the pavilion by her sister or sister-in-law and she 
knoti* together the clothes of the pair. Then the bride's (ather 
washes tlie great toes of the pair in a tray full of (langes water, 
wliit'h he drinks, and throws a little of the water on his head. Then 
behind the shelter of a sheet which is held up before them the boy 
applies red lead to the parting of the girl's hair, and they walk fi?« 

times round the marriage pavilion. The boy's elder brother throws 
Vol. II. rf 



BHOBI. 202 

parched rice over them, and pats a necklace ronnd the bride's oecL 
Then her sister-in-law escorts the pair into the retiring room 
(kohabar) and makes them bow to the ftunily god. After this the 
boy's wedding crown is removed and he returns to the wedding 
party. 

5. Next comes the wedding feast {bydh ka hkdt). Unmarried 
boys among Dhobis do not eat boiled rice {hhdi). They taste it 
first after they are married. The next day the bride goes off with 
her husband. On the third day is the panwpAeriy when^ if the two 
houses are near, the bride goes alone back to her father's house and 
comes home by herself to her husband. Widows are married in 
the ordinary way by the soffdi or dharauna form and the levirate 
is allowed, but it is not compulsory on the widow to take the 
younger brother of her late husband. 

6. The ceremonies at birth and death are of the usual type oom« 

mon among tribes of the same social standing. 
^^^ moDielJ^^^ ""^'^ '•^ ceremonial shaving {mdnran) is not usual. 

ly done unless the parents have been blessed 
with a son in answer to a vow {manauti). 

7. Dhobis usually worship the Panchonpir and Devi. They are 

. much given to the worship of ghosts, one of 

whom named Ghatoriya has a great reputation 
in Bundelkhand. They have a very strong tribal eouncil and are 
very severe on breaches of caste custom. They rank of course very 
low in the social scale, and no respectable Hindu will take anything 
from their hands. He is the subject of many proverbs : 

Nai dhobinina aweli^ 
Ckirkuiwe sdbun laweli. 

" The new washerwoman will apply soap even to rags.'* " A new 
broom sweeps clean." Dhobi par Dhobi ba9e^ tab k^pre par idbnn 
pan, *' Wlien many Dhobis compete, then only does soap reach the 
clothes.'^* 



1 Cbriitian, Bthar JVover^f. 



203 



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297 DHUNITA, DHUNA. 

Dhnniyai Dbuna (Hindi dkunna^ " to card : '' Sans. Hku^ ** to 
Estate''), the ootion-cardinp^ caste. Other names for them are Behna 
I Sans. r//j, **seed ''), who is properly the man who removes the cot- 
ton seed from the fibre; Katera {idlna " to spin'^), Kandera (Sans. 
kar$ha^ *' draf^ging/' idra, ''doer ^') ; if he is a Muhammadan or the 
speaker a pedant he is called Naddif^ which in Arabic means *' sepa- 
rator. '' There are some Hindus who carry on this occupation; 
but most of them are Muhammadans, and these alone find an entry 
in the returns of the last Census. 

2. To the west of the Province the Hindu Dhuniyas cUim to 

be of Bfijput origin. They are divided into 

The Hindu Dhaniyis. 

five endogamous sub-castes — Chauhin and 
Barg&jar^ which are well-known Bajput septs ; and the Dhakeri, 
Bargali and Chhunkari, which take their names from the dhdi 
tree {b»Ua frondoia), the bar {Ficm Indiea)^ and the ckhonk^r 
{proiopti ipieigeru)^ all of which are sacred trees and regarded with 
special respect by those Dhuniyas who take their names from them. 
Tliis idea is probably of totemistic origin. The sub-castes are endo- 
gamous, and though there does not appear to be any regular formula 
of exogamy, marriage is usually forbidden in the families of the 
uncles and aunts on both sides. Their marriage, birth, and death 
cust(»ms are of the usual t}'pe common to low castes in the same 
stH'ial grrnle. Their deities are Mata, the smalNpox goddess, 
Miran Sahib, the saint of Amroha, Chamar, Den. and the Ganges. 
They onploy Brahmans in their religious ceremonies and perform 
tlie iftiddAa for deceased ancestors. Tliey drink spirits and eat the 
flesh of goats, sheq) and fish, but not beef, pork, f(»wls, or carrion. 
8. Tliese were recorded in the general Census Bep(»rt under only 

Tb« HahiMniwuUo ^^ ^^^ sul>K?astc, the Mansfiri, who take 
DhuDi,-. ^heir ^^^^ f^^„^ ^ ^rilml saint, Khwija Man- 

sftr, of whom they can give no account, save that he was a faqir 
of wondrous piety, who had the power of working miracles. He 
is believed to have lieen a native of Rfim or C«»nstantinople, and to 
have sc^oompanied the Dhuniyas when they entered the cimntry in 
tlie train of the emrlv Muhammadan im-adem. To the east of the 
Province they call themseU'es Sonni Muhammadans, but tlu»y have 
retained in their domestic ceremonies many of tlie forms of the 
Hindu ritual of tlie lower ca*teft from which most of them are pro- 
bably c<»nverts. Thus they collect the sacred earth (««/Mev^tfr«) 
at n arriages, carry out the night watch (r«(/«^«) before marriage^ . 



DHUNIYA, DHTJNA. 298 

and there is a distinct survival of marriage by capture in the 
observance by which the bride, when the bridegroom arrives at the 
house for the marriage, is furnished with a small stick with which 
she gives him two or three slight blows on the head as he enters the 
door. The marriage service is read by the Qftzi if the parties are 
well-off ; by the Daffi,li if they are poor. At death if there is an 
educated Muhammadan present he reads the Fatiha; but this is not 
indispensable. They are usually worshippers of the Panchonpir, 
and they have one special usage, known as the Pij/dla or " cup, " 
when on a Tuesday in the month of Aghan the men and women go 
to the riverside and o^er up some spirits and sweetmeats to Sahja- 
mSi, one of the quintett eof the Panchonpir ; this is consumed by 
the Dafali who acts as priest. They spend the whole night by the 
river listening to the songs sung in honour of the goddess by the 
Dafali. 

4. The complete Census Returns show 152 sections of the Mu- 
hammadan branch of the tribe. Many of them are local terms, 
such as the Ajudhyabasi, Audhiya, Bahriichi, Baksariya, Gbmga- 
pari, Mathuriya, Purabiya; others are taken from well-known 
castes or septs, such as the Baheliya, BanjsLra, Barg&jar, Chauhin^ 
Dhangar, Gaur, Gorakhi, Gujar, Kharebindi, Mad&ri, Mukerii 
Naddaf, Panwar, Pathan, Rajput, R&thaur, Rawat; others are 
purely Muhammadan in form as Ans^ri, Ch&ry&ri, JaUli, Khwftj*- 
mahar, Khwaja-mansuri, Khwaja-Muhammadi, Khw&ja-Sarai, Mu- 
hammad Hanfi, Muhammadi, Momin, Sayyid, Sh&hmans&ri, Shaikh 
Shiah, Sunni, Turkiya, and Usmani. 

5. The primary business of the Dhuniya is the carding or rather 

scutching of cotton. This is done by sub- 
jecting it to the vibration produced by a bow 
string [dhannhi^ Sanskrit, dhanm). The bow is usually suspended 
from the roof so as to hang at a convenient height above the pile 
of loose cotton. The string is then twanged with a wooden catch 
so as to strike a small portion of the cotton, the fibre of which is 
scattered by the impact and thrown off in an uniform condition of 
soft fluff. At the same time any dirt which is entangled in the 
fibre falls out and the clean cotton is made up into" balls, some of 
which are passed on to the spinner and some are used for the padding 
of quilts and wraps [razdi, lihdf) and the warm-padded garments 
used in the cold weather. The Dhuniya also sometimes keeps a 
small shop where he sells thread and various articles, sudi as 



290 DHUNITA. DHUNA. 

pewter bangles, fordiead spanglee, and nmilar things. Another 
trade which he often follows is the making of the little charcoal 
balls {liii^a) used for lighting the tobacco in the hnqqa, 

6. The Dhnniyas have in Nftmdco Bhagat a tribal saint who is 

much respected by them. He is said to have 
been bom in Mftrwilr in A.D. 144S and to 
have flourished in the time of Sikandar Lodi (14S8-1512). Accord- 
ing to one account he was a Mahratta and was bom at Pandharpur, 
in the Dakkhin. '* lie is said to have Ixjcn persecuted by the Musul- 
m4ns, who tried to persuade him to repeat the words Alldk ! JUdk I 
instead of his favourite Bdm ! Bdm ! but by a variety of astonish- 
ing miracles he escaped from their hands. After a considerable 
amount of travelling to and fro, he at last settled in the village of 
Ohumin, in the Batila Tahsil of the Gurdispur District, where he 
died. A shrine, known as the Darbdr, was erected in his honour in 
Ghimn&n^ and on the Sankrint day of every Magh a crowded fair it 
held there in his honour. Ilis followers can scarcely be said to 
constitute a sect. They are almost entirely Chhimbas (the Dhuniyas 
of these Provinces) or Dhobis by caste. Their founder appears to 
have stoutly resisted the pretensions of Muhammadanism, and was 
looked as a follower of Kimchandra, Imt his Hinduism was by no 
means of the ordinary iyfe- He taught emphatically the unity of 
God and the uselessness of ceremonial, and his doctrines would appear 
to have approached fairly close to those of Nanak and the Eastern 
Sikhs ; and several of his poems are included in the Sikh Adi Granth. 
At any rate the followers of Elba Nimdeo are very largely Sikhs by 
religion, and they are said, whether Sikhs or Hindus by religion, to 
hold the Granth in reverence and to follow many Sikh cuitoma. 
They have no distinctive worship of their own.''^ 

DtMiribution of ike Dkmnijf^t mccordimg to th§ Cfntm of 1891. 



I ! 

DlSTBlCTS. ! Manari. Othtn. ' Totai^ 



I>«hra I>An 
8ah4f»apor 
llniaffariuifar 
Macnit 



••• 



179 I 


179 


1799 


1799 


8.018 


8.018 


44)11 


4481 



MMlMma, P^^ik Cmuus Mtf^H. Mil» 144 ; alM sm ChMfi. I. 



DHTJNIYA, DHUNA, 



800 



Distrihution of the Dhuni^at aeeording to the Cemw qf 1891^'tOntd. 



DI8TBICT8. 


Mani&ri. 


OUien. 


TOTJII.. 


Bulandshahr • • * 




••• 


1,600 


1.600 


Aligarh . 1 


» < 






1,330 


6,041 


6.371 


Mathnra . 








••t 


64 


64 


Agra 








11 


399 


410 


Farrukh&b&d 








1 


7,829 


7.330 


Mainpuri 








»•• 


8,263 


8,263 


Et&wah . 








61 


8,737 


8,788 


Etah 








••• 


4626 


4625 


Bareilly . 








1,620 


11,708 


13328 


Bijnor 








•• t 


11,066 


11.066 


Bad&un . . 








44 


1,808 


1.862 


Mori^&b&d 








t«« 


7,862 


7,862 


Sb&hjah&npur . 








118 


8,689 


a707 


Pilibhit . 








16 


6,932 


6,947 


Cawnpur • • 








120 


8,383 


8.600 


• 

Fatehpur . 








1,639 


3,766 


6,395 


£&nda 








2,681 


4724 


7,405 


Hamirpnr . 








••• 


8,341 


8,341 


Allah&b&d 








2,238 


16,841 


1&079 


JL&nsi 








228 


4374 


4602 


J&lauii • < 








70 


2,894 


2,964 


Lalitpur • 








••• 


1,116 


1,116 


Beuares • • 








703 


4663 


5,256 


M irzapur • 








372 


6,003. 


6,375 


JaunpuT • 








11,710 


2,049 


13.769 


Qhizipar • « 








2,056 


2,318 


4373 


Ballia 








608 


3,042 


3,650 



DHXJKITA, DHUKA. 



801 



DHtSAB; DH^KSAB. 



Distribution tftke Dkuniyas aetording to the Cmnu qf i^i— ooneld. 



DitTBICTt. 


UumM. 


Oth«n. 


Total. 


Gomkhpar 






80,5S0 


9.949 


40.469 


BMti 






tSM9 


IfiM 


29,688 


AxAiDgtrli 






2,266 


17.428 


19,684 


TaHLI 






••• 


1.746 


1.746 


Lockoow • 






1,400 


4^186 


6,646 


Un4o 






606 


7.844 


7.910 


• 






116 


9,036 


9.150 


SlUpar • 






6346 


7,749 


13,694 


Hftrdoi 






60 


ia708 


10,768 


Kheri 






611 


11.127 


11,638 


Faiiibid 






1 


12.787 


12,788 


Goiida 






699 


J2J64 


16,968 


Bahriieh . 






1.096 


16,037 


16,133 


8alt4npor 


> — i 




1 1* 


7.909 


7.909 


PkH&bg«rh 






168 


7.369 


7.6«7 


lAnbMiki 






1,064 


13,186 


14»260 




TOTAI 


1 


98.620 


303.467 


4014^ 



DhtLiar; Dhftntar/ a tribe utually classed as a sub-oaste^ 
of Banyan, Imt who claim a higher origin than the ordinary Yaisjras. 
Tlu>y take their name from a hill called Dh&si or Dhosi, near 
K&maul, on the borders between Alwar and British territory, lliere 
their ancestor Chima or Chimand Bishi is said to have performed 
liis devotions. This Bishi is said to have married a daughter of the 
BIja of Ksshi or Benares. Heir head-quarters in Western India 
are Bewiri, in Gurgion. Their pretensions to Brihmanical origin 
are admitted by Brihmans themselves, and they are now usually 



» ParUy bM«l OB a BoU by BAlm UkBB CkMdn Bmuw)!. Hssa lUrtw. Bifk 
School, IU« BbibU. 



DHijSAR ; DH^NSA^R. 302 

known as Bhargava or " descendants of Bhriga,'' who was one of 
the Prajapatis or great Bishis, and is regarded as the founder of the 
race of the Bhrigus or Bhirgavas, in which were bom Jamadagni 
and Parasurama. Manu calls him son^ and says that he confides to 
him his Institutes. According to the Mahabharata he officiated at 
Daksha's celebrated sacrifice, and had his beard pulled out by Siva. 
The same authority also tells the following story : — *' It is related of 
Bhrigu that he rescued the sage Agastya from the tyranny of King 
Nahusha, who had obtained superhuman power. Bhriga crept into 
Agastya' s hair to avoid the potent glance of Nahusha^ and when 
that tyrant attached Agastya to his chariot and kicked him on the 
head to make him move, Bhrigu cursed Nahusha and he was turned 
into a serpent. Bhiigu on Nahusha^s supplication, limited the dura- 
tion of the curse.' '^ 

2. In the hills they appear to be in some places Banyas and in 
others Brahmans. " They take their food before morning prayer, 
contrary to the usual Hindu custom. Of late years, however, they 
have begun to adept the more orthodox custom. They do not eat 
animal or other prohibited food, and do not drink spirits. They wor- 
ship the orthodox deities and consider Brahma, Siva and Vishnu the 
same God under different forms. The Brahman Dhiisar marries 
among his caste fellows, and the Bany a with Bi^yas, avoiding always 
the same family (golra) or one having the [same family deity/'* 
The only sections shown in the Census Betums aie Kans and Mahur« 

3. In the plains their traditions vary. According to one ac- 
count they were driven from their original home, Kashmir, by the 
tyranny of their inilers, and settled in Delhi. In Benares they fix on 
Delhi as their home. Those in Mathura have emigrated from Gur- 
gfion and have acquired considerable property and influence. " They 
combine the oflice aptitude of the Kayasth with the keen scent for 
money- making and the flinty hard«heartedness to a debtor charac- 
teristic of a Banya. They are consequently mostly hard landlords 
and wealthy men. They are the hereditary Qinungos of Mathura 
and Chhata.^s 

4. Dhflsars are all Vaishnavas, and in these Provinces at least 
none of them are Saraogis. They regulate their Uves by the most 



I Dowson, Cla$»%cal Dictionary^ $. v, 

3 Atkinson, Himalayan Oatt liter, II1« 448. 

* Seiilemfnt KepoH, 27. 



303 DiitsAR ; dhCksab. 

orthodox rules of Hinduism and are particularly careful in the 
observance of Hindu ceremonies. They are a rising, ambitious^ 
thriving class, excellent clerks and men of business. They are also 
noted for their skill in music. 

5. The Bhargava Sabha of Jaypur has supplied an account of 
the caste which represents that the DhOsars were formerly family 
priests {Purokit) of various R&jas, but they now, since the Muham- 
madan invasions, have discontinued these functions. Other usages 
{dckdr) they practise like Brihmans. Only those who are noted 
for Sanskrit learning are known by the title Pandit. Like other 
Brahmans they worship the Kishis, from whom these eponymous 
gotrat are derived. Some do the oblation {tarpana) daily : others at 
the Pitrapaksha, or fortnight devoted to the dead. They worship 
the ordinary P&ncha Devata or five greater gods. 

The main saints of the creed are Charand&sji, Navaldisji and 
Nariyanddsji, who flourished at Delhi, Mathura and Bindrabao, 
respectively. 

6. Their goiras are— 

(1) Vid or Bandlas, with the Pravaras, Bhirgava, Chivan, Apt- 

van, Aurab, Bayidit. 

(2) Bachhias or Vatsa, with Pravaras, Bhirgava, Chivan, 

Aptwan, Aurab, and Jimdagna. 

(3) Bichhias or Vatsa, with Pravaras, Bachhal, Arjuna and 

Batsat. 

(4) Kiiiib or KAsliip with Pravaras, Kiship, Kutsa, Bhirgava, 

Chivan, Aptvin, Aurab, Jimdagna. 

(5) Girglas or Giglas, with Pravaras, (lirgal, Dhriti, Mtn- 

dava, Chivan, Vaishama, or Vinait. 

(6) Kutsa or Kuchlas, with Pravaras, Kutsa, Aurab, Jim- 

dagna. 

(7) Gilas or Oolas, with Pravaras, Bharga\'a, Chivan, and 

Jimdagna. All follow the ritual of the Yajur Veda. 
They claim to belong to the* Pancha Gauda stock. Ilicj 
are invested with the Brilimanicml cord in the ordiiwry 
way. Eac^h family has its own houseli'^ld god {Kulm 
dirata). 



DH^SAB ; DHtNSAB. 



304 



DisirtbuUon of the Dhilsarg bjjf the Cemus of 1891} 



Districts. 



Dehra Diin 

8aharanpar 

Muzaffarnagar 

Meenit 

Bulandsliahr 

Aligarh 

Mathura 

Agra • 

Farrtiltlj&bAd 

Mainpuri 

Etawah 

Etah . 

Bud^un 

Morad&b^ 

Sh&hjah&npur 

Caw n pur 

Fatebpur 

B&nda . 

Ilamirpur 



Nnmber. 



D18TBICT8. 



8 

83 

21 
395 

11 
148 
956 
316 

28 
106 

247 \ 

I 

3 ! 

I 

18 j 

I 

258 

4 

495 



Allah&bAd 

Jh&nsi 

Jftlaon 

LalitpuT 

Beoares 

Mirzapnr 

Jaunpar 

Qh&zipnr 

Goiakhpar 

basti 

Lucknow 

Sitapur 

Kheri . 

FaizAl>Ad 

Gonda • 

Bahr&ich 



860 I Sult&npnr 
470 PartHbgarh 



535 



Total 



Number. 



69 

4,020 

121 

696 

75 

212 

703 

24 

19 

373 

864 

31 

1 

30 

87 

86 

260 

1 



12,497 



> On tho oonfuHion botwoen Ddsar and DhiUar, see DiUar. 



305 bikuit; dikhshit. 

Dikhit; Dikhshit (Sans, dikhikita, ''initiated, consecrated '0, 
a functional di\n8ion of BriLhmans. — " The priest specially employed 
to initiate a Hindu boy into the performance of his religious duties, 
and to give him the second birth is called a Dikhshit. The word it 
simply a corruption of Dikhshitri, '' one who initiates.'^ It is only 
boys of the upper castes^ that is those who are called " the twice- 
born'^ (dvifa) who are entitled to the privilege of Diksha. Bui 
Brahmanism has for the last thousand years and more been steadily 
descending into lower and lower strata of the population, absorbing 
one indigenous tribe after another ; and hence the possession of this 
privilege cannot now be considered a mark of twice-born ancestry. 
\\The orthodox age for undergoing the rite of dikika is on the com- 
pletion of the seventh year. The Hindu book of ceremonies, known 
as Karam Kand, calls it the eighth, but the figure is raised to eight 
by counting the nine months preceding birth as an additi<^nal year. 
At the present day the orthodox age is not always obser>'ed, and a 
boy can be initiated a year or two after if it suits the convenience 
of the {wrents to postpone incurring the expenditure which these 
riU*H entail. A boy, whatever his parentage may be, is not a full 
Hindu until tlie d^kuka has been performed. Up till then he is 
little bi>tti*r than a SQdca or unregenerated person. But on and 
afU*r tliut day he incurs the religious responsibilitiet to which hit 
]»ar(ntM Imve all along intended to dedicate him, as a Christian boy 
clofM by the doublo rite of baptism and oonlirmation. Girls are 
never initiatitl as Utys are ; and thus a high caste woman who 
marries a man of the Siklra rank cannot but become a SAdra her- 
self. Tliiri, I sus|XH*t, is the real explanation of the abhorrenee felt 
by Hindus to a woman Unng married into a caste lower than her 
own. The same aMmrrenoe has never been felt to a " twice-born'^ 
man marrying or eolialHting with a S(^ra woman ; for the womaa 
can rine to the rank of her husband, but as she hat never been 
initiated she cannot raise the husband to her own. Thus in Manu^t 
CixU a Brahman was allowed to take a S&drm woman into hit 
house ; but if a SAdra man married a Brahman woman, the ton 
UTaune a Chanxlala, a sinf\il and abominable wretch. 

2. ''The entire ceremony of dtkika lattt tome eight or nine 
days. Ttirouglk»ut those days the hty is put upon a very strict 
diet, and undergoes a vigorous course of ablutions. He it bathed 
n^^ilarly at certain hours ; after the bath mustard and oil wr% 
nibk^l all over his body, and he then undergoes a second hath la 
Vol. IL o 



V 



DIKHIT ; DIKHSHIT. 306 

wash them all ofE again. All tiiis time he should wear nothing, 
day or nighty but a string of the sacred grass called kuta^ wiiicb \b 
tied round his waist and to which a narrow cloth, called langaii^ is 
attached^ fastened between the legs before and bdbind. Meanwhile 
the usual homa offerings are thrown on the sacred fire by priests of 
the Hotri class, who have been summoned for this purpose. When 
the last and the greatest of the homa ofEerings has been made, the 
sacred thread (upavita, janeiS) is thrown over ibe left shoulder of 
the boy by the Dikshit, and the first act of the initiation is com- 
pleted. The Dikshit then throws a doth over his own and the 
boy's head^ and under cover of this cloth he instils into his ear (in 
the undertone so that no profane ears may catch what he says) the 
GSyatri and all the other sacred verses which a Hindu should utter 
on stated occasions every day of his life. The repetition of all 
these vei'^s, and especially the GrJLyatri^ which is repeated first, 
constitutes the closing ceremony by which the boy is formally 
initiated into the rites of Hinduism. The boy must have heard and 
seen something of these rites beforehand through living with his 
parents ; but until he has been formally initiated, and this by a 
Brahman competent to dischai'ge the office, he is a mere heathen. 
For some weeks after the conclusion of the ceremony the Dikshit 
remains with the novitiate so as to help him to perform the sev^ml 
daily rites and make him sufficiently perfect to be left to himself ; 
and after leaving him he continues to be his spiritual adviser for the 
rest of his life whenever such advice may be required."^ I^Hie rite 
is obviously analogous to the similar initiatory oeremomes which 
prevail among various primitive races.* 

Dikhit; Dikhshit (Sans. ^t'M^/it/a, '' initiated, consecrated ^0» 
a powerful sept of Rajputs. — The traditions of the sept* relate 
that they are descended from the SArajbansi Rijas who for fifty- 
one generations mled over Ajudhya. In the fifty-first generation 
from Ikshwaku, Raja Durgavahu left Ajudhya and emigrated to 
Gujarat, where his descendants took the title of Durgbans after 
their founder. In the twenty-fourth generation from him Halyftn 
Sah Durgbans went to pay homage to B4ja Yikramaditya;, the 
great King of Ujjain, the supreme monarch of India. From him 



1 Netficld, Calcutta Review, CLXVII, 266 ; Monier WiUiaou, Brdhmamimi^ mnd 
Himluitm, 360. 

s Frazor, Qo^den Bough, II, 342, aqq. 
* »lliott. Chronicles of Undo, 34, iqq. 



X 



807 niKAiT ; DiKasHiTp 

(about 50 B.C.) lie reo^ved the title of Dikhit. whibh bis desoeod* 
antB bore instead of Dnrgbaus. For many years tbey remained 
stationary in Oujardt, and at the time when the kin^om ol 
Kanauj was at its zenith Balbhadra Dikhit took service with the 
Rathaiir Hija, and his grandson Jaswant saw the death of the BIja 
of Kauanj and the destruction of the power and family of bis bene- 
factor. The name of BallJiadra's father was Samapradban, whieh 
is a i$ingnlar name for a Rajput, and suggests a reason why the 
Dikhits do not rank so high in the precedence table as they ought 
to do if their tradition was correct. Pradh&n was the old name for 
a Registrar (QanfiLngo), which office was only given to Kiyastha. 
There may be some intermixture of Kayasth blood which spoils the 
purity of their Siirajlans descent. It is curious that in the two 
sets of villages bordering on old Dikhtiy&na and now held bj 
Dikhits, there are traditions that the land (mce belonged to Kayasth% 
who, when hard pressed by their enemies, obtained help from the 
Dikliits by ceding part of their villages to them. If the above 
hypothesis be true, the Kiyasths in this case only called in their 
own distant kindred. Jaswant Sinh had four sons, the eldest of 
whom remaine<l in Samoni, and his descendants possess the estate to 
this day. The second, Udhaybh&n, migrated into Oudh and oolo* 
nized the district of Dikhtiy&na. The third, Banwiri, went still 
further north, crosiang the Ghigra and Rapti, and, choosing a wUid 
retreat in the sub-Himalayan forests, founded there the great 
Siniet Raj of Bansi. Hie fourth, Khairij, migrated to the east, and, 
settling down in the district of PartAbgarh, took the town of Bilkhar, 
whiuce his descendants are known as Bilkhariyas. The further 
fortunes of the sept are given in great detail by Sir C. Elliott. 

Z. The Dikhtiyana territory is said to have extended from the 
liorders of Baiswara on the east, to Sandi Pali on the west, and 
from tlie Gomati to the Ganges, including fourteen parganaa. 
\Vhate%'er \ic their chum to an extensive dominion in tlie west, 
there can l)c no doubt that during this |H.'riod the Dikhit RAja 
Md a very high position in the country, and that this was the time 
whi*n Dikhtiyana became famous as a geogra|)hical oxprtmon. 
Tlk> list of marriages preser\'ed by tlie (jard proves this, containing^ 
as it d<H^, the names of the daughters of the JAngra lUja of 
Dliauruhm, tlR* Bai*hgoti of Knrar, the Gautam of Argal, the 
Band)ialg«»ti of Garb Anu*thi, and the Bisen of Manikpur. With an 

Oudh Rajput it is always an object of ambition to marry his dangb* 
Vol. II. v3 







dikhit; dikhshit. 



ters into a family of a higher rank and position than his own, whatever 
the attendant expense may be, The chiefs of Eastern Oudh make 
it their ambition to marry their daughters only into the great 
KachhwSha and Chauhan clans of Mainpuri and Etawah ; that they 
should have chosen the Raja of Dikhtiyana for their son-in-law is 
a proof that at that time his rank and influence were as great as 
those of the older Western ESjas are now. 

3. The SBpt in pargana Pachotar of Ghazipnr' is called from 
ThaDikWtflofthe *^*' Country they occupy Pachfcoriya. They 

Korth-weHt Proiinoea. claim to be Surajbansis of Ajndhya, whence 
they emigrated to Gujarat. The Ghazipur branch say that they 
came from Bulandshahr about twenty generations ago, and now 
occupy nearly the whole of the Pachotar pargana. In Azamgarh* 
they have been dispossessed of most of their property by the Bir- 
wars, There is another Azamgarh sept known as Dikhitwar, who 
are probably their kindred. They say that their ancestors came 
from somewhere in the west and occupied untenanted land, where 
the sept now resides. According to Sir H, M, Elliot, they give 
their daughters in marriage to the Sombansi, Raghubansi, Gahar- 
war, and Bais, and take brides from tl»e Scngar, Donwir, and 
Kausik septs. In Oudh they have recently been allied only with 
neighbouring clans — Sengar, Sakai'war, Raikwar, Janwar, etc., and 
infanticide used to be the general rule of the sept. 

4. In Unao the Dikhits generally give brides to the ChauhSn, 
Bhadauriya, Kachhwaha, Sengar, and Rathanr 
gepts beyond the Ganges, and occasionally to . 

the Panw&r : they generally marry their sons in the JanwSr, 
Bisen, Mahror, Gautam or Chanhan septs of the district, Sombansi, 
Baghubansi, Amethiya, Gahai^wfir, Kath, Bais, Gahlot, Panwfir, or 
Solankhi septs. 



Marriftge oonneationB, 



Dutribiition of the Dikkii Bujputu according to the CemuM 
of 1891. 



DiBTBICTB. 


Nambor. 


DiaTBICTS. 


Number. 


Bnknd-lialir 


12 
2 


Mathum . 
Agra 


7 

9 


1 


Oiaham, afcti 


0.. I, 58. 
porl. 87.81. 





-J 



DIKHIT ; DIKHSHIT. 



809 



BIWiHA« 



DUMbutian of the DihkU Bdjpu^ ae&ording to the Cemnu rf 1891— ooneld. 



DI8TBI0T8. 


Numl)er, 


DiBTBIOTB. 


Himbfli?* 


Famikh4b4d 


7 


Jannpor 


• • 


799 


Mainpnri . . • 


82 


OhAzipnr < 






15^176 


Et&wah 


117 


BaUia 






1,090 


Rtah 


2 


Goiakbpar . 






8,618 


BareiUy 


86 


Aaungarh 






6,168 


Bnd&un • • 


SO 


Lncknow 






984 


Mor&d&bid 


219 


UiiAo 






9/»4 


Sh&hjahAnpur • 


14 


BAABanU . 






8,099 


Cawnpnr • 


868 


Shapor 






299 


FaUhpnr • • • 


6^560 


Hardoi 






S84 


B&oda 


8,169 


Kh0ri 






S22 


Hamlrpar • • 


8JM6 


Faii&faAd . 






18 


Allah&Ud . 


818 


Gondft 






S 


JliAnid • 


869 


BahiAioh 






69 


J&lauQ 


66 


SnllAnpor 






864 


Lalitpor • • 


4 


Partlbgarli . 






698 


Benares • • • 


632. 

• 

162 


BATmbaaki 




■ 


410 


Mirzapnr 




TOTAI 




60,727 



Diwana> '^ those possessed of an evil spirit {det^ dh), 
mad^')^ — a tenn applied in these Provinoee to an order of Mnham- 
madan faqirs^ who have not been separately enumerated in the 
returns of the last Census. 

In the Panjab they are Hindus, wear uncut hair, a necklace 
of shells^ and a large feather in their turbans. There is a consider- 
able colony of them in connection with the shrine of the saint 
Q&sim Sulaimdni, near the fort of Chun&r, in the Mirzapur district. 

2. Those at Chun&r call themselves the disciples of one Jam4I 
Diwina. Boys are usually initiated into the order at the age of 
twelve. His &iends take the candidate to the head faqtr of the 
order, who says,-^'^ Are you ready to drink of my cup {pifdla) and 



BrwANA. 310 BOOAR. 

obey me in all things ? ^' If he agrees fire artioles of dress of an 
ochre colour are prepared for him^ viz., a head covering {pieta)^ a 
robe {tafani), a neck handkerchief {guluhand), and waist cloths 
{lunQy langot). A barber is sent for and his head completely 
shaved ; he is bathed and invested with the garments of ihe order. 
Then the Murshid or preceptor sits facing the north, and the 
Murid or disciple opposite him. An earthen cup containing one 
and-a-quarter ier* of sharbat made of sugar and water is brought. 
First the Murshid recites the Diriid or benediction and drinks a 
little. Then he passes it to the Murid^ who drinks^ and while doing 
so keeps his eyes fixed on the Murshid* During this part of the 
rite he must not even wink. The Murshid then says to him, — " I 
am now responsible for your sins. Take care and fix your attention 
on me. Do not close your eyes.'' When he has drank the draagfat 
the Murshid gives him a necklace made of jaitnn wood or (A earth 
from Makka known as khdk safa or of the seed of the Canna 
Indica {'aqiq^ l-bahr), a handkerchief of ochre-coloured cloth, a 
thin walking stick made of the wood of the peach tree {dru), and 
a wooden begging bowl {kctjkol) . With this he begs from nXL the 
company. He also receives a wooden scraper {phdora), which he 
ties to his waist. This over, he salutes the other members of the 
order present in the word Miydn ; and they reply Uaqq Miydn. 
When he is thus initiated he gets a station {takya), and the 
Sarjjada-nashin or Abbot gives him daily for his food two cakee m 
the morning and three in the evening with some pulse. If the 
disciple does not care to live in the Dargah or head-quarters of the 
order, he can remain with his friends by leave of the Murshid. 
Those who live in the Darg^ remain celibate ; if they live with 
their friends they can marry. 

The non-celibate members of the order marry according to the 

regular Musalman formula. The dowry 
[mahr) is generally fixed at fifty-one thousand 
rupees. Women in childbirth are secluded for forty days ; a fire 
is kept lighting in the room — and she is watched by her female 
friends, a custom known as Qdzi Sdhib ki chauii. In their death 
customs they conform to the usual Muhammadan ritual. 

4. Tlic Diwanas are a useless set of beggars and not held in 
much estimation by any one, 

Dogar, a Punjabi tribe who hav« emigrated in small numbers 



311 DOOAR. 

into the western districts of these Provinces. Of than Mr. Bran* 
dreth writes in his Firozpur Settlement Report^ :— 

" The Dogars are supposed to be converted Chanhftn Bijputs 
from the neighbourhood of Delhi. They migrated first to the 
neighbourhood of Pak Pattan, whence they spread gradually along 
the banks of the Sutlej, and entered the Ftrozpur district about one 
hundred years ago. The Firozpur Dogars are all descended from a 
common ancestor named Bahlol, but they are called Mihu Dogars, 
from Mahu^ the grandfather of Bahlol. Bahlol had tiiree sons, Bam- 
ha, Langar, and Sammu* The Dogars of Ftrozpur and Mullan- 
wftla arc the descendants of Bambu ; those of Khai the descendants of 
Langar; the descendants of Sammu live in the QasAr territory. 
There are many other sub-castes of the Dogars in other districts 
along the banks of the Sutlej, as the Parchat, the Topara, the Cho- 
para, etc. The Chopara Dogars occupy Mandot. The Firozpur 
Dogars consider themselves superior in rank and descent to the 
other sub-castes. They are very particular to whom they give their 
daughters in marriage, though they take wives from all the other 
families. At one time infanticide is said to have prevailed among 
them, but I do not think there is much trace of it at the present day. 

2. Sir H. Lawrence, who knew the Dogars well, writes of them 
that tliey are '' tall, handsome, and sinewy, and are remarkable for 
having almost without exception, large, aquiline noses ; they are 
fanciful and violent, and tenacious of what they consider their 
rights, though susceptible to kindness, and not wanting in courage, 
they appear to have been always troublesome subjects, and too fond 
of their own free form of life to willingly take service as soldiers. 
The Jewiiih face whi(*h is found among the Dogars, and in which 
thi*y rettemble the Afghlns, is very remarkable, and makes it pro- 
bable that there is very little Chauhin blood in their veins, notwith* 
standing the fondness with which they attempt to trace their con- 
nection with that ancient family of Bijputs. Like the O&jars and 
Naip&lis they are great thieves, and prefer pasturing cattle to cul- 
tivating. Their favourite crime is cattle-stealing. There are, bow- 
ever, some respectable persons among them, especially in the Ftros* 
pur Illqa. It is only within the last few years that the principal 
Dogars have begun to wear any covering for the head; formerly 
the whole population, as is the case with the poor classes still, wore 



> Q«ot«a bj IbUUcio, Pdi^V^ Ktkm^futpkf, para. €Sk, 



DOGAR. 312 DOM. 

their long hair over their shoulders without any covering either of 
sheet or turban. Notwithstanding the difference of phygiognomj^ 
however^ the Dogars preserve evident traces of some connection with 
the Hindus in most of their family customs^ in which they resonble 
the Hindus much more than the orthodox Muhammadans/* 

8. Mr. Ibbetson adds : — " The Bajput origin of the Dogars is 
probably very doubtful^ and is strenuously denied by their Rajput 
neighbours^ though I believe that Dogar or perhaps Dogfaar 
{doghla, probably Persian dughol, dagh^ '* a stain '') is used 
in some parts of the Province to denote one of mixed blood. 
Another derivation of the name is doghgar or *' milkman/' The 
Dogars seem to be originally a pastoral rather than an agricultural 
tribe, and still to retain a strong liking for cattle, whether their 
own or other people^s. They are often classed with G&jarB, whom 
they much resemble in their habits. In Lahore and Ftrozpur they 
are notorious cattle thieves^ but further north they aeon to have 
settled down and become peaceful husbandmen. They are not 
good cultivators. I'heir social standing seems to be about that of 
a low class Rajput ; they are practically all Musalm&ns. Their 
chief clans in the Panjab are M attar ; China ; Tagra ; M2hn, and 
Chokra.'^ In these Provinces they are all Musalm&ns. 

Distribution of the Dogar g according to tie Ctmnun of 189 !• 



Districts. 


Komber. 


Sah&rxnpnr ..•••••. 
M uzaflfarnngar . , 


1 
838 


Total 


889 



Dom;^ Domra; Domahra (Sans. Doma; Dama; Domim), 
a Dravidian menial caste found scattered throughout these Pro- 
vinces^ regarding whose origin and ethnological afl^ties there has 
been much speculation. To the east of the Province they are 



1 For the Eaatom Dome the yalaable note by Mr. J. Kennedy* C.S., liM bMB 
largely need, and that of Pandit Jaila Dat Joshi for the Hill Doms. In ftddHiM to 
thean. notoe by Mr. H. D. Ferard, C.S., Binda : M. Chhedi L4l, Depoty Insptelor» 
Sohools, Qorakhpur, and the Deputy Inspeotor of Schools, Bijnor and Doloa Bia* 
hare been oonsnlted* 






^-j"'? 





0* • 1 



J • ^ 



* !;■ 



:.l 



/ ■" . ■ . •■■ .' V ■ ' ' •■ ' 



< .1 



-111 J 



".v'-l 






. I 



■■'■•• 'litT'-' hits 



J. ■ . .. «■* N.. s. ., >,.,.n 
L' ■ ■■ .■ !■ ■,', ■ u«r 



813 DOH. 

usually known as Dom, but arc sometimes called Jallid, '' eze** 
cutioner/' HatyAra, "murderous, blood-thirsty," or Supach, which ii, 
as we shall see, traditionally the name of the founder of the tribe, 
and who also enters into the legends of the Bhangis. The name 
seems to represent the Svapika or'' cooker of doorg/' a man of a 
deprnuled and outcast tribe, the son of an Ugra woman by a 
Kshatriya. He is required to live outside towns like the Chandila^ 
to eat his food in broken vessels, to wear the clothes of the dead, 
and to \ic exehulod from all intercourse with other tribes ; he can 
possess no other property than asses and dogs, and his only oflSoe 
is to act as public executioner or to carry out the bodies of those 
who die without kindred. His kinsman, the Chand&la, according to 
Manu,^ ranks in impurity with the town boar, the dog, a woman 
in her courses, and an eunuch, none of whom must a Br&hman / 
allow to see him when eating. According to Dr. Caldwell' they are 
the sur>iving representatives of an older, ruder, and blacker race 
who precede^l the Dravidians in India. Sir H. M. Elliot* consi* 
di*rs them to Iw ''one of the original tribes of India. Tradition 
fixes their residence to the north of the Ghigra, touching the 
Bhars on the east in the vicinity of the Rohini. t<everal old forta 
U*««tify to their former importance, and still retain the names of 
their founders, as, for instance, Domdiha and Domingarh, in the 
Oorakhpur District. Rimgarh and Sahnkot, on the Rohini, are 
also Dom forts.^' Attempts have, also, been nude to connect them 
in some way with the Domkatir or Domtikir Rijputs of Gorakh* 
pur, and with the Domw&r Bhuinhirs.* All this discussion i% 
as Mr. Uisley say*, somewhat profitless; bat oat of it seems to 
emerge " a general consensas of opinion that the Dome belong to 
one of the races whom, for convenience of expretaion, we may 
call the aborigines of India, Their personal appearance bears oat 
this opinion. Mr. Beames* describes the Doms of Champiimn 
as " small and dark, with long tresses of unkempt hair, and the 
peculiar glassy eye of the non- Aryan autodithon, ** and Mr. Sher- 



> /MfifiiUi, ni, 88S. 

* Orammar pf ik4 Df^^dim.% Lmm§um§M, MS, qaoltd by Riafey. THkm 
CasUs. I, UO. 

* DarhanaB, JTmNth IndU, lU S&S : Artkmolofuml E#forlt, XXII, 65^ tf 1 <te> 



DOM. 314 

ring^ remarks that ^' dark-complexioned^ low of stature^ and 
somewhat repulsive in appearance^ they are readily distinguished 
from all the better castes of Hindus/' " The type, however,'' Mr. 
Bisley adds^ ''as is the case with most widely-diffused castes, 
seems to display appreciable vaiiations. In Eastern Bengal, accord- 
ing to Dr. Wise, the Dom's hair is long, black, and coarse, while 
his complexion is oftener of a brown than a black hue ; and amon^ 
the Magahiya Doms, whom I have seen in Bih&r, only a small 
portion struck me as showing any marked resemblance to the 
aborigines of Chota Nftgpur, who are, I suppose, among the 
purest specimens of the non- Aryan races of India. On the whole, 
however, the prevalent type of physique and complexion seems to 
mark the caste as not of Aryan descent, althdhgh evidence is 
wanting to connect it with any compact aboriginal tribe of the 
present day. The fact that for centuries they have been con- 
demned to the most menial duties, and have served as the helots 
of the entire village community, would, of itself, be sufficient to 
break down whatever tribal spirit they may once have possessed, 
and to obliterate all structural traces of thdr true origin." 

2. To this must be added another point which cannot be left 
out of consideration in dealing with these menial races. The tribes 
of scavengers, such as the Bhangi and Dom, have for many gener- 
ations formed a sort of Cave of Adullam for the outcastes of the 
higher races, and the notorious immoral character of the women 
of these tribes must have had a powerful effect in modifying the 
physique and appearance of castes such as these. If the Dom 
varies in physical character from one part of the Province to another, 
it is only what might naturally be expected. On the whole it may 
perhaps be safer to regard the Doms, not as a single, individual 
aggregate, but as a more or less mixed body of menials, who have 
been for ages in a state of the utmost degradation, and whose 
appearance and physique have been largely modified by the rigour 
of their occupation and environment. 

3. The origin of the Dom to the east of the Province is thus 

Tradition of origin- ^^^ ^ themselves. In the good old timei 
EaBtern Doms. ^11 people Were equally well-to-do and happj. 

The Brahmans had no property and built no houses for themselveB. 

When Parameswar desired to appear in the world he took the 

1 Hindu Tribe$ and CaiUi, h 401. 



316 DOH. 

form of a Brfthman. Then intending to divide men into castee, 
he went about begging as a Brfthman, wishing to ascertain what 
occupation each family followed. As he begged for ahns no man 
gave him aught but silver and gold. At last he reached the house 
of a man who had killed a cow and was preparing to feed on the 
beef. He begged for alms^ and the cow-killer brought from his 
house a handful of gold coins. Parameswar refused the money 
and asked for a little barley. The Domin, or woman of the house, 
went inside and found a place in the courtyard which had been 
trampled into mud by the feet of the cow in her death struggle, 
and there a few cars of barley had suddenly sproutoed up. The 
woman plucked the grain and offered it to PiO'ameswary who asked 
her where she had found it. She told him how the grain had 
sprouted in her courtyard. Parameswar asked where was the cow 
which had prepared the ground in which the grain had grown. 
She replied that it had been killed by her husljand. Then Para- 
meswar was wroth and cursed her husband : ^' Thou and thy pos* 
terity shall kill animals and remain beggars for ever." Then the 
Domin cursed Parameswar in the form of a Br&hman— 

Jakdm Brtkman jdme^ 

Ckdr dkakka kkdwe, 

Ek piekkdri, ckkatiU paaiks. 

^' Wherever the Brfihman goes he shall receive four pushes. Thirty* 
six knots in a single sheet." So ever since Doms are beggars and 
skyers of animals, and Brihmans are poor and Kve on alms. This 
legend, of course, cannot bo of any great antiquity, as the feeling' 
of respect for the cow is of comparatively modem origin. 

4. According to the Panj4b legend the ancestor of tbe Dona 
was a Brihman named Malhidant. He was the youngest of the 
family, and his elder brothers expeHed him. One day the calf of 
their cow died, and they asked Malludant to take away the csroass 
and bory it. When he did so he was treated as an outcast, and 
wan obliged ever after to make his li^-ing fay skinning and boryiag 
dead anhnals. This legend, under a slightly different form, is told 
at«o in oonneetion with the Bhangis. 

5. Another story, again, makes the Doms the descendants of 
RIja Ben or Yena, and from him one of their sub-castes has takes 
the name Benbamii. The legend of this king suggests that he 
was some early reformer who made himself obnoodous to BHQumas. 



DOM. 816 

When he became king he issued a proclamation, — " Men mnst not 
sacrifice nor give gifts nor present oblations. Who else but myself 
is the object of sacrifice? I am for ever the lord of offerings^' 
The sages remonstrated respectfully with him, but in vain. They 
admonished him in sterner termsj and when he persisted in his piety 
they slew him with blades of the sacred iuta grass. After his 
death the sages beheld clouds of dust, and on inquiry found that 
they arose from the bands of men who had taken to plundering 
because the land was left without a king. As Vena was childless, 
the sages rubbed his thigh, and from it there came a man ''like a 
charred log, with flat face and extremely short.'' The sages told 
him to sit down {nuhdda). He did so, and hence was called Nishib- 
da, from whom sprang the *' Nishadas dwelling in the Vindhyan 
mountains, distinguished by their wicked deeds." It may be noted 
that Benbans is the title of a modem B4jput sept which is of 
obvious Kharwar origin. By another account the name is derived 
by the Doms from their trade in making fans {bena, Sans, pyajana), 

6. As might have been expected in the case of a tribe which is 

obviously composed of various elements their 

Internal straotore. ., t i i • a » a * . »-ri 

internal structure is most intricate. Under 
the general term Dom there are in these Provinces at least three 
distinct classes of people. There are, first, the wandering race of 
houseless thieves and vagrants who infest Bihir and the eastern 
districts of the North- Western Provinces. Some of these have 
gradually raised themselves above the degraded status of their 
vagabond brethren. Some of them have settled down on the out- 
skirts of towns and villages, and have taken to scavengering or 
industries connected with cane-work and basket-making. Such are 
the Dharkar and Bansphor or Basor, whom it is more convenient to 
discuss separately. Next come the Doms of the Himalayan dis* 
tricts, who deny all connection with the eastern branch of the tribe, 
and have gained a fairly respectable position as husbandmen and 
artisans. Lastly come the Dom or Diim Mir&si, who are singers 
and musicians, and are treated of under the head Mirftsi. 

7 . Like so many of the lower castes the Eastern Doms profess 

The Doms of the East- to have seven eudogamous sub-castes. Ac- 

ern districts. cordiug to the Mirzapur enumeration these 

are,^Magahiya ; Bansphor ; Litta ; Domra or Domahra; JaUld 

or Hatyara; Dharldr; and Harchanni; which last take their 

name from the famous R&ja Harischandra, whose legend is given 



817 BOM. 

in connection with the Bhangis. Again^ in B&nda, we have a list of 
so-called exogamous sections or gotras inasmuch as they will not 
give a bride to a section from which within memory they have taken 
a bride. These sections are Tarkiya ; Oepar ; Gemar or Gaymar ; 
Pesadeli, Barhel ; Ilaziriya ; Usarbarsa ; Kundahor ; Dharkil or 
Dhark&r ; Chamrel ; Chureliya ; Satchuliha ; Samand ; Asrcnt ; 
Mahtama ; Naharkarei ; Mungariya ; Nanet ; Kaithel ; Suador ; 
Jugin; Nagarband; Dhaunsiya; Birha; Sarkhiya; Baksariya; 
Gu jariya ; Lungtaya or Langotiya. Some of these names probably 
denote some connection with other tribes, as the Chamrel with 
Chamars, Kaithel with K&yasths, and Gnjariya with G&jrat. 
Others are perhaps occupational or totemistic; but we know at 
present too little of the origin or metamorphosis of these section 
names to make any speculations as to their meaning of any value. 

8. From Gorakhpur, ^g^n* ^c have another enumeration which 
is thus described by Mr. J. Kennedy : — ** The Doms say that they 
formerly cultivated and owned the land, but when pressure came the 
Magahiyas divided into two great sub-divisions — the Magahiyaa 
and the Binsphors. The Magahiyas took to thieving, while the 
Binsphors were content to weave baskets and cultivate what land 
they could. These two sub-divisions do not intermarry, and it 
must be remembered that my notes relate to the thieving claM 
alone, Magahiyas proper, who count themseU*e8 the true, original 
stock. They always describe themselves as subdivided into seven 
dibtinci families ; but excluding the B&nsphors, of wh<>m I have 
spoken, there are really six— Sawant ; Balgai ; Chaudbari ; Chau* 
han ; Bihari, and Ilazari. Ihe most of these names are taken from 
the Hindus, and as Ilazari is a Muhammadan title of honour, this 
division into families is probably of a comparatively recent date. 
Chaudhari and Chauhin are evidently also meant as honorific titles, 
and at the time the division was first made it must have been purely 
artificial. The families have no reoollection of any common ancestor, 
nor have they any cult in memory of the founder. The Binsphors, 
I am titid, have no such sub-divisions. The recent and artificial 
origin of the six sulMlivisions is, therefore, tolerably certain ; they are 
imitations of Hinduism, and the only use to which they are put is to 
regulate marriage. Neither Magahiyas nor Bansphors can many 
their first cousins by blood, and this was prolsd>ly the original role. 
Besides this po Siwant can marry a S4want or a Balgai, hot 
any of the six faonilies can intermarry with any other. The 



DOM. 318 

wandeiing gangs of Magahiyas are compoeed indiscriminately of men 
belonging to each clan family ; but each gang has its own leader 
and the office is hereditary in the leader's &mily. An outsider 
is never selected unless the family stock has failed. ^' At the same 
time it may be ui'ged that this form of sectional exogamy is prob- 
ably much more primitive than Mr. Kennedy is disposed to believe. 
It is^ of course^ possible that the names of the exogamous sections 
may have been changed under Hindu or Muhammadan influence^ 
but it seems also certain that this form of exogamy is one of ibe 
primitive institutions of the caste. 

9. The Magahiya Doms take their name from the ancient king- 
dom of Magadha or South BihsLr. Curiously enough the Mirzs^ur 
Magahiyas have lost all traditions of any connection with Magadhi^ 
and say that their name means 'Wagranf from the Hindi wiag, 
Sanskrit marga, '^ a road. '' They have been identified with the Mac- 
cocalingae of Pliny/ and they are found as far south as Madras.' 
In their original state the Magahiyas are vagrants pure and simple, 
who have not even mats or tents to cover themselves in rainy or c(dd 
weather. In this respect they are in a lower grade than nomads 
like the Sansyas or Haburas, They frequent the jungles, but seem 
to have no aptitude for hunting or fishing* They live by burglary 
and theft^ while the women prostitute themsdves. In dry weather 
they sleep under trees^ and in the rains or chill of winter they slink 
into outhouses or crouch under a thatch or any other shelter they 
can find. In their depredations they « never use tiie zabari or 
" jemmy '' used by the ordinary Indian burglar. Their charac- 
teristic weapon is the cur\'ed knife {bdnka)^ with which they are 
supposed to split the bamboo for making baskets, which with be^ 
ging are their ostensible occupations. But this knife is generally 
used for making holes beside doorposts {paghli)^ In cold weather 
they carry about at night an earthen pot full of hot coals, over 
which they crouch and warm themselves ; and this, when closely 
beset, they fling with great accuracy at their assailant?^ often causing 
severe wounds. 

10. Various attempts have been made to reform this branch of 
the tribe. To quote a note by Mr. D. T. Roberts^ prepared for the 
last Police Commission :— '^ In Grorakhpur almost every sofaeme pos- 



1 McCrindIo, Indian J nh'^uary, VI, 337* 
' MnllaJy, "Sotf^ 70, tqq. 



319 BOH. 

iible to think of luu) been considered over and over again and rejected 
as hopeless, the premlini^^ opinion being that nothing short of oonfine- 
uent between four walls would do any good. In 1873^ and again 
in ISSO, the quc:ttion of bringing them under the Criminal Tribes 
Act was considered, and the conclusion come to in ISSO was that no 
s|)ecial measures for the reclamation of this tribe seem likely to be 
suci^essful, and there was no use proclaiming them under the Act, 
because they have no means of earning their livelihood honestly, and 
the only thing to be done was to keep them under unceasing sur* 
veillance, and to punish with severity on commission of crime. 

11. ''In 1SS4, Mr. Kennedy, the Magistrate of Oorakhpur, 
again applied himself to the task. Some of the Doms were collect- 
ed in the city and employed as sweepers, taught brick-making, and 
ma^le to work on the roads, and others were settled in larger or 
smaller groups in different villages, and received assignments of land, 
and up to date this scheme, supported by an annual grant of 
Kh. l,5i)0, is being carried on. Some Doms do regular work as 
swiM'pers ; n^ne (»f them have as yet acquired any handicraft, even 
the siin]>le 4)nc of brick-making. No work can be got out of them 
exc^pt under incessant Kuper\ision. Their fields are cultivated only 
when some one is standing over them, and when assistance is render* 
ed by oilier cultivators. 

12. *' Nevertheless, on a comparison of the earlier with the later 
reports, a certain advance is observable. The Doms no longer skulk 
in iields and forests. They are all settled in some village or another 
which tliey recognise as tlieir home* "Whereas formerly Doms said 
tliat tlu>y could not sleep under a roof because glvMts troubled them, 
th«>y now take kindly enough to living in houses, and will complain, 
not of glu)sts, but of the ruuf leaking. It is something to have re« 
strained their wandering propensities to this extent, and to have 
given them some appreciation of a settled and cirilised life.'' 

13. According to one story Mahide%'a and Pirvati invited 

EMUm Dow; tribal ^' ^ *»*^ ^ ^ f®"^- Supach Bhagat, 
irMliiiuM. (jj^ ancestor of the tribe, came late ; ami 

being verj' hungry' ate the leavings of the others. Since that 

time Uk>y have )jei>n di*graded, and oat the leavings of the other 

people. 

l\. Another h^gend connects them with lUja lUmchandra, in 

whose camp one of their ancestors committed theft; henoo the deity 

cursed them with a li£e of begging and stealing. 



DOM. 820 



\^ 



15. A third legend tells that onoe apon a time the gods held a 
council for the distribution of the nectar among themselves. A 
demon came and stole some of the nectar and was detected by 
Vishnu, who severed his head from his body ; but as the demon had 
eaten the nectar he had become immortal, the two pieces of his body 
became the demons, BAhu and Ketu, who periodically devour the 
moon and cause eclipses. As the Doms, who worship these demons 

f^ are able to induce them to release the moon, pious people give alms 

to this caste at eclipses in order to secure their good offices to 
release the moon. 

16. By another story Rftmchandra once blessed Supach Bhagat, 
and said that if any one were cremated with fire, received from him 
or any of his descendants he would go straight to heaven. Since 
then the descendants of Supach Bhagat supply fire at cremation 
grounds. // 

17. Lastly, a story explains the hatred of the Magahiya Doms 
for Dhobis. Supach Bhagat once put up at the house of a Dhobi 
who, when he was drunk, fed his guest on the dung of his ass* 
Supach Bhagat cursed him and his kin for ever, and since that time 
no Dom will touch an ass or a Dhobi, In the Bih&r form of the 
legend, as told by Mr. Bisley, Supach Bhagat had a quarrel with 
a Dhobi and killed and ate his ass. He subsequently cursed the 
Dhobi. Mr. Rislcy suggests that the legend may perhaps be a 
distorted version of some primitive taboo in which Dhobis and 
donkeys somehow played a part, but it is perhaps equally possible 
that the story may have been invjented to explain why the general 
Hindu taboo against the Dhobi and his ass is followed by a caste 
so little scioipulous as the Doms. 

18. The Bansphor branch of the Eastern Doms forms the sub- 

The Bansphor Doms. ^""^ '^ ^, ^^""^ ^^^'^' ^^^ *^^y need DOt be 

discussed more specially here. 

19. The Litta branch of the Doms are said to derive tbesr 

name from some word which means " wander- 

The Litta Doms. ii rm 

er. They may perhaps be connected with 
the Let sub-caste of the Bengal Bagdis, who are probably akin to 
the Doms. These people have no home and live by begging. 

20. Tlie term Domm or Domahra, which is applied to the whole 
The Domra branch of ^^^^ ^^ »•«> apparently somotimes used in 

th« Eantern Doms. the moro restricted sense as designating 
those Doms who supply fire at cremation grounds. 



321 OOM. 

21. Tlie term Jallid, which \» an Arabic term for '^a poblio 

The JaiUd or Hatyira flogger/' and Ilatyara (Sans, ki^iga, " mar- 

Doms. der '') is more specially applied to those Doms 

who arc employed in cities to kill ownerless dogs and to act aa 

public executioners. 

The DharkAr branch of ^2. The Dharkar branch of the Eastern 

the EaaUim Domi. Doms lias been treated of in a separate article. 

23. The Harchanni branch of the Eastern Doms claim their 

The Harchanni branch ^^^^ ^^'^ ^^"^^^ ^ ""^"^ ^^ Celebrated Rija 

of the Kaaurn Dome. Harischandra who, as told in oonneotion with 
the niianps, gave away all his wealth in charity and was reduced 
to become the slave of a Dom. In return for the kindness of his 
mast^^r the Raja converted the whole tribe to his religion, which 
they followed e\^r since. 

24. Writing of the Magahiyas of Oorakhpur Mr. Kennedy 

The tri».al conncil of ^Y^ '—' ^" ^^^V^^ ^ settled by the 

the fcaetem Dome. pancliavat, but the longest term of exclusion 
from the brotherhood is twelve years. During that period no 
oompanionnhip can be held with the outlaw even in a theft. Out* 
lawry in, however, redeemable by a fine and feast. The abduction 
of a Domra girl by force and the intro<luction of foreign women 
into the canip are a freipient cause of {lanchayats. I am told that 
nuinler (»f any human being or of a cow is also severely punished ; 
but thin is abiiut the boundary line of Domra morality with regard 
to outniderM. Strangers are occasionally adopted by the Magahiyaa. 
Two or tlirei> Clianiani, a Muhammadan, an Ahir, and a Teli, who 
lud turn<4 Domrafi, were lately among the inmates of the jail. It 
irt the women who chiefly attnu*t these recruits.^' Another frequent 
cau*«e of meetings of the Domra council is interference with the 
l«*ggi"g l«*At of one camp. These brats arc carefully recogniaed, 
and are nometimes given as a dowry at marriage. Any strange 
Domra wlio begs or xti-als in the beat of another is lialJe to excom* 
munii*ationy and the Domra of that lieat will have no hesitation in 
giving up to the Police a stranger of the tribe who steals within hia 
juriniliction. 

25. Among the Doms of Mirzapur the endogamoua aub-oastea 

have exogamous sections, some of which are 

territorial or tituhur, and some apparently 

totcmiHtic ; but no Dom can give even an approximately correct 

list of his sections. If he is asked all he says ia^— "The 

Vol. 11. x 



DOM. 822 

know." This rule of exogamy is reinforced by the prohibition < 
maiTiage in the family of the maternal uncle^ the father's siste 
or their own sisters, as long as there is any remembrance < 
relationship, which is nsnally about three or perhaps four genen 
tions. Polygamy is prohibited except the first wife be barren, i 
which case a man, with the previous sanction of the council, ma 
take a second wife. But there seems no restriction in regard t 
concubinage. Sahay, the &mous Dom executioner at Gorakhpui 
used to keep four women. In Mirzapur if an unmarried girl i 
detected in an intrigue with a member of the tribe, her lover ha 
to pay a fine of five rupees and a sheet to her father, and he the: 
takes her over as his recognised wife with the sanction of th 
council. They practise adult marriage, the usual age for th 
marriage of a girl being eleven or twelve. The marriage i 
arranged by the Chharidir or *' wandsman, '^ who is the assistan 
of the Chaudhari or headman. The consent of the parents is saic 
to be necessary, but runaway matches appear not to be uncommon 
The bride-price among the settled Doms of Mirzapur is five rupees 
five sen of treacle, a sheet, five lumps of tobacco, and five packeti 
of betel leaf. The persons of both bride and bridegroom arc 
cai-efully examined, and any physical defects which may subsequent- 
ly appear are not sufficient grounds for annulling the marriage 
After betrothal if the bride's friends refuse to make her over they 
are obliged to refund the bride-price, and if the man fidl tc 
perform the engagement he is severely punished by the council. 
Divorce is allowed when habitual adultery is proved to the satis- 
faction of the council, but, as a rule, only the direct evidence ol 
eye-witnesses is considered sufficient. Divorced women can marry 
again by the lower or Sagdi form. Bastard children follow the 
caste of the father ; but a man who intrigues with a woman not s 
member of the tril)e, if the union has not been recognised, must 
pay a fine of two-and-a-half rupees and give a feast of pork and 
rice to the clansmen. Widows can marry by the Ss^di form, and 
arc generally married to widowers. The bridegroom has to make 
over eight rupees and one hundi'cd cakes {pilri) to the father of the 
woman. He then gives a feast to the clansmen, in the course of 
which the relativcf* of the deceased husband come forward and claim 
the woman. Then the assembled clansmen direct the woman'i 
father to make over the compensation he has received to therelativea 
of her first husband. When this is done the man takes the woman 



828 DOM. 

home, puts rod lead on the parting of her hair and palm leaf 
ornaments (iarit) in her ears. After he does this and feeds the 
clansmen on rice and pork the marriage is considered valid. 

The levirate under the usual restrictions is admitted ; but there 
is no fiction that the children of the levir are attributed to the 
deceased brother. Adoption is, of course, unusual; but if a man 
adopts, he generally adopts the son of his brother, 

26. In Oorakhpur it appears that the bride-price is always spent 
on the marriage, and it is alleged that if either party after marriage 
become blind, crippled, or leprous, the marriage may be annulled. 

27. Among the Doms of Mirzapur the mother is attended by 

Eftitmn Domi • birth ^^^ Chamirin midwife and the ceremonies 
c^remoniM. of puriBcation common to the menial castes 

are performed. On the twelfth day after birth the hair of the baby is 
shaved to remove that last taint of the birth pollution. 1 he child 
is named by the senior man in the family a year after birth. When 
a man^B children have died in succession tlie next baby is sold to 
some one for a nominal sum ; and then is called Pachkauri, Cbha- 
kauri, ** he that was sold for five or six cowries,^' or by some other 
opprobrious epithet. In Gorakhpur the services of the Chamirin 
midwife are dispensed with on the sixth day. 

The Barahi or twelfth-day ceremony is done on the tenth day. 
The mother and child are bathed ; her hair is smeared with ver* 
milion, and tiie relatives are feasted, then a little liquor it sprinkled 
over the woman, and after that she is considered pure. 

2S. Of the Magahiyas of (Jorakhpur Mr. Kennedy writes :«• 
" The birth of a Domra is always celebrated by a sacrifice to Gan* 
dak and Samaiya. Marriages are contracted when the boy is about 
ten years old. The matter is settled by a go-between. The boy's 
father pays for the marriage feast and gives presents to the father 
of the girl; but the Iblagahiyas deny that there is any idea of 
purdiase. No religious ceremony accompanies the marriage. A 
panchiyat is assembled, a feast bekl, and the girl henceforth resides 
wiUi Wr father*in-law. A man is not restricted in the number of 
hift wivcH, and comrubinage is also permitted, but the concuUne ia 
hi»ld in somewliat lens t^steem than the wife. A woman is apiiareni- 
ly all«>witl to leave lu*r huslsmd and transfer herself to another; 
but in tliat ease Uie liecomes a concubine. The pau(*hayat will not 
restore a wife wlio lias devain])eil, but they will give Lack any pro* 

perty slie Um'Il away. The frequent reudence of the Magahiyaa in 
Vol. 1L x S 



DOM. 324 

jail often obliges women to transfer themselves to other husbands 
for support, and makes polygamy advantageons. Polyandry is 
unknown/' 

29. In Mirzapur the maniage is arranged by the sisteHs hus- 
Mo^^o^n nnrnm««;«. ^^^ ^^ ^^^ boy^s fatheF. The betrothal 
Eastern Domg. (barrekhi) is done in the usual way by the 

interchange of two leaf platters full of liquor, into one of which the 
boy's father puts a couple of rupees, which he passes on to the 
representative of the bride. They have the ordinary maimangara 
ceremony, with the difference that the lucky earth brought from 
the village claypit is used for constructing a large fireplace with a 
single opening on which the women of the family cook a mess of 
rice and pulse, which is placed on a leaf mat in the place where the 
marriage is performed. This is un offering to the Manes, and the 
phrase used is piir eharhdna. The usual anointing of bride and 
bridegroom follows, which is begun by the two fathers, who sprinkle 
a little turmeric and oil on the ground and invc^e the sainted dead 
to assist them in bringing the marriage to a successful conclusioa. 
It is a peculiainty of the tribe that both men and women join in the 
marriage procession. No Brahman is employed. The boy's father 
repeats the names of his ancestors for five generations, and the 
father of the bride does the same for her. Then the pair are seated 
close together on a mat made of leaves. The husband of the sister 
of the bride's father drops water on her hands and says :— " Bar 
kau^a chiranjiva ra^en" — ^'May the bride and bridegroom live 
long/' This is done five times. The prominent part taken by the 
sister's husband is possibly a survival of the matriarchate. Then 
the garments of the pair are knotted together, and they walk round 
a branch of the cotton tree (semal), planted in the middle of the 
company, five times. After this the boy puts red lead on the part- 
ing of the bride's hair, and this constitutes the binding part of the 
ceremony. Tliey then go into a retiring room {iokabar) or behind 
some bubhes close by, and there a good deal of coarse merriment 
goes on — an obvious survival of the habit of immediate eonsom* 
mation of the marriage. Besides this, the respectable form of 
marriage among the settled Doms, which is known as ekarkanwrn^ 
there is another form called gurdwat, where two persons exchange 
bibters, and a still lower form of the dola type, where the girl is 
nuTcly taken by her father to the house of her husband and lives 
with him at his wife. after a dinner has been given to the brethren. 



325 DOlf. 

The temporary connectionB of women whose husbands are in jail 
with other men are also fully reco^ised. In addition to this 
almost any kind of runaway match is allowed ; in fact it would be 
hard to say what form of sexual intercourse is not recognised as a 
niarriaf2:e. 

30. "Accordinjj^ to Dr. Wise it is universally believed in 

Death coromonies : ^"^' ^^^^ ^^^^ ^^ ^^^ ^"^" "^^ ^^^ ^^^^ 

t:A«u«ni Domt. dead, but dismember the corpse at night, 

like the inhabitants of Tibet, placing the pieces in a pot and sink- 
ing them in the nearest river or reservoir. This horrid idea pro- 
bably arose from the old Hindu law which compelled the Doms to 
bury their dead at night."' This idea does not seem to prevail in 
thet« Provinces. The Doms appear to have no settleil usage as 
reganls the di6|K)iHal of the corpse. Those who are fairly well off 
i'remate the (H)rp»ie, but unlike Ilindns, take with them from the 
house the tire which is applieil to the pyre. The poorer and 
\*agrant Doms either bury, or sometimes cremate in a very rude 
and perfunctory way, or, when it is more convenient, throw the 
cor))^ into running water. Bodies of unmarried children are 
always thrown into a river or buried. The Magahiya Doms of 
(forukhpur often leave the Uxly in the jungle. Among the settleil 
Doms of Mirzajnir after a cremation they return to the house of 
tho deceabC^I, light a little oil in the courtyard and warm their 
feet in the smoke, the object apparently being to bar the return of 
the ghoht. Some of them, once the corpse is burnt, do not take 
anv trouble about the a»>hes, but leave them where the cremation 
t4N)k pla(*e. (Hliers who are more si*rupulous collect them on the 
third day and throw them into a neighbouring streanu Then they 
fix ui>on the bank a few bhules of grass as a refuge for the wander- 
ing hpirit, on which a httle water is poured daily. Others lay out 
a little platter of ftMxl for the use of the departed during the days 
of mourning. On the tenth day they assemble at a tank, shave 
themselves, bathe*, and offer three IaIIs {pimtia) of flour. At these 
ceremonies tlie sister's husbantl of tlie chief mourner officiates aa 
)»ri(>ht. This freems to be another surA'ival «)f the matriarrluite. 
The Mime rule applies in the Bihar branch of the tribe : — ** The ton 
of a di*«*c3u<ed man's sixter or of his female (*oasin otIUnates as priest 
at his funeral and rci*ites approjtriate texts {mantra) receiving a fee 



* Rialtfj. Tfiiti ^nd (affri. I. 2IS. 



DOM. 326 

for his services when the inheritance comes to be divided. Some 
Doms, indeed, assured me that the sister's son used formerly to 
get a shai'e of the proi)erty, and that this rule had only recently 
fallen into disuse ; but their statements did not seem to be definite 
enough to carry entire conviction, and I have met with no corrobo- 
rative evidence bearing on the point. So also in marriage the 
sister's son or occasionally the sister {sudiiu) repeats mantras and 
acts generally as priest . Failing either of these the head of the house- 
hold officiates. No other indications of an extinct custom of 
female kinship appear to exist, and the fact that in Western Bengal 
the eldest son gets an extra share on the division of an inheritaDce 
seems to show that kinship by males must have been in force for a 
very long time past/'^ 

31. The religious practices of the tribe vary with the social 

status of the sub-castes, and there is no 

Baliffion : Eastern Dome. , -t t , <» i* i ^i 

standard type of worship because they are 
not controlled by BrS-hmans. Of the Magahiya Doms of Gorakh- 
pur Mr. Kennedy writes : — '^ The Magahiya Domras have two 
special divinities of their own ; the chief is Gandak, whose grave is 
to be found at Karmaini Garhi, two days' journey to the east of 
Motihari, in Bengal. According to their traditions Grandak was 
hanged for theft a long time ago, and when dying he promised 
always to help the Magahiyas in trouble. He is worshipped by 
the whole tribe and is invoked on all important occasions ; but he 
is pre-eminently the patron god of thefts. A successful theft is 
always celebrated by a sacrifice and feast in his honour. They 
also worship Samaiya, a female divinity. She is without any spe- 
cial histoiy, and there is no sharp distinction between her sphere 
and Gandak's. Her functions apparently relate chiefly to birth 
and illness, etc. 

82. '' The Magahiyas sacrifice young pigs and wine with sugar 
and spices to these two deities. Every Magahiya is capable of per- 
forming the sacrifice, and the remains are divided among the com- 
pany, when a vow is made to Samaiya, e.g., on the birth of a child 
or when it is teething, or on the occasion of an illness a special 
pig is chosen and devoted to her, and is sacrificed in the fulfilment 
of the vow. The Magahiyas have neither altars nor idols^ nor do 
they erect any platform {chabutra) for worship, A spot is cleared 



* Bislev, loc eii. 



827 Dox. 

and plastered in the middle of a field, and tlie sacrifice is then 
offered. 

^S, ''The Magahiyas naturally believe in ghosts and spirits. 
When a man dies, my informant told me, he turns into an evil 
spirit ($kaif(fu). The godlings (deoia) also, he added, were innu- 
merable. In most villages of this district there is a special ahar 
for all the local ghosts and deities, which may reside within the 
vilhige boundaries, and the Magahiyas are always ready to share in 
the sacrifices of the villagers to them. They also reverence trees 
and platforms consecrated by Hindus in passing, but pay no further 
homa^. They acknowledge the village K&li and sometimes sacri- 
fice to her ; but the sacrifices do not differ from those of the Hindus. 
They do not acknowledge Mahade\'a or any other divinity, but they 
share the general Hindu belief in Parameswar, the giver and 
deiitroyer of life and the author of good and evil. He created the 
MagahiyaB, they say, and ordered them to be filth and outcasts 
among the Hindus. They somehow resort to a Brahman for the 
rcaiUng of the Vedas (is/ia). My informant had given a imiim 
in this way on the last occasion of his release from jail. In these 
cases the Magahiyas go to the Brahman's house, but I could not 
find any other trace of special reverence for the Brihmans, nor 
have they any necessity for them. '* 

34. In Mirttpur Doms of the betttf class worship Bhawfini, to 
whom at the Nauritra of Chait they make an offering of hogs, 
cakes (/>«Vi), gruel {iapst), and wreaths of flowers. The BhawAni, if 
appeased, keeps off illness from her votaries. They have a vague 
idea of an all-powerful deity, Parameswar, who punishes the guilty, 
and of a hell, but what it is and how sinners are punished thej 
know not. The scavenger Doms, like the JalUd, have a special 
female deity called Kukarmari, " the killer of dogs," to whom a 
sacrifice of a young pig and some spirits is offered ouUide the 
village as a propitiation for the death of these animals. In the 
mme way when a Dom hangman is tying the rope round the nedc 
of a criminal, he shouts out Doidi MmkdrAni, Dokdi Sartdr^ 
Doidi Judge Smkih. " Help O great Queen ! Help O Government I 
Help Mr. Judge I" in order to free himself from any guilt attaching 
to the death. They woriiiip the collective \iic9A gods {deokdr) at 
marriagen ; but the wandering, vagrant habits of the tribe prevent 
th*m |K«seftsing any real respect for the vilUge deities. Women 
have no wornhip special to themselves. On the hu^t dav of the first 



DOM. 828 

foiiinight of Kuir they make ten lumps {pinda) of flour and throw 
them into a river, and when they come home they put some 
cakes and sweetened rice on a leaf-platter^ and lay it in a field to 
propitiate the dead. Some fast on Sunday in the name of the 
Sun god Suraj Narayan, but these practises prevail only among 
the more Hinduised Doms in the neighbourhood of towns. 

35. In Gorakhpur, besides the worship described above, they 
also venerate their Guru who is said to have had his head-quarters 
at Bhojpur, in the Ballia District, and to his shrine they make 
occasional pilgrimages and make an offering of a pig at least four 
years old, wine, and flowers. To a goddess named Juthaiya 
Bhawani, of whose functions they can give no account, they offer 
a young pig and some red lead, with a lock. of thdr hair^ a fore- 
head spangle, and a cake of flour boiled with pulse. 

36. Their demonology is much of the usual type common to 
^ , the lower castes by whom they are surround- 

ed. They believe that trees are mhaUted 
by evil spirits, and unless they bow down to trees of this kind, their 
ghosts revenge themselves by bringing disease and death upon 
them. To such malignant ghosts they offer a young pig, which is 
eaten by the worshippers. In Mirzapur the chief Dom festi^'als 
are the Kajari and Phagua or Holi. At the Kajari in the month 
of Sawan they get dinink, dance, and sing. It is the regular 
woman^s saturnalia, and on this occasion gross sexual license is 
tolerated. At the Phagua or Holi the same is the case. In 
Gorakhpur, besides the Holi, they observe the Jiutiya on the eighth 
of the dark half of Kuar, and the Khichari on the day the sun enters 
the sign of Makar. On the Jiutiya the women fast in order to 
ensuie long life to their husbands, and the Khichari they beg boiled 
rice and pulse from door to door. 

37. The Eastern Doms are particularly afraid of the ghosts of 
drowned people who are called Burna [bUrna " to be drowned"). 
These malignant ghosts drag under the water and drown boys 
who bathe in tanks and rivers infested by them.^ Fields are in 
charge of Mari Masan, the deity wliich haunts cremation grounds, 
and Kukarmari, the dog goddess, already mentioned. They are 
ever in dread of the ghosts of the dead, which torment them in 
dreams if not propitiate<l with an annual sacrifice. If neglected 



> On thi» BOO Tylor, Primitive CuUurt, I 109. 



329 DOM. 

they appear in their ori^nal shapes and demand a sacrifice. 
Women are tattooed on the arms, wrists, breasts, and cheeks. If a 
woman not tattooed attempt to enter heaven the gate-keeper of 
Paramebwar pitches her down to the earth a(^n. They have the 
usual omens of nu'eting. Many of their women, as in the case of 
all solitary and uncanny races such as they are, are said to practise 
witchcraft. One way such persons acquire influence over a man 
is by throwinpf a cowry shell at him. They, believe firmly in the 
Evil Eye. When children have been overlooked and pine away, the 
cure is to wave some garlic and pep))er pods round the child's heaul 
on a Tuesday or Sunday, and then to throw them into the fire. 
The evil influence is supposed to {)ass away with the filthy smoke. 
88. The occupation and social posit i(m of the Eastern Domii 

ocrnpation. an.: iocw ^^^^^ ^^"^^ according to the sub-castes, 
^ajon of the EMiern Que duty of the ordinary Dom is to supply 

fire for cremation.\^Ir. Sherring^ <lescribes 

the custom at Benares as follows :— '' On the arrival of the 

dead hoAy at the place of cremation, which in Benares is at the 

bai$e of one of the steep stairs {gitU) called the Burning Ghit^ 

leading down from the streets above to the be<l of the River Ganges, 

the Dom supplies five l«>gs of woo<l, which he lays in order upon 

the ground, the rest of the wikkI being given by the family of 

the decreased. Wlien the pile is rea<ly for burning, a handful of 

lighted fire is brought by the Dom, and applied by one of the chief 

members of the family to the wood, llie Dom is the only person 

who can furnish the light for this purpose ; and if, from any dr* 

cumstance, the services of one cannot be obtained, great de^ay and 

incf>uvenicnce are apt to occur. The Dom exacts his fee for three 

things, namely, firi»t, fur the five k>gs, secondly, for the Imncb of 

straw, and thirdly, for the light.^' There is no fixed fee, and as 

the Dom naturally makes tlie best of his position and raiiics hit 

denuinds according to the position and wealth of his custoniera, 

this class of Dom, who is known as Kai^hiwala or '* he of Beiuiros," 

has a bail reputation fur insolence and ext4»rtion. . 

59. From his business and enrironment the Dom is, of course, 

regarded by all re»|iectable Hindus with a)ntempt, fear, and abhor* 

enoe. No one will touch food or water from his hands. The 

M agahiya Dom of Uorakhpur will eat anytliing exi'ept the fleiih 

I U%Hdm TriUt mmd <*«•!««. 1. lei. 



DOM. 330 

of the monkey, serpenty and lizard. Mr. Kennedy says that they 
eat most things, including carrion ; but certain animals, beasts 
of prey, cats, and dogs, etc., they will not eat. In Mirzapor I 
have seen them squabbling over the carcass of a dead horse in an 
obvions condition of advanced decomposition. They are always on 
the look out for tiger flesh, but they say that they stew it down 
more than once, as it is very heating. They will, as already stated, 
refuse the leavings of a Dhobi, and to this the more settled Dome 
of Mirzapur add those of the Hela, Masahar, and Cham&r. Doma 
who have adopted more cleanly occupations than their vagrant and 
scavenger brethren, such as basket-making, are naturally beooming 
more Hinduised and more careful in matters of diet. Those Doms 
who have settled down, like the BAnspbor and the Dharkftr, to 
working in cane, and the Jall&d to scavenging and acting as public 
executioners, are fairly respectable, industrious people. Those who 
work in cane use a peculiar curved knife known as bdnii. They 
make fans {6ena), baskets, (//a»ft),boxcs {petdrd), scales (tardzu), 
winnowing fans (<i^;)),lampstands (^f^vo^), irrigation baskets {dala), 
and betel boxes (belhara). These workers in cane are known in 
cities by the Persian title of Bedb&f ^ (Pers. bed, " cane ; " bdfian 
" to weave ''). They split the cane into eight strips (tdr), with an 
instrument (taraunihi) like a lemon-slicer. The outside outtingshe 
sells to bakers for making the mould {tdnehd) used for applying 
cakes to the walls of the ovens. The Bedbftf weaves the backs and 
seats of chairs and makes baskets, etc. The B&nsphor makes baa- 
kets, but works only in bamboo. He splits the bamboo into stripe 
{pat to) y which are soaked and woven into baskets. The allied people 
known as Eori Chhapparband make door-screens {ekiq, imiti) and 
thatches (ehhappar). They work in bamboos and the reed grass 
known as Mentha (saecharum iara). The Parchhatti and Oudariya 
make stools {mondha), and the Dhark&r fine furniture, fine door- 
screens, baskets, fans, etc., from bamboo, but he works in bamboo 
and they in reed. 

40. Of the Gk)rakhpur Magahiyas Mr. Kennedy writes :— "They 
eat cow's flesh readily, but they will not kill the cow. They also 
offer milk, like Hindus, to snakes at the Nigpanchami, but have 
no reverence for tigers or other animals. They express some 
reverence for the great rivers, Ganga and N&r&yani, etc. This, I 



For A good aooouDt of tbia indoBtry, see Hoey. Uonogto^^h on Tradef , 78. 



SSI DOM. 

tliink, nearly marks the extent to which they have been HindoiBed. 
The pipal is the only eacred tree, and no Magahiya will pluck its 
leaves. They hold this snperiitition so firmly that I «uf>pect it is 
alioriginal. No reverence is paid to the banyan or any other sacred 
Hindu tree or plant. They have a special superstition about iron, 
and will not use it for certain purposes. A Magahiya who com- 
mits burglary with an iron instrument will not only be excluded 
from the brotherhood, but his eyes will some day start out of his 
head. Their most solemn oath is celebrated after the following 
fashion : A piece of ground is cleared and plastered as if for sacrifioe. 
A piece of iron, a dish of water, some leaves of the pipal, and a parti- 
cular kind of Tarii grass with some lighted charcoal are all put 
separately on the ground. On the top a pice is placed, and the oath 
is taken over it. An oath by the Dhobi is also particularly 
binding.^' 

Other oaths of the Eastern Doms are on the altar of the deities 
they worship, on a pipal leaf, on a knife stuck in the ground, with 
tlie tingers of the right hand resting on a vessel full of spirits^ or 
with some cow-dung fixed on the horn of a dead cow. They use 
none of the ordinary forms of salutation, but simply join their 
hands as a mark of respect. * 

41. The Doms of Kumaun have been thought to be akin to 

Th«Do».oeth.Hi«ii^ *^* aboriginal Rijis ; but the latter repu- 
>*J^ diate the idea and profess the very greatest 

contempt for the Doms ; so that if one of that class enter the 
dwelling of a Raji, the place must be purified with water brought 
from twentytwo different sources. They arc supposed to be 
the relics of the original inhabitants of the country, correspond* 
ing t<> the Dhiyar or ore^melters of Jammu, the Batal of the 
KaiJimir Valley, the Bern of LadAkh, the Newir of XqiAI. In 
Uarhwil they appear to have been enslaved by the immigrant 
Kliasiyas. Under the name of DAm they are described in 
Jammu^ as " dark in colour, small in limb, and their oounteii* 
ance is of a much lower tyfte than that of the Dogras generally, 
though one sees exceptions, due no doubt to an admixture of 
blood, for, curiously, tlie separation of them from the daily hCe of 
the others does not prevent an occasional intercourse that tends in 
some degree to assimilate the races.'' In the Himalayan Die- 



I Dnw's/ 



DOM. 332 

tricts of these Provinces the Dom has been recognised as a desoend* 
ant of the Dasyus of the Veda, who are supposed to have held 
Upper India before the advent of the Njlga or Khasa race. 

42. The complete Census Returns show as the main sections of 

Snb-castoB of the ^^^ ^ill Doms the Auji, Badhai, Bera, 
Himalayan Dome. Baioda, Chamar, Chunara, Darzi, Das, 
Dhaki, Dhobi, Dholi, Dhunar, Eamar, Koli, Lobar, Mochi, N&th, 
Pahariya, Sahiya, Tamoli, Tamta, and Tell, most of which are 
occupational. In Garhwal, according to Mr. Atkinson,^ they 
are divided in popular estimation into four classes. To the first 
belong the Kolis, Tamotas, Lobars, Orbs, and DhS,rhi8. The Eolis 
weave cloth, keep pigs and fowls, and are agrieultui*al labourers. 
The Tamotas or Tamtas represent the Thatberas of the plains^ and 
are workers in brass and copper. The Lobars are workers in iron. 
'1 he Orbs comprise both masons and carpenters. Dharbis, though 
socially ranked with Doms, do not belong to them, for they proper- 
ly include only those Khasiyas who have been put out of caste for 
some offence, and their offspring form a new caste with the addi- 
tion of the fresh avocation. To the second class belong the Bbdls, 
Chunyars, Ruriyas, Agaris, and Pahris. The Bhftls represent the 
Telis of the plains, but also do field work. They are also called 
Baryas. The Chunyaras are turners, and make wooden vessels 
and the bottoms of huqqas. The Ruriyas make various kinds of 
bamboo baskets and sieves. The Agaris are iron smelters, and 
must be carefully discriminated from the Dravidian Agariyas of 
Mirzapur. They are Doms attached to the service of the mines by 
the former Rajas, but are gradually exchanging a very ill-paid 
and dangerous avocation for that of road-making and other pro- 
fitable work. The Pahris are village messengers, and are the same 
as the Chamar village watchmen of the plains. To the third class 
belong the Mallahs, Daryas, and Chamars. The Mallfths are also 
called Dhunars, and are for the most part engaged in agriculture. 
The Darj'as are village sorcerers, and conjure away hailstorms 
and the like, for which service they receive annual dues of grain. 
The Chamgirs call themselves Bairsawa, and will never acknow* * 
ledge the name of Chamar. They sew leather and perform all 
the usual service duties of the Dom. 



* Himalayan Qatetteer, III, 277, tq. 



333 DOM. 

4-). Tlie fourth class iiirludt^ the iirofctiHional lM^(i:arrt and 
vaf2:raiit muKU'iaiiH of the Hills— the Badi, Ilurkiya, Darzi, and 
Dholi. The Badi is the villa^> miiKieian ; id the ]>lainH he is ooiisi* 
dennl to be a Nat. He plays on various instruments and sin^s at 
festivals. He pvs from villa^ to tillage bcf^pufir f>'om door to 
<loor, and bel(»np:s to the class of sturdy liegf^s who, if they do 
not ^*t wliat they ex|)eirt, lampoon the people of the house and 
abusi' Uk^m* For these n^asons tliey are, to some exti*nt, fearttl, and 
are able to maintain themselves at the expense of their neighlxmrs. 
They also snare fowl and lish. The Hurkiya are so emlleil from 
the small double drum {iHruk^ imrnka) shaped like an honrglamr 
whieh he carries. This is an archaic musicd instrument like the 
damarn^ which is one of Siva's emblems. They never tike to 
apT'iculture, and wander ab»ut with tiieir women, who dance and 
sing. The Darzi, also called Auji and Suji, Uvea by tailoring, 
though often solely by agriculture. To the Darzi ckss bek>ngs 
the Dlioli so enlled f^>m beating the drum (dkoUk). Tliis is done 
by way of incantAtion to cauM* sprites and ghosta to enter or leave 
the pen«on of any one, and so induce tliat person to give mi»ney in 
the pt^rformer. The IWya, liadi, Hurkiya, and Dh^H are all 
Doms, and *' arc in tlu; hills the recognised priests of the malig- 
nant spirits of the hill and glen, whose aiil is always sought 
lifter l)efi»rc an>'tliini? serious is undei taken or any ditricult task 
ih attempte<l. It is the Doms who preserve to tlie present day the 
pure demonism of the aborigines, while the Kha^i^as te*npor it 
with the worship of the village deities, the named and hKadiard 
divine «*ntitics, and furnish from their ranks the prieatn. M«iit uf 
the Karliais belong totheOrh division of the D<»ms, and the Chuiia* 
par. or liine-buniers lielong to the Agari and Lobar branchea of 
the Doms. Finally there is a claaa known as Uomj(»gi, whi> are 
l>eggars. The p<irtion of the village site asaig^ed to Doms is in 
the hills known as Domaura or D«mt4»la, like tl>e Chamrauti 
where the Cliamars of the pUins congregate/' 

\\, Meet of the»e divisions of the Docs of the hilla are 
thus purely occu|mtional, and, as might have been ^xiNH*t*d, tiie 
enumeration vari^. Thus l^dit Juala Dat Jo»hi writing of 
the Doms of Kumaun says that D(»ms usually d* not use the 
t«rm Dom in siicaking of themselves, Imt call themaelvea Itain*- 
wa, or Tallijati or Baharjati, '* outcasts,'' or tbey call themaelvas 
l>y their c€cu{iation Orb, Liobar, and fo on. lie cnumeratea the 



DOM. 331 

KumauQ Doms under the heads of.Sarki Dotiw&la^ who work in 
leather; Tamta^ workers in brass; Lohftr, workers in iron; Qrh 
and Barele masons; Tima, who do tinning and making of horse 
shoes ; Bhul, oilmen ; Mochi^ workers in leather ; Koli^ cloth- 
weavers ; Bamri^ makers of bamboo baskets^ Dhnni, Dhoni Dom^ 
and ordinary Doms who are said to be a mixed race of men from 
the plains and ordinary Hill Doms who work as ploo^men 
and day labourers ; Dholi^ who play on drums at festivals ; Hurkiyay 
who play and sing and prostitute their women; Cham&r^ who 
skin animals ; Bidi, who play on drums and work as tailors. He 
^adds that the reason of the increase of this caste is that they admit 
outcasts from the superior tribes. The Baura are separate from 
the Dom^ and say that they were originally J&ts. 

According to the same authority, the Orh^ Tamta, Loh&r^ Bird, 
Bhiil, Tinia, Mochi, Dhuni, Koli, and Bftruri are exogamous, but 
as they advance in wealth, they show a tendency to break up into 
endogamous groups. The Cham&r, Dholi, B&di, and Hurkiya are 
endogamous, and will eat kaehchi and pakki only from members 
of their own sub-caste. Their rule of exogamy is simply that 
the recognised descendants of one common ancestor will not 
intermarry. Some of them, as they are becoming more Hinduised, 
have adopted the rule of not intermarrying within five generations 
on the side of the mother and seven on the side of the father. They 
can marry as many wives as they please, of whom the youngest 
and best-looking is regarded as head. He says that the Doms 
do not prostitute their women before marriage; but that among 
the Bhotiyas it used to be the habit for young men and girls to 
meet in a special house in the village, where, after drinking, each 
youth selected a girl and cohabited with her in^perfect freedom. 
The custom is now disappearing. We have here a good example of 
that form of promiscuity before marriage, of which Dr. Westermarck 
has collected numerous instances.^ 

46. Girls, he goes on to i^ay, are married between the age of 
eight or ten. When the parties are of that age, their relativee ar- 
range the marriage for them ; but when a girl has passed the age of 
puberty she may choose a husband for herself. There are two 
recognised forms of marriage, the superior, in*which the father of 
the bride gives her away with a dowry, and the less respectable 



• History of Human Marriage, 14. 



335 DOMC. 

form in which the relatives of the bridegroom pay one-third of 
the expenses of the marriage. 

47. Tbi*y put away a woman when she is attacked with leprosy, 
becomes a lunatic or loses caste. A divorced woman, provided she 
basnet \ieeu divorced on account of disease, may be taken on as a 
concubine, but she cannot be married again by any of the regular 
forms. The levirate and widow*marriage are recognised, and the 
chiklren of a widow regularly married and of a widow rank equally; 
but the children of a concubine hold a k>wer rank, as they cannot 
join in the worship of deceased ancestors. A{widow taken over by a 
man is known as rakkmi^ and it is said to be the custom for widows 
not to live with a man unless they have no one to support them. 

4S. When a woman comes to the seventh month of pregnancy 

Dnm..tic refmonie. : "^ ^ forbidden to Cook for her family or to 
HiiDAUyMi Doms. perform the domentio worship. When the 
child is bom, a lump of coarse sugar is distributed to those present ; 
the child is bathed, and red powder (roti) applied to its head and to 
tliat of the mother and all the women of the house. For eleven 
days the male members of the family are considered impure. In 
tiie case of the birth of twins, they perform a propitiatory ceremony. 

49. Tlie marriage ceremony is in the form usual among the 
lowor <*ajiti'A. No Brahman officiates, and his place is taken by the 
liitUT^H tuin who receives a fe«» for his ser^-ices. The binding |K>rtion 
of the ceremony is the feeding of the brethren* 

50. Th(*y burn their dead and dispose of the ashes into a 
m'ighbuuring stream. In this case also the sister's son or the son- 
in-law of the dead man officiates and is given a loin cloth and some 
money. The d4«ith impurity lasts fc»r eWvcn days. At her first 
mcnstruatii»n a girl is im{mre for eleven days, and only for four 
days at each suliM*quent occurrence of the meawa. 

&I. According to Mr. Atkinson,' '* Uuir montane ami non-Brih* 
R«liirinti of %h. Him*, vummvwl origin is suffi<Mrtitly shown by the 
Ujao Duma. namcs of the deiti4>s worshippetl by them— 

(langauaUi, UlMiUnatli, Massn, KhabiMh.Cioril, Kshetrpal, Saim, Airi 
Kailtihht nr Kaluwa, Cliaumu, Badhan. lUru, Latn, Bheliya. the 
(katyuri Uajas, Kuniya, IVaWhan* KaWhan, Hhausi, Chburmal. 
(ian^atiith is tlie fmvuurite deity of the IXims and his origin is thns 
ac<*<»unt4tl for. Tlie son of Bhalsohand, Kija of Duii, quarrelled 



DOM. 336 

with his family and became a religious mendicant. In the course of 
his wanderings he arrived at Adoli, a village in Patti S&lam, and 
there saw and fell in love with the wife of one Krishna Joshi. This 
Joshi was a servant at Almora, and the Jogi disguised himself and 
took service in the house in which the woman lived. When Krishna 
heard of the intrigue, he set out for Adoli, and, with the aid of one 
Jhaparna Lohar, murdered his wife and her lover. like BholanSth 
and his companions, the Jogi, his mistress, and the unborn child 
became gobUns and vexed the people so that they built a temple and 
instituted a regular service in honour of the three sprites. From 
Adoli the cult of Ganganath spread over Kumaun, and at Taknriya 
Lwali and Narai in his home patti we have temples in his honour. 
.He is supposed especially to harass the young and beautiful, if they 
do not propitiate him. When any one is aggrieved by the wicked 
or poweiiul, he goes to Ganganath for aid, who invariably punishes 
the evil-doer. He sometimes possesses a follower, and through him 
promises all that they desire to those who offer the following arti- 
cles — to Ganganath himself a kid, cakes, sweetmeats, beads, a bag 
and a pair of Jogi^s ear rings ; to his mistress Bhana, a petticoat, a 
sheet, and a nose ring; and to the child a coat and amulets — altoge- 
ther forming a fair spoil to the Ghantuwa or astrologer who con- 
ducts the ceremonies. 

52. " The current legend regarding the origin of the local ddty 
Bholanath and his consort Barhini forms one of the connecting 
links between the Brahmanical system of the present day and the 
universal hierarchy of sprites and goblins common to all moun- 
tainous countries. With the better classes Bholanath is recogniEed 
as a form of Mahadeva, and Barhini as a form of his Sakti,^ thus 
meeting the requirements of the popular worship and the demands 
of the orthodox school, but it is evident that the idea of deifying 
mortals is an old one, and in this case merely localised to explain 
the orispn of a class of temples which are acknowledged not to belong 
to the orthodox fonns of Mahadeva, One story tells us how Uday 
Chand, Raja of Almora, had two queens, each of whom bore him a 
bon. When the children arrived at man's estate, the elder of the 
two took to evil courses and was disinherited and left Kumaun. 
The younf]^r in course of time succeeded his father as Gyfin Cfaand* 
and his administration gave great satisfaction and relief to the 



I On thin ace Monior Williama, Brahmanitm and Hinduism, 180, tqq. 



337 BOM. 

people. Oydn Chand had been some years on the throne when 
his elder brother returned to Almora, and took up his quarter* 
there in the guise of a religious mendicant. In spite of his dis* 
guise several recognised the disinherited prince, and oonTeyed the 
news of his arrival to his brother Oyin Chand. He became 
alarmed and gave orders for the assassination of his brother whieh 
was carried out by a man of the Bariya or gardener caste. The 
elder prince and his pregnant mistress were both slain near the tern* 
pie of Sitaki Devi. The mistress was the wife of a Brihman, and 
her connection with the Chand prince was considered something 
more than adulterous. After death the elder brother became a 
biii. A small iron trident is sometimes placed in the comer of 
a cottage as an emblem of BholanAth, and is usually resorted to 
when any sudden or unexpected calamity attacks the inmates. 

53. "The demon Mai4n is usually found at burning grounds. 
He is supposed to be of black colour and hideous appearance. He 
comes from the remains of a funeral pyre and chases people passing 
by who sometimes die of fright, others linger for a few days and 
some even go mad. When a pcrvon becomes possessed by Matin, 
the people invoke the beneficent spirit of the house to come and 
take possession of some member of the family, and all begin to 
dance* At length some one works himself into a state of frenzy 
and commences to torture an<l belabour the body of the person 
possessed by Masin, until at length a cure is effected or the patient 
perishes under this drastic treatment. 

54. " Khabish resembles MasIn m his malignant nature and 
fondness for chamel grounds. He is also met with in dark glens 
and forests in various shapes. Sometimes he imitates the bellow of 
a buffalo, or the cry of a goat«berd or neat-herdt and sometimes 
he grunts like a wild pig. At other times he assumes the guise 
of a religious mendicant and joins traveUers on their way, but his 
conversation (like that of all the Indian |itfl# who speak through 
their nose) is always unintelligible. Like MasAn he often frightens 
people and sometimos possesses unfortunate travellers who get 
benighted.'* 

55. (tnril, (toriya, Gwel, Owill or Ool is another doified mortal 
of wh<»m the legend is given by Mr. Atkinson* He was beatea 
out of Garhwal by Sudarsan S4h. The idea thai a lis'l can be 
driven out by beating is embodied in two wolNknown Hindi pro- 
verbs— ifir i/ //# HA kUftm iei, '' A thrashing makes % Uii 

Vol. 1L t 



DOM. 3^ 

run;^^ and Ldton JcS hhut bdton senahin mdni/, ''Gh>blms tbat 
want kicking won't mind words*" , 

56. Khetrpal is the same as Bhvimiya^ the protector of iGeld and 
homestead, extensively worshipped in the western districts. Saim 
or Sayam^ ^^the black one (Sans, ihydma) is another form of the 
same deity. He sometimes possesses people^ and his sign is that 
the hair of the scalp-lock becomes hopelessly entangled. 

57. Kalbisht or Kaluwa is said to have been a neat-herd who 
lived some two hundred years ago. His toemies persuaded his 
brother-in-law Himmat to drive a peg into the hoof of one of 
Kalibisht's buffaloes^ intending that he should be killed in attempt- 
ing to extract it, but no harm ensued. Himmat next attacked him 
from behind with an axe, and so woxmded him on the neck that he 
died, but not before he had torn the treacherous Himmat limb from 
limb. He has now become a benevolent sprite, and his name is 
used by herdsmen as a charm against wild beasts, and oppressed 
persons resort to his temple for justice against their oppressors. 

58. Chaumu is also a deified mortal and a god of cattle; so 
is Badhan. On the eleventh day after the birth of a calf his linga 
is washed first with water and then milk and cakes, rice and milk are 
offered at his temples. Haru is the deified Haris Chandra, Rija of 
Champawat who built the sacred bathing place at Hardwar. Lata 
was his brother. The Katyuri R&jas are the defied last independent 
Rajas of Katyiir. R&niya is a malignant bhut who wanders from 
village to village on coursers formed of huge boulders, and at night 
especially exercises his noisy steeds. He attacks only females, 
and should any woman attract his attentions she invariably wastes 
away, haunted by her ghostly lover and joins him in the spirit land. 
BcLlclian, Kalchan, Bhasni, and Chhurmal are malignant hkdU of 
the same l^ind. 

59. To quote again Mr. Atkinson's excellent account of this 
_ ,. . ^ . , caste—" Doms do not wear the sacred tiiread 

Kelifir^ons and social 

oustoms of the Uimaiay or the bracelet [rdkhi) nor do they have 



^ ' marks or wear, as a rule, the top-knot {%ikka) 

and in a rough way they imitate the customs of the better classes, 
especially those who have made money in their contracts with 
Government. Their offerings to deceased ancestors (irdddha) 
when made at all, are performed at the Am&was or last day of the 
Kanyagat of Kuar. The sistei^s son, younger sister^s husband or 
sun-in-law act as Br&hnians on the occasion and receive gifts ma 



830 DOM. 

such. Dome eat the flesh of all animals, use their skins, and eat food 
{rem all classes except the Bliangi, Mnsalm&n, and Christian* 
There is no fixed time for marriage. When an elder brother diee 
the younger takes the widow to wife whether (he has children or 
not ; hence the proverb Mat Mr adkari ber, taUi ekir men onekki 
'* When the upjier walb fall they come on the lower wall/' When 
the elder brother dies, the burden falls upon the younfi^r. The 
elder brother cannot, however, take to wife the widow of a deceased 
younger brother, and contracts a fctain if even her shadow crosses 
his path« lie transfers her to some other of the brotherhood, 
but if during the lifetime of her second husband he or she be 
dissatisfied, another may take her by paying the cost of her mar- 
riage. This may be repeated several timet. The prohibited degrees 
are only a daughter, sii»ter, uncle, aunt^ brother, and these thej 
cannot eat or smoke with.'' 

60. To this may be added from the notes of Pandit Juila Dat 
Joshi that their greatest oath is to place the hand on the head of 
their son ; others say : '^ If I swear falsely may I eat your flesh.'' 
They also swear by placing their hands on the grain mortar (oli/t), 
flour mill (ckakki,) or on a bell. When there is a dispute about 
boundaries they write a curse (Issifa) on a piece of paper and 
holding it on the head of a son recite the words which run as 
follows—" If the land in dispute be mine may I and my children 
enj(»y it, if it be not mine may Parameswar prevent me from en* 
joying it." They believe in the Evil Kye and remove it by waving 
sonie mustard over the patient ami then burning it near him in a 
pan. They fully believe in the demoniacal theory of disease^ and 
patients are treated by an exorcisor known as Oannua. Ibey 
salute one another by the term /KfAiysa ; Brahmans by the wonl 
iewa and Englinh and Musalmiiis by $aidm. Many of them in 
addition culti\*ate and some practise a kind of nomadic cultivation 
by burning down pat<*hes of jungle. 

61. There seems reason to believe that some at least of the Oypsj 

Ocmii<.rikm h^mmn ilM ^"l** «*' Euri>pe are akin to the Magahiya 
Duma and Uj|M«. p,,^, . ^^ ^ «>nnectii»n has bsun traced be- 

tween their Unguages. Much spei*ulation has been devoted to the 
term Uoinani, the dottignation df the European g}'psies. Accord* 
ing t<» one theory it means K4>man or Roumanian. Aooording to 
an«ither " the word Rom in all the g}'|>iiy dialects of Europe has a 
twofold meaning signifying "man" and '* husband" as well as 
Vou IL T I 



BOIL 



340 



" gypsy/' A satisfactory oonnection has still to be found tor it, 
that connected with lUma, the incarnate Yishnn of ibe Hindus 
being discountenanced by the authority of Professor Asooli of 
Milan« By a curious and unexplained coincidence the identical 
word Bom or Borne occurs with the meaning '' man '' in modem 
Coptic^ and according to Herodotus belonged also to the language 
of the ancient Egyptians. Although this isolated fact in no 
way affects the general bearing of the question, it is worth 
noting as an etymological curiosity. It is not impossiUe that 
amoDg the original elements of the Aryan mother speech may 
have existed a root ro or rom, expressive of power, the survival of 
which we can discern in the Greek rome, " strength,'' the Latin 
robur, and perhaps in the illustrious name of Bome itself.'' On 
the other hand Dr. Schrader^ suggests that the word roimr 
in the sense of " oak " is the equivalent of arbor " a tree." At the 
same time there seems some reason for believing that Bomani 
in the sense of ^'a gypsy" may be connected with our Indian 
terms Dom and Domra.' 

DistribuHon of the Domt according to ike Cen$u$ of 1691. 



DiSTBICTfl. 


Benbansi. 


DhAnnk. 


Others. 


Moham- 
madans. 


TOTAI.. 


Dehra Ddn 
Sah^ranpnr 
Mnzaflfarnagnr . 
M eerut 
Bulandshahr 




I 


18,438 

59 

254 

••• 
••• 


210 
2,488 
2,299 
4,257 
5,663 


18,648 
2,541 
2,553 
4,257 
5,663 



1 Prehialoric Antiquitiet^ 272. 

s Edinburgh Review^ 1878, p. 140 ; Orierson, Indian Antiquary , XT. 14^ «9. XYI. 
85, iqq» Encyclopadia Brttonnio, 9th edition, article Gypnet i Leland, .leoiemy, 
19th J une 1875. 

In the life of Edward Henry ?almer by Walter Beeant (p. 184), Mr. Lelaad 
writes — '* Several times I interviewed, in bis company in London, a natire of India 
who had been a Bom, that is to say, a iryP^J* Palmer examined the man long and 
closely in his native langnagre, that is to say as a shrewd lawyer would examine a man 
whoso assertions he wished to discredit. The result of the interview waa thai 
there is, in Palmer's opinion, one distinctive race of gypsies, who oaU themselvec 
Bom, who spoak a language which is not identical witii any Indian tongue, tboogk 
much like Panj&bi, bat which is identical with Bomany. The man asanred ma 
subsequently that ho would never have known from his language that Falmer 
was not a born Hindu." 



841 



DOM. 



ofik§ Doms aeeTrdiuf io ^i# C#fli#aw of 1^1— otatd. 



DiSTKlCTt, 


Btobanii. 


DbABttk. 


OUmk. 


Mttbaoi* 


TOTAU 


Aligarh • 


••• 


••• 


SI 


* 906 


1.018 


Hathum . 


••• 


••• 


8 


873 


881 


Agrm. 


••• 


• • • 


15 


889 


884 


FMmkUbAd • 


••• 


••• 


8 


117 


190 


llAinpiiri • , 


••• 


••• 


••• 


169 


169 


BUwah 


1 


• • • 


90 


143 


169 


BUh 


••• 


••• 


••• 


06 


96 


BftKiDy . 


••• 


••• 


••• 


638 


688 


Bijoor • • 


••• 


••• 


••• 


1999 


9.929 


Bndian 


••• 


••• 


••• 


808 


808 


MoHkUUd 


••• 


••• 


4 


S.4SS 


8,499 


SbibjahAapor 


••• 


••« 


••• 


807 


907 


POibkH . 


••• 


••• 


••• 


996 


996 


Cawnpor • 


••• 


••• 


M 


98 


199 


FaUhpar . 


••• 


••• 


• •• 


68 


68 


BiQdA 


••• 




••• 


8 


8 


Hftmlrpqr • 


— 


••• 


90 


97 


47 


AlUkAl4d . 


••• 


••• 


908 


108 


818 


Jh4iui 


••• 


••• 


8 


4 


19 


Jikon . 


••• 


• 
••• 


18 


90 


88 


Lalitpar • 


••• 


••• 


98 


••• 


98 


Bntrat n 


••• 


••• 


lfi7S 


78 


1,164 


MtrSApvr • 


••« 


••• 


Bfi99 


9 


^/m 


Jaanpvr 


••• 


••• 


8,187 


196 


8J99 


OkAitpor . 


IM 


11 


9,888 


97 


9,174 


BallU 


S6 


••• 


1.871 


••• 


W07 


Gorakbpar 


*** 


••• 


7,817 


79 


7^99 


BmU 


••« 


••• 


89 


101 


188 



^y 



DOM. 



842 



DOMAB ; dokwIb. 



Distribution of the Doms according to the Cennu o/ i^i— ooncld. 



DI8TBIOT8. 


Benbansi. 


Dh4niik. 


Others. 


Mnham- 


TotaIm 


Azam(!:arb • 


« 

3 


••• 


1,234 


135 


1,372 


Kamann 




••• 


••• 


137,760 


••• 


137.760 


GarhwM « 




00* 


••• 


66,529 

• 


••• 


66,529 


Tar&i 




••• 


••• 


4,996 


519 


5,515 


Lnoknow . 




••• 


751 


908 


12 


1,671 


Ud&o 




••• 


1,285 


1,904 


SO 


3.219 


JRad Bareli . 




• • • 


1,411 


. 4,084 


51 


5,546 


SitapuT 




••• 


••• 


12 


21 


83 


Hardoi « 




• • • 


••• 


3 


24 


27 


Gonda « 




••• 


129 


1,790 


27 


1,946 


Bahr&jch < 




8 


17 


327 


109 


461 


Snltlinpar . 




••• 


* 

• •• 


••• 


102 


102 


Part&bgaTb 


••• 


16 


24 


1 


41 


Blirabanki • 


• • • 


780 


2,441 


272 


3,403 


TOTAI 


4 • 


211 


4,400 


265,949 


28,363 


298,923 



Demar. — A caste recorded at the last Census in AUah&bad Divi- 
sion. The Census returns show their sections as Lod in Fatehpur ; 
in Banda, Bansphor, Basor, Benbansi^ Janw&r, Malik^ Saijid^ Siipa- 
bhagat^ Thai), and Tharkari. This shows that they are really only 
a sub-caste of the great Dom race. 



Distribution of the Domar aeeofding to the Census of 1S9L 



DI8TBICT8. 


Turaiha. 


Others. 


Total. 


Cawnpur . .... 
Fatebpur •••••• 

B&Dda 

HamtrpnT •••••. 
AUabablkd 


18 
349 

.•• 
•»• 

••• 


141 

1,745 

10,371 

2,308 

19 


159 

2,094 

10.371 

2,308 

197 


Total 


367 


14,762 


15,129 



Donwar ; Dunwar.— A mixed Rajput-Bhulnhar sept found in 
the districts of Goi^akhpur, Ghazipur, and Azamgarh. According 



dokwIb; duhwIb. 818 bob. 

to Sir H. M. Elliot' at one time they were Btroii(( enough to 
eetablish a principality on the Kou in Western Tirhftt, and there 
are several monuments still existing in that neighbourhood which 
attest the power of the Donwir Rija Kama Deva. In GhAzipur ' 
the Rajput and Bhuinhir branches are quite distinct. They hava 
a dark complexion and a cast of countenance which is not what is 
usually called Aryan, In Azamgarh* both sects admit descent 
from common ancestors, Sonpil being the father of the lUjput, and 
Kuspal of the Bhuinhir. The Rijput branch say that they came 
from Don Darauli in Siran, and are descended from May&ra Bhatta^ 
the mythical ancestor of the Bisen &mily of Salempur Majhanii, 
who, however, disclaim all connection with them. Among Rijputa 
they are of little consideration. The Bhuinhir branch say that 
they came from Baindih near Delhi, but they admit their connec* 
tion with the Donwirs of TirhAt and Siran, and speak of themselTes 
as the descendants of Jham Bhatta, whom they connect in a vague 
way with May lira Bhatta. They are sometimes known as Bainiya 
from the village of Raini in Pargana Muhammadibid, an early 
settlement in Azamgarh. 

Dor.— -A Rijput sept, now almost all Muhammadans, who 
before the coming of the BargAjart were the chief owners of the 
country now included in the Aligarh and Bulandshahr Districts. 
Colonel Tod* remarks "that though occup}nng a place in all the 
genealogies, time has destroyed all knowledge of the past history of 
a tribe to gain a victory over whom was deemed by Prithivi Raja 
worthy of a tablet. " The local traditions in Aligarh and Buland* 
shalir agree that they were lords of a hurge tract of country between 
the Ganges and Jumna long anterior to the Muhammadan invasioD. 
They were at all times probably subordinate to the Delhi Rijas ; and 
in Bulandsliahr their power had been weakened, and their possessions 
encroached upon by the attacks of the Mewitis, and the colonisation 
of their territories by the BargAjars, Jits, and other races. In and 
about Koil at least they seem to have retained some remnant o( 
their former authority until the defeat of Prithivi Rija and the 
oomiuest of Delhi and Ajmer.* They claim kinship with the 



I SiippUm#«l«nr (lt4«Mrv, «. r. 
s (HdhttB, M0mc, 1. S3. 

« Anmmts ti B^msikAn^ 1. 12S. 



ix)r; dorha. 844 ^ drAtiba* 

Panwars and say that they came from the Upper to the Middle 
DuSb in the tenth century. They have a corions legend that their 
name is derived fi'om the fact that one of their kings offered his head 
to the local goddess, Dor being a corruption of D(bid^ " headlefis. " 
Hai-adatta was their king at the time of the invasion of MahmM of 
Ghazni, and most of the mined forts in the Central DnUb are attri- 
buted to him and his descendants. They were final ly, in the middle 
of the twelfth century^ expelled by the Mina Meos, BargftjarSy and 
Gahlots, and their power was finally broken by Shahftbmd-din Ghori. 
They have now little influence. A clan of Giijars of the same name 
in Khandesh claim their origin from thenu^ 

Dorha ; Daurha ; Danraha.' — A small caste found only in the 
Kheri District, who are so called because they make baskets {dauri). 
They have no sub-divisions. They call themselves B&jputs, the 
descendants of Raja Vena, who was the old world Brdhmanical type 
of impiety. They allege that the poorer members of the tribe were 
obliged by poverty to settle down in the Kheri District and take to 
their present occupation. Their rules of intermarriage and social 
position are very much the same as that of the Gt)rchhas (9.9.) • 
Their present occupation is the making and selling of &ns, baskets, 
boxes, etc. A few of them have taken to agriculture. They marry 
in the ordinary Hindu form, and employ a village Pandit to take the 
auspices The essential part of the rite is the sevenfold perambu* 
lation of the bride and bridegroom round the central pole of the 
n'arriage shed {wando). The widow usually lives with her younger 
brother-in law. The only rite at such marriages is investing her 
with a new set of glass bangles (churi) and feeding the brethren. A 
wife can be turned out for misconduct, and can then marry again 
like a widow. They eat mutton and goat^s flesh, fowls and fish, and 
drink spirits. They will not eat the flesh of the cow, monkey, pig, 
or vermin like crocodiles, jackals, snakes, lizards, rats or the leavings 
of other people. No one will eat, drink, or smoke with them. They 
number only 68 souls in the Khen District. 

Dravira. — One of the five sulw^astes of Brdhmans which go to 
make up what is called the Pancha Dravira, one of the two great 
Brahmanie groups. According to Dr. Wilson,' connected with their 

1 Census Reportf North West ProvinceSj 1S65, I, App. 17 ; Baja Tifl^^^"*ftT! Sinlit 
BulamUhahr Memo., 147, 165; Bombay Oagetteer, XII, 67. 

3 Baaed on information supplied by Lt.-Col. W. P. Harriaon, Deputy Comiiiia- 
Bioner, Kheri. 

• Indian Caste, II, 56, sqq. 



dbAtiba. 



845 



DUODHA« 



Vedic relations, tbcy are divided into Big Vedis, Krishna Yajnr 
Vedis, Shukia Yajur Vedis, Sama Vedis, Drftvida Atharva Vedis> 
and Nunbis. And by sect they are either SmArtas, Vaishnavas, 
Sri Vaishnavas, Bhljirvatas or Siktas. "The Dr&vira Brihmans 
profess to be the most scrupulous in India in reference to caste obser- 
vance and practice, and in support of their pretensions in this respeet 
ihvy exhibit all kinds of absurdities and puerilities. They are great 
opponents of the re-marriage of widows and other proposals of re* 
form/' Thur country lies to the south of Tailang&na and Maisfir 
and to the east of the Cochin and Travancore territories. 



IHsiributioM of tk$ Drdvira Brdkma9$ mctordimg lo tkt Census 

qf laSL 



DitT RIOTS. 


Namb«r. 


DirraicTt. 


Numbtr. 


Sshiimapur . • • 




• 

JAlaan .... 


I 


Mtihnra 


01 

1 


OkAsipQr • • 


/ 


Bircilly 


. 1 
1 


OathwAl 


n 


MoridibAd 




UnAo .... 


181 


CawDpnr • • 




FabAUd 


1 


FaUbpor • 




BsbrAieh 


7 


B4ikU • • . . 


\ 


1 

I 

ToTi^l 






t97 



Dngdha. — A tribe of inferior BrAhmans on the borders of Fateb* 
pur and AllahAbad. " They date their origin from the time of Jay 
Chand, who figures in so many fabulous legends of those parts. A 
certain PAnr£ BrAhman by name Barrui set up his abode as a recluse 
in Parsak hi, between ShAhiAdpur and the Ganges, and withdrew 
himself entirdy from wordly ooncems. His credit as a holy man 
was so great that Jay Chand became anxious to see him, and pro* 
mised to reward any one who would bring him into his prescnoe. 
After several unsuccMsful attempts by all the chief oflScers of his 
Court, a woman of the RAjput tribe, and of great personal charms, 
ventured on the difficult undertaking. Her wiles and blandish'^ 
mtmts could not be withstood, and before long, the holy hermit ooii* 



DtlGDHA; DTJRGBANSI. 346 DUSIdH. 

fessed himself the father of several children; and as the lady saoceed- 
ed in the object of introducing him to an audience with Jaj 
Chand^ a grant of several villages was bestowed upon her. On the 
death of the heimit^ she is said to have married a Qazi^ but it is not 
probable that such a connection took place at the early period of the 
Muhammadan conquest. However, she divided Hihe inheritance, it is 
asserted, amongst her children. Those by the Panrfi, who were 
Dugdha Brahmans(/.^., of mixed blood) received forty -eight villages, 
of the greater part of which they are ia possession to this day. The 
Musalman descendants also retain some of the villages said to have 
been granted at the same time. The Dugdhas are reckoned in. no 
repute as Brahmans ; indeed they are properly Bhtunhirs and are 
very indifferent about the rank of the families with which they 
intei-mai-iy, not unf requently receiving the daughters of BajputB as 
wives.'' ^ 

Durgbansi. — A Rajput sept found in the eastern part of the 
Province and Oudh. They are said to be a branch of the Dikhit 
sept. In Oudh it is said that they take their name from B&ja 
Durga Vahan Dikhit of Ajudhya ; according to the Partabgarh 
story, they ai'e really an offshoot from the Bilkhariya sept, and are 
named from their ancestor Durga Das, the second son of Baja 
EAmdeo. Their social position may be judged from their giving 
daughters in marriage to the Chamar Oaur, Bandhalgoti, Tilokchandi 
Bais, Sombansi, Surajbansi, Sirnet, Baghel, and the Gaharw&r of 
Kantit. Their sons marry in the septs of Chandel, Pu&r, Gk^ntam^ 
Raghubansi, Uj jaini, and the inferior grades of Bais.* 

Dnsadh,^— A menial tribe found to the east of the province. 
An attempt has been made to derive the name from the Sanskrit 
dusk " to be corrupted '' and ad "to eat;'' or from dauk^Mddkika, 
" a porter.'' But the name is more probably of non-Aryan origin. 
By the account current among themselves they are the descendants 
of Duhsasana, the son of Dhritara&htra,who, when the P&ndavas lost 
their wife Draupadi, in gambling with Duryodhana, dragged her 
forward by the hair and otherwise misused her. By another story 
they are the descendants of Bhimsen. In the hills they call them- 
selves Khasiya Rajputs, and say they are so called because they lived 



» Elliot, Swipvlcmentary Glossary, s. v. 

> Elliot, Su^-pUmeniary Qlossary, i, v. : Elliott Chronicles of UnAo, 34 ; Pa^Uh' 
garh Settlement Report, 95, Note, 
* Based on enquiries at Mirzapnr. 



847 dusAdh. 

<m the borders of Knmann and Garhwil. Another lefi^d makes 
them the descendants of the hero Sallies, who is connected with the 
Lorik cycle. He was the companion of Ilarua and Bama who were 
defeated by Lorik. 

2. There is another famous trihal legend which is thus told by 

Mr. Beglar.^ ''There was a Du^adh living 
in Rsjpr, whose dauf^ter used to take the 



household pigs out in the field to feed. It happened that as she 
80 engaged on the day of the full moon of a certain great festival, 
fihc saw a Bnihman walking on very rapidly. On questioning him 
\ie rqilied that be was going to bathe in the Ganges on the full moon. 
The girl replied *' You cannot possibly reach the Ganges in time ; 
but if you believe me and your mind be full of faith, this is the ex- 
ai*t moment of the full mgon, and here is a pool (in which her pigs 
were wallowing) ; dip into it and you will realise the full fruits of 
Ijathing in the Ganges at this auspicious moment.' ' The Brahman 
did as she desired and when he was in the pool, she said ** Now is the 
exact moment. Dive in and see what yon get.'' The Brahman 
did as desired and found the bottom full of valuable gems, of which 
he clutched a handful and came up. '' Dive again, " said the girU 
He dived again and found only mud at the bottom. '' You see»^ 
said the girl, " that I told you only the truth, when I said yoa 
will be too late if yuu go to the Ganges, for at the moment of yoor 
first dive the moon was at its exact full and you got your rewaid/' 
II. " The Brahman was astonished and seeing her as lovely as shs 
was wise prciiiosad marriage* She referred him to her £atber who 
nfuied, saying he could not presume to ally his daughter of low 
cante to a high caste Brahman. The Brihman thereupon threatened 
to kill himself, and the Dusadh fearful of incurring the guilt of 
Urahmahatya, consented after or^nsulting his friends ; the marriage 
was duly solemnised, and the girl then taught her husband to ask 
DO dowry of her £ather except a particular cow, a particular pig, and 
a particular parrot. Hie Dusadh, on bidding his daughter giM)d*bye 
and (fud^peed when they weredqiarting, desired his son-in-law to 
aide for any gift »he chose. The Brahman refused, but lieing pressed, 
Im* bimnd the DuNulh by a promiM* to grant his re«|uest, and then 
%iAiv%\ for the cow, the pig and the parrot, as he had been taught. 



I ArtkmvUfitml Rtf^U, Vni.,10t 



dtjsAdh. 348 

The DusMh being taken aback was bound by his promise to me 
them up. 

4. " The parrot was an extraordinary one^ as he would daily go 
to Indra^s palace and bring the news of what took place thei« to his 
mistress ; the pig was the leader of all the pigs in the oountty, and 
the cow was no other than the famous SurabhL One day the parrot 
told his mistress that Indra had given orders that during the 
approaching rainy season, it should rain nowhere in the district ex- 
cept on the sterile valleys and stony slopes of B&jgir« The girl on 
hearing this immediately called her pig and directed him to dig up 
ihe whole of the stony valleys and hill slopes of B&jgir ; the pig 
with the aid of his subject pigs did as she desired. She thai directed 
her husband to go and scatter paddy in all these places^ explaining 
the object to her husband. He did as desired* When it rained the 
paddy seed sprouted and the whole of stony Bftjgir was fall of 
paddy, while outside not a blade of paddy was to be found owing to 
want of rain. It being reported to Indra that within B&jgir enough 
of paddy had been grown to stave off famine, he ordered an army of 
mice and rats to be sent to destroy the crops ; but the girl informed 
of this order by her parrot, got her husband to procure an army of 
cats as guard ; when it was reported to Indra that this plan of de* 
stroying the crops had failed, he directed that when cut, each load 
of the paddy sheaves should produce only one and a quarter $er of 
clean paddy. The girl informed by her parrot of this order, diiected 
her husband to make bundles of only two stalks of paddy each tied 
end to end. The order of Indra having gone forth and become 
irrevocable, each of these bundles produced one-and-a-quarter ier$ of 
paddy. Indra infoimed of this and seeing himself outwitted, ordeied 
a furious storm to blow and scatter all the paddy which had been 
threshed out ready for storing. The girl informed of this and aware 
that no wattle but would resist the storm should he store it in mxotk, 
directed her husband to dig the deep moat now seen round Bijgir. 
When the storm blew it naturally carried all the paddy into theee 
trenches where it lay safe till the storm had blown over, and thus 
was the country saved from famine through the cleverness of this 
girl, in memory of whom the pool where her pigs used to wallow 
was named Bawan Ganga or the fifty-two Oanges. " This story ia 
interesting as it marks the custom which still prevails among the 
Dusadhs of introducing men of higher caste than their own into 
their tribe, and this is one of the reasons why it is so difficult to fix 



840 i>U8Ai>H. 

their position ethnologically, and to lay down with certainty whether 
they are a degraded Aryan race or of genuine Dravidian stock. 
The tribe is clearly very mudi mixed and is probably a oompoond of 
many different races. 

5. At the last Census the Dnsidhs entered themselves under 

seven sub-castes beside others whose num- 

bers were not sufficient to warrant their 

inclusion in the returns. These sub-castes are Bharsiya^ Dhirhi, 

Gondar, Kanaujiya, Madhesiy% Magahiya and Bigar. Of these 

wo have the Dhirhi separately noticed and the Oondar perhaps 

maik a Dravidian branch akin to the Gonds and Minjhis. 

Another Minapur enumeration gives the sub-castes, which as usual 

are supposed to amount to the mystical number seven, as Magahiya 

or " residents of Magadha''; Kanaujiyafrom Kanauj ; DArhi, Dhirh 

or Dhirhi which may correspond to the drummers and singers cl 

that name ; Baheliya who have been separately described as a tribe 

of hunters and fowlers; TirhAtiya or those of Tirabhukti or 

TirhAt ; Palwir which is also the name of a sept of lUjputs, and 

Oondar. A third Mimpur list supplied by a member of the tribe 

gives the sub-castes as Dusidh, Khatik, Pisi, Pahri, KQchaniy% 

Kujra, and Dharkir, where we have a mixture of various well known 

tribes. The detailed Census lists ^how the sub-castes of k)cal impor* 

tance as the Gujahua and Panwir of Mirsapur ; the Barwir and 

Uelwlr of Ballia and the Bangariy% Gaoriya^ Katoraha^ Khariy% 

and Kotiya of Gorakhpur. All this goes to corroborate the thecHy 

of the mixed character of the tribe. These sub-castes are now 

endogamous, but there is some reason to believe that this process 

of fission into endogamous groups may, in some instances at Inast, 

be of comparatively recent origin. Thus in Minapur they assert 

that up to modem times the Magahiya and Kanaujiya Dusldhs 

used to intermarry ; but now they have osased to do so faecansa 

when the Kanaujiyas gave their danghters to the Magahiyas, they 

would not allow them to return home with their husbands, bol 

insinteJ on their sons«in-law coming to lire with their falhers^ia* 

law ; in other words ie^ms marriage was the rule in these two 

groups. The mult of this is said to have been that marriage 

ct«f«d between them and the groupe became endogamous. Tha 

Miiii4iur Dusadhs fix their original home in Magadhaor Bihir, 

and left it when their ancestor Bibn, of whom more will be 

said later on, who used to live in a plaoe called Kedallean b Bengal 



BUSADH. 350 

was shut up in the temple of Jagannath at PorL He sometimes 
comes outj and only ten years ago^ he appeared to a Dns&dh lad in 
Mirzapur who was ploughing in the field for his master. The 
godling took pity upon him and showed him where a pot of gold 
was buried^ wherewith he purchased his freedom from slavery. 
Another of their revered ancestors was one Churla of whom many 
stories are told. He fell in love with the daughter of a Baja and 
was killed by him ; since then he has become a tribal godling. 

6. The Dusadhs have a tribal council known as PanchAyat^ of 

which the Chairman is known as Sard&r or 

Tribal oounoil. _ , 

Majauy a corruption of Mah&jan or ''great 
man.^^ Under him a summoner or wand bearer^ the ChhaHdir, 
who simimons the members to the meetings of the council. All 
adult members of the tribe have a seat on the council ; but minors 
are not allowed to attend. The council deals with theft^ adultery, 
eating and diinking with a stranger^ keeping a daughter unmarried 
or not allowing her to join her husband or seducing another man's 
wife. The case is decided by the votes of all the membeis present. 
The usual punishment is a fine which varies from five to twenty 
rupees. Besides this the culprit has to give a feast to the members of 
the council. Money realised by fines is spent in providing spirits 
for the entertainment of the council. Those members who are too 
poor to pay a fine^ are punished with a shoe-beating which is ad- 
ministered by one of the members. The council, as in all these 
tribes^ act as compurgators and use the knowledge they themselves 
have obtained in deciding a case. When the Chairman whose office 
is hereditary is a minor^ his duties are discharged by one of his 
adult relations. 

7. They do not marry in the family of their maternal uncle, 

of their father's sister, of thar sister, till 
three generations have expired since the last 
connection by marriage, and in their own family (tul) as long as 
any recollection of a marriage relationship exists. They can marry 
a second wife in the lifetime of the first if she be barren. The 
second wife is known as adheli or only half a wife, and her position 
is veiy much inferior to that of the first wife. They are not 
allowed to keep a concubine of a tribe lower in the scale than their 
own ; but a man can keep a woman of a higher caste, and she and 
her children are admitted to full caste privileges when the man , 
who cohabits with her gives a tribal feast. Marriage is, as a role. 



851 busAdh. 

adult, and if a girl has long pasted the age of paberty, the it 
URually treated at a widow and married by the inferior $a§di form. 
Tlio parents of the bridegroom in Mirzapor pay a bride«price which 
it 6xcd by established catte cottom at five rupees in cath, three 
sheett, and four rupees worth of tweetmeatt. The content of the 
parents is in all cases necessary to make a marriage valid. The 
occurrence of any physical defect after marriage it a valid ground 
for repudiating the woman ; but tuch conduct it ditcouraged, and 
in all cases such proceedings must have the sanction of the council 
A man can expel a wife who it detected in adultery, and tuch 
women may marry again by the $afdi form; but before this it 
allowed, the parents of the guilty pair have to feed the brethren* 
It is remarkable among them that the offspring of the adkeli or 
second wife are excluded from inheritance in the estate of their 
father. 

8. Widows and divorced women, if the fine have been discharg- 

ed, are married by the $a^di form. Usually 

Widow mMrlA^fiw 

a widow it married to a widower. The 
mati*h it arranged by a memljer of the tribe. A Pandit it called in 
to announce a lucky date. Then the man with a few friendt goat 
to the house of the widow and gives her parentt tome clothet and 
swe<*tm«its. Then the friends on both sides are entertained and at 
night the bride is taken into a dark room where the bridegroom 
goes and gro|)es about until he catches her and smears tome red 
lead on her forehead. It is the etiquette for her to avoid him for 
some time. This smearing of powder it usually done in the 
J^€o§har or room devoted to the worship of the tribal godling. 
Next morning the bridegroom takes the bride home and when he 
has fesMted the clansmen the marriage is recognised at valid. 

9. The umbilical cord it cut liy a ChamArin, and if a woman of 

the caste were to perform thit duty, she 



Birili __-. 

would be turned out of caste. She puts 
it in an earthen pot, the mouth of which the closes tightly 
and carries it to the bank of a lank where she buries it seorst* 
ly in the gnmnd. In the confinement room a fire is lighted in 
which a piece of iron is placed. At the door of the room a braaek 
of a thorny shrub called $emkar is tied, and some hang a bunch of 
onions. All these precautiims are taken to bar the entranee of tlia 
evil spirit Jamhua, which clutches, in the form of an owl, the throat 
of the child and chokes it. Jamhua appears to take its nama fioa 



DU8ADH. 358 

Tama, he god of death. The disease is leaDy iii£aiitile tetannit, 
which is caused by the cardess catting of the ooid with a Uont 
instmment and the neglect of all antiseptic piecaations. The 
disease runs a course of about twelve day s^ and this aocoants among 
this and the allied castes for the selection of the twdfth day (imraki) 
for the performance of ceremonies to ward off the evil spirit. TImb 
Chamarin attends for six days and for twelye days the mother is 
daily rubbed with the condiment called ubtau. On the sixth day 
is the Chhatkij when the women of the tribe are provided with oil 
to rub their heads and red lead to smear on the parting of their 
hair. On this occasion some treacle is distributed ^fnong them. 
The mother and child are bathed while the women sing the Mokar 
or birth song. The Chamarin reodves as her perquisite the dd 
clothes of the mother. The ceremonies of the sixth day are repeat- 
ed on the twelfth day, and the house is purified in the usual way. 
On both these occasions, they worship the clan deities Parameswari 
and Bandi-Bhawani in the family oratory {Deogkar) and ofEer to 
them balls of ground rice mixed with sugar and water. Some add 
a Ijfumt offering [h<m) with flowers and betel. In the same way 
they worship Gangaji and all rivers generally in connectdon with 
marris^. The women go in procession to the river side, and there 
are met by the Dafali who sings songs in honour of the Ganges, 
and the women offer sweets {laddu), flowers, betel leaves, and make 
a burnt offering. All these things are the perquisite of the DaQdL 
On their return home the women of the tribe are entertained on 
cakes {purt) and rice boiled with sugar {mUia bhdi), 

10. Adoption is common among Dusidhs. Usually the boy 

adopted is the son of a brother or other 



Adoption. 

relative. All the members of the caste reei* 
dent in the villages are invited, and after the adoption has been an- 
nounced, they are entertained on spirits, boiled rice, and pork. They 
say that the ceremonies on the sixth and twelfth day after birth 
amount to an initiation into the caste equivalent to the Brihmani- 
cal investiture with the sacred thread {janeu), and they have a great 
contempt for any one in whose case these ceremonies have not been 
duly performed. When a boy is two years old, they get a goldsmith 
to pierce his ears at the Kkichari festival. The child is seated 
facing tho cast, and is given some sweets during the operation. 
The goldsmith receives as his remuneration one anna and a ration 
of uncooked grain. 



353 dusAdh. 

11. Matches are arranged by one of the men of the caste, who 

18 known as the apna.^ On an auspicious 
day fixed by the Pandit, the father of the girl 
goes to the house of the boy accompanied by throe or four friends, 
and when he has inspected the boy, and approved of him, he gives 
him some sweets. That day the date of the formal betrothal, which 
they call ianii Jidm, is fixed. On that day a square is made in 
the courtyard and the two fathers sit inside it. A Pandit is called 
in and he recites a few verses {mauira). The fathers each exchange 
five handsful of paddy, and the Pandit places a packet of betel in 
the hand of each. Then the fathers rush together and each puts 
his packet of betel leaves in the breast of the other. They each tie 
up the paddy in a handkerchief, and salute each other with Ham /, 
li4m / Next comes the changing of cups {pijiala bajalma), 
when the fathers sit in the square each with a cup of spirits in his 
hand. They exchange cups and drink the contents, and the friends 
are treated to a drink Then at the house of the bov a dinner of 
rice, pulse, and pork is given, and next day the Ptodit fixes an aus- 
picnous day for the wedding. 

12. The marriage ceremonies begin with the digging of the 

sacred earth ( maiii ki^u ), which is done by 
the women, each ot whom reoaves some oil 
and rod lead to decorate the parting of her hair. The earth b 
brought and placed in the marriage shed {mdmro), in the centre of 
which a ploughshare is erected. Each woman gets tome cakes and 
in return presents four annas as a contribution to the expenses of 
the wedding. The marriage ritual is of the normal t}'pe. When 
the b>y starts to fetch his bride, he is armed with a dagger {iaijr). 
He in accompanied by a party of musicians (b^jamifa). On tbetr 
arri\*al at the bride^s bouse, the boy's father sends the bride some 



I Writint t4 BcDgttl Mr. 0*I>oaa«l mj% t •• In tli« «p|Mr MatM, in whiek • fiH 
in pmp«rlj looked nttar nad Mclad^d froai (Uiic«n>a« MqaaisUaoM vitmB lk« 
f«>mal« A|«rtai«Btfl, it in tti* to !•*▼• h^r oBmArriMl till, with AaiMie prteoeiim*- 
oett«« 0h« IB BB BfJalt; Iral ia tb« lovvr onUrv, pBTtiealBrly B«oBfsl IIm UboBrisff 
rU«B««Nif Bitir, wb4i*B vooimi go Bbcml opvBly nwA work is tb* SbMb, it k iapBrn* 
tiT«lj Df««MBi7 to BBtieipBiB th* p«ri4)d c»f botldtQf wooiBabwKt. Tb« piBfOtie* of 
iafBBt BiBrriaffo Ba«mf DBaA«ibB. MBOBbBr*. BBilCbBmArBU Bioaaiacl«'B« vitbuBttbto 
•ipUnBtum. Tbo oeio* aro iB frj •tob proportiua*. Tbor« m bu Uek of BBtotiBl 
for buftbaadt Bad wir«o« At tbo mubo tiBM pooplo tbai nUow tb#ir firU b fr«al 
do*] of Ulwfty ia tbo wbj o| U m dum fruoi tbo portoBal roAtraiat ct tbo ■oaiaa, bmi 
«bo moy looo oa«to. wbicb ovob to a I>«4b biobbb b ^mrj rroal doal. bj aaj vagarioa 
ia tboir coaaBhtB) arraafoaivBto, mast apply aaotbor flalocaard affaiaot familj dto* 
fTBco. It U aoeooaary to BMrrj tboir daaf bti»r« aa rbiblroa. aad aol to wall to b 
poriud wbMi giBBt riak woaU bB UM^iUbU." C#Bra« l^poH, SOS. 

Yokll. f 



BUS Ad u. 354 

cheap jewelry^ known as dal, which is placed in the marriage shod. 
The friends all get drunk that night. At the actual wedding, the 
bride's father worships the feet of the bridegroom^ and then an 
offering is made to Gauri and Ganesa. The pair have their clothes 
knotted and walk five times round the shed. After this the bride* 
groom goes into the oratory {deoghar) and worships the family gods 
of the bride. At the door as he comes out, the bride's sister bars the 
way and will not let him pass until she receives a presenti apparent* 
ly a survival of marriage by capture. After the husband brings his 
wife home, the brethren are fed and Gangaji is worshipped in the 
way already described.^ 

13. The infant or unmarried dead are buried. Adults are 

cremated in the usual way. After the cre- 
oeremonieB. i^ation is over the mourners chew leaves of 
the bitter nim tree as a sign of sorrow, and touch water, their feet 
and head with a piece of iron to keep off the BhiU. Then the man 
who fired the pyre pours a little spirit on the ground in the name of 
the deceased, and takes a drink himself, which is also distribated to 
the other mourners. Next day the chief mourner goes to the cre- 
mation ground and pours some milk on the ground in the name of 
the dead man. In the evening the clansmen assemble. A pit is dug 
in the ground and over it they hold a leaf of the pipal tree on which 
they fii*st pour a little milk and a little water, and let it drop into 
the pit. The death impurity lasts for seven days On the tenth 
day^ there is a ceremonial shaving of the mourners and clansmen ; 
grain is given to Brahmans, and the brethren are feasted. They 
perform the usual srdddAa, and some even go from Mirzapur to 
Gaya for this purpose. 

14. DusMhs assert that they are orthodox Hindus. They are 

very seldom initiated into the ordinary sects ; 
c igion. ^^^^ .£ ^j^jg YyQ done, they prefer the Vaishnava 

cultus. But as appears from their tribal worship, they have retained 
a large amount of the primitive animistic beliefs. Their tribal 
deities in Mirzapur are Rahu and Ketu, the abcending and descend- 
ing nodes, Chlialh, Bandi, and Manukh Deva. The legonils and 
worship o£ R&hu, the eclipse demon, havebjcn considered elsewhere,* 



> At tho last Censufl no less than 284, r»94 persons doclared thcmstjlvca w.»r<«hip- 

per 8 of 0;inj;Jiji' 

' Jnttudtution to Pop-dnr UtUjion and Fvlfclore, 10, 



365 dusAdh. 

and Mr. Rislcy^ lias ^ven a very complete and interesting account 
of the woruhip as it prevails in Bihar. In Mirzapur the worship 
of Rahu ia done in this wise. A pit is Aug in the ground, one-and* 
a-quarter cubits wide and seven cubits long. In this logs of wood 
are evenly laid, and on them oil is poured. Then a Brahman is 
calUtl in who does the tire sacrifice {iom). When the woo<l in the 
trench has burnt away until only some hot cinders are left, the 
worshippers walk one after the other along it followed by the 
Brahman priest. In Bihar, it is a tribal priest known as the Bhakat 
who presides, and the association of the Brahman in Mirzapur is a 
very remarkabk fact. Another form of the worship is to fix up two 
lAnilMX)8 in the ground a short distance apart. Between the poles a 
couple of swords are tied and thus a sort of ladder is made. The 
officiant climbs up these and stands on one of the sword blades 
with his naked feet and from the top pours some milk on the gnmnd 
in the name of Rahu. Then he descends and a young pig is 
brought Ixrforc him wliich he kills by repeated thrusts of a sword 
or 8])ear« Some s]>irits are also poured on the ground and the meat 
and the rest of the offerings are consumed by the worshippers. 

15. As a further illustration of this very primitive form of 
SoBfft in hoMmr of worship it may be worth quoting the song 
^^'^°* sung on this occasion by the Dusadhs in 

the Mirzapur District :^ 

i. Kmi itUi ik^nU la iff khmnammU / iaa sms tkaUmwa 

bojkai ho f 
8. A'ai msn hi^tU fkim ikarkdmml^ f UikeU ^gimifim kmi 

dkdf ho r 

3. &/// WA hk^s^Ulnifi kkamwale i mum dm ekmUmm 

bofk^m ko f 

4, S^wm m0m 6kaf4f a pkiu ikmrkdmalt ; uikela ^gimifdn kdi 

ikAr ko. 

** O devotee I IIow many euhita long is the ditch which thou 
hast dug? IIow much wood hast them laid therein? How many 
mannds of butter hast thou pound therein thai the billows of (ire 
rise in the air? O devotee I seven enhits long is the tivnc*h which 
thou hast dug. Ten mannds of firewood hast thou piled 



I Tri'^^iamd Catit§ L tSI^ 9f^. Fur wUkisf iKrt^Of h ir» ••• tmAUn inli^tMrf 
II. 190;III.S;Vn. i:iS 

Vol. II. s3 



BUSADH. 356 

One maund and a quarter of butter bast tbou ponred thereon that 
the billows of fire arise/' 

i. BerUdnhi heri tonhi barajon maliniydn baiij/dm daman* 
awdn mati Ido. 

2. Yahi bdten aiken mdlin Rdhu kai ihatolawa Keiu tai 

macholatoa dawanawdn jani Ido, 

3. Awe dehn Rdhu kai khatolawa Keiu kai macholwa ; kam 

debe anchara pasdr. 

4. Ghorawa ta bandhdwaJi asoka ki darij/dn ; dkapati kai 

pnilhalen phulwdr, 

5. Kethuen sivchdwali mdUn dawana menrawa^ ketkuen 

sinekdwali mdU arabul kai ph4l, 

6. Vudkawon sinckdwalon mdlin dawana menrawa Ganpa 

nire arabul ke phul. 

7. Dawana menrawa mdlin benrki khoeki khaika arabul kai 

phill, mdlin rahhiye pratipdL 

*' O wife of the gardener I I warn thee bring not thus the 
marjoram leaves. The great litter of Bahu and the little litter of 
Ketu will by and by pass this way. Bring not then the leaves of 
marjoram: — Let the great litter of Bslhu and the little litter of 
Ketn pass this way and I will spread the robe that covers my 
breast. Rahu tied his horse to the Asoka tree and passed qniekly 
into the garden. Said he — ^^ O wife of the gardener ! With what 
didst thou water the millet and the marjoram; and with what 
the Arabul ?'** She answered " With milk did I water the marjoram 
and the millet ; with Granges water the Arabul.'' Said Rahu — Sell 
the marjoram and the millet and Uve on what you can make 
from them ; but preserve the Arabul." 

16. They worship Chhath or Chhathi, the sixth, on the sixth 
_ , ._ lunar day of Kufir. All the previous day 

Worship of Chhath, etc. , . "^ , _ _ f . ^ 

they fast and before sunnse go singing to the 
river side. They strip and walk into the water where thqr stand 
&cing the east till the sun rises^ when they stand with folded hands 
and bow in reverence to him, and make an offering of various kinds 
of cakes (thokwa^ gnlgula) and any other kind of wood which they 
can procure. Some offer in addition grain, rice, and sweetmeats. 
These are afterwards distributed among the friends of the family. 

1 ArahuX is perhaps the same as arihand, the lotas. For more of these aonga 
to Bihn see Qrierson, MaithiX Chrestomaihy, S, 179. 



867 



BuaiDn. 



SoeklmlM. 



1'he other tribal deitioSy Bandi and Mannkh Deva, who if the '^ Bian 
gpirit/' the Bkii of some dead worthy of the tribe, are worshipped 
on the tenth day of Knir in the houfe temple {deo^iar) with a 
sacrifice of fowls and a young pig and an oblation of spirits. They 
also offer se\'en cups of milk and seven pairs of cakes which they 
range round the earthen mound which is the common abiding place of 
the tribal gods. Ihey oliserve most of the ordinary Hindu festivals 
and take ad\'antage of the Phagua or Holi and the Kajari to indulge 
in a good deal of drinking and gross sensuality. In hci, on these 
occasions, the rules of modesty and decency are allowed to fall into 
abeyance. 

17. Their oaths are done by standing in water^ or on a pt/fml 

tree, or by touching the head of one of their 
sons. They will not eat beef; but use 
freely mutton, goat^s flesh, and venison. They are now beginning to 
abandon the use of fowls. Before eating they put a little food on 
the ground in honour of Dharti M&ta, the Earth goddess. 'I he 
women wear the ordinary Hindu dress with thick bangles (widih) 
on the wrist and hea%'y anklets {paifi). They eat kmekcki and 
pakki cooked by all Brahmans, Vaisyas, and Kshatriyas, and also 
by the more respectable lower castes, as the Ahir. They will not eat 
anything touched by a Dom, Chamir or Dharkir. 

is. It is said that most of Lord Clivers army which fought at 

Plassey consisted of Dusadhs. Now they do 
not take miUtary service. Their drunken 
laxy habits pre\'ent them from rising to the position of occupancy 
tenants and most of them are ploughmen in the service of other 
tenants or landlords or they serve as village watchmen {goraii, 
ek^ukiddr). They practise no handicraft and some of them live bj 
wood cutting or collecting jungle produce. 



Ooonpatioa. 



Duhibnti'^n of Dmiidki mccotding to iko Cmf ■# o'f lS9t. 



l>i»rBict«. 






t 



i I 



4 I 

f I I 



t*bAfsa|««ir 



I ••• 



i^v* 



It 



t 



li 



dusAdh. 



868 



DtSAB. 



Distribution of DusAdhs according to the Cenatts of tB9t — ooneld. 



DiBTBICTS. 



Bareilly 
BudaoA 
Mor&dftbad 
CawDpar 
Allfth&bad 
Benares 
Miriapar 
Gh&eipor 
Ballia 
Gorakhpar 
Ba«ti . 
* Azam^arh 
Hardoi 
Kheri . 
Part&bgarh 



Total 



PQ 



291 



291 






o 
O 



i 



6,616 



7,692 



337 



13,6ii 



3.966 



8,4U 



11.778 



2,474 



8,001 



SI 



8.307 



17,293 



204 



80 



24.167 1 20,701 



m 
1^ 



I,7U 



2.369 



I 



719 



646 14 



733 






1,729 



1.766 



I 



81 



10 



1,471 



4.090 



0.678 



S,816 



8 



100 



19.283 



•4 



61 



860 



10 



64 

4.787 

7.834 

UI.188 

Sl.OOO 

38,284 

8 

1,388 

1 

1 



82,913 



Diisar (dusra, "second''), a sub-caste of Banyas numerouB in 
parts of the AUahabad and Lucknow Divisions. In the returns of 
the Census of 18S1 great confusion was caused by the amalg^ama- 
tion of the Dusar Banyas with the Dhusar or Bhargava^ who claim 
Brahmanical origin. Even in the returns of 1891 it is not certain 
tliat this error has been completely eUminated. The DCisars rank 
low among Banyas, admit widow marriage, and are said to be a 
bi*anch of the Ummar sub-caste descended from a second wife, 
whence their name. From Cawnpur the curious rule is reported 
that the parents of the bride pay a do\« ry, the maximum of which 
is Rs. 211 of the pice current in RaS Bareli, which are worth about 



eleven aniias. From this it is aasumed that R3S Bareli 
early settlement of the DCtsars. 



btilrilution of tke Dilaar Bani/ai aeeording to tio Cenaui of 1891, 



DisTRtcra. 


Number. 


I„„„o„. 


Nombat. 








7 


Benarw . 




3 


Mathnra . 






6 


Luck DOW 






2.926 


F»rrakb&bAd 






488 


DDto . 






11,968 


Elaoah . 






138 


Rie B»K]i 






e^4S 


Pilibl.lt . 






2 


SIlRpiir . 






6 


Cawnpar . 






10,001 


llnrdoi . 






fi.817 


Fatehpur . 






6.566 


Ivh^ri . 






138 


Hsmirpor 






6 


Fftitibid. 






718 


Allsh&b&d 






8 


B&rabaobi 


TOTA 




4S8 
46,601 



361 OADARITA. 

G 

Oadariya*/ Oarariya; Oaderiya; Oanreriya— iHindi ydd^r, 

** a Bheop : *' Sanskrit gandkdra^ so called because orifjrinally brought 
from the country of Gandhira or Kandahar) . — The caste of shepherds, 
^at-herds, and blanket-weavers found all over the Province. In 
many parts they arc known as Guil Gadariya, and there seems 
stronf^: reason to Wlieve that thc^y are in some way connected with 
the Ahir or Guala race, tlioug^h their personal appearance indicates 
a much lar^r admixture of non-Aryan blood. This is strenf^thened 
Ity tlu' fact noted by Mr. Risley' that in Bihir they will take 
l)oth kackehi and pakki food from Gualas. 

2. According to the last Census the Gadariyas of these Provinces 

recorded themselves in twelve sub-castes 
besides several more whose numU*rs were too 
small to find a place in the final retams. These sub-castes are 
Baghel ; Bamhaniya ; Chandel ; Dhingar ; Haranwal ; Kachhwaha ; 
Nikhar ; PhAI-singhiya ; lUthanr ; Rmutela ; Sigar ; Saraswir. 
Nearly half of these are the names of well-known lUjput septs, and 
this may possibly go to show that the formation of these endoga- 
mouR groups, under at least their present names, may be of com- 
parati%'ely modem date. It is asserted from Bareilly that they 
a4lmit outsiders into the caste: this is doubtful and apparently not 
tlie case in the Eastern Districts. In Benares Mr. Sherring' fH^w 
an entirely different set of sul>-castes— Dhingar ; Nikhar ; Jaunpnri, 
or "those fn>m Jaunpur ; '' I llahaljAdi, "those from AllahibAd;'' 
Bakarkai«u, or " goat liutc*hers ; " Namdawala, or " makers of felt,'' 
and Cliikwa who are usually classed with the Qassab. He asserts 
tliat the timt four sub-castes keep sheep an<1 goats, not so the remain- 
imr three. Th(*y also manufacture Mankets. The BakarkasAu and 
Namdawala sub*castes do so likewise. The Chikwas are Muham- 
madans. lie also names two other iiub-castes — the Bharariya, who 
derive their name from bker^ a sheep. " Nevertheless they are not 
employed in tending sheep, bat in other kinds of labour. Tlie 
Baikatas are the lowest in rank among the (fadariyas. They Kve 
by U»gging scraps of hair from the other sub-eastes thai keep 

> lUiMil OB notM bv thr D<»p«ty lMpM^«r %4 8rli< oU, IWr«illy M Niyai AliaMa, 
ll«ad M*«Ur. Iltf h HcHo.il. Kaivlipnr. and % iK'tr fro« Jb^iwi rvcvivf^l llirr«f b Mr. 
\V. O. Jark»'fi. C.S. 



G ADA RITA, 362 

flocks^ and selling the proceeds/^ Sir H. M. Elliot names also the 
Taselha or PachhMe, " those of the west/' Chak, Bareiya, Paihwir, 
and Bliaiyatar. From Agra it is reported that the women of the 
Dhingar sub-caste wear bangles of glass, bore their noses, and do 
not eat meat ; while those of the Nikhar do not wear glass ban^es, 
do not bore their noses^ and eat meat. Of the 1,113 sections of 
Hindu and 8 of the Muhammadan branch included in the detailed 
Census Returns, those of the chief local importance are the Chandan, 
Mokha, and Sahla of Saharanpur : the Alur, Chhotisen, Sahla^ and 
Uchahri of MuzafiEainagar : the Bhatti, Ganga, Panw&r, and B&S of 
Bulandshahr : the Hans, Madariya, and Sengar of Aligarh : the 
Vaiieli of Mainpuri : the Baikwar of Etiiwah : the Sengar of 
Bareilly : the Sahla of Bijnor : the BautelS and Sahla of Moridi- 
bad : the Magar and Panwar of Cawnpur : the Panw&r of Fateh- 
pur : the Rohingar of Hamirpur : the Darsiya of Ghjzipar : the 
Sailiya of the Tarai : the Thengar of BA& Bareli : the Barharw&r, 
Dokhar, and Panwar of Hardoi, and the Nikhad of Soltanpur. 

3. The .Western Gadariyas call themselves Marhattas and de- 

scribe themselves as emigrants from Gw&lior. 
ra lonso ngi . g^^^^ ^f u^gm still visit Gwilior to woiship 

the goddess Kali Devi, and they employ a colony of Gw&lior Bh&ta 
who have come irom. Gwalior and settled at Anupshahr in the 
Bulandshahr District. The Gradariyas fix Uieir emigration from 
Gwalior in the time of the Dor or Tomar Rija Buddh Sen. 

4. The Gadaiiyas usually mairy their girls at^ the age of fromr 

seven to twelve. To the west it is a rule 
Mamage ea. among them after marriage to lodge the 
bride first on her arrival with her husband in a separate room, and 
then she is not admitted into the house imtil she pays a sum of 
money to the men or persons connected with her husband by 
marriage with women of his family. In the course of this function 
a mimic struggle goes on between the two parties. Next morning 
after she is thus received into her husband's family, the women of 
the house fill an iron pan with water and place in it two silver 
rings and some blades of grass. The married couple then struggle 
to see which of them will secure the rings. The bridegroom's 
female relations do their best to help him. Whichever of the pair 
secures the rings will have the masteiy during married life. When 
the mock struggle is over, the winner pours the contents of the 
vessel over the loser. There are no marriage brokers ; matches are 



36S QADA&nrA. 

arranfi^ed by a member of the cmsie. He reoeivet a rupee and a 
turban from the father of the bridegroom ; bat if he commit anj 
fraud in arran^nf? the matchi the cooneil have one side of his 
mouDtaohe shaved in the presenoe of the brethren, and alto impoae a 
fine. A man may discard his wife for infidelity, but snch women 
are not allowed to remarry in the caste. Widow-marriage and the 
levirate are })ermitted, and the children by any form of recognia«d 
marriage are eqnal heirs. Illegitimate children ar» not allowed to 
intermarry or even smoke with thoee of pure Uood. A man who 
marries a widow has generally to pay something to her relations^ 
and in any case he has to pay any debts she may have contracted 
during widowhood. 

5. The woman during delivery site on a stool facing the Oanges, 

She is attended by a sweeper or Koli mid- 
wife for at least throe days. When the 
birth of a male child is announced, one of the mother's female rel»> 
tions hurries out of the house, and draws all round the walls a line 
of oowdung as a magic circle to keep off evil spirits. She aleo 
makes a rude cowdung figure at each side of the door, and fixes up 
seven pieties of broomstick near it. When a girl is bom» only a 
piece of a broken earthen pot is put up over the door. On ths 
seoond day tlie mother is given a condiment which is supposed to 
conitist t)f thirty-two drugs boiled together. On the tenth day the 
mother and child are taken to the nearest well with singing, and 
she wor»lii|Mi the well by marking the platform with turmeric, and 
placing u|>on it the cowdung figures which had been fixed up near 
tlie htmhc door. They all return, and soaked gram and sweets ar« 
dibtrilmtM. 

6. Tlie marriage ceremonies are of the normal type. There are 

some observances which may be survivals of 
marriage by capture. Thus, while ths mar* 
riagi* in gi>ing on, the women of the bride's family carry on a mock 
fight with the relations of the bridegroom, and are allowed to strike 
tlicm with the kiieailing roller (Mam). If a giri has a particular 
curl (if the hair which is supposed to resemble a female snake 
(W«/#t»). Hhe is first married to a cameKthorn bush (Jimr h^i). If 
a bsA-hclor in tlie Huno way marry a widow, and she bear him a 
daughter, in order t«> overcome the evil infltience which is su|tpassd 
to ari^e from the tikarejm form of marriagf", lie geU himself married 
t^ a tree liefore he gives away the thmghter in marriage te another. 



GABARIYA. 364 

7. Gadariyas cremate their adult dead^ exoept those who have 

died of snake-bite or small-pox. If sach 
corpses are cremated, they believe that at the 
burning a steam arises from them which strikes the moumerB bUnd. 
On the way to the burning ground a ball {pinda) is offered in the 
name of the deceased. .The son of the deceased fires the i^re, and 
each of the mourners throws in five cakes of cowdung fuel. Some 
ashes are sifted and placed the following day on the spot where the 
death occurred^ and next morning from the marks on the ashes they 
speculate as to the form which the soul will assume in the next 
birth. They perform the usual srdddia. 

8. Gradariyas are orthodox Hindus, the Musalmin branch of 

the caste being very inconsiderable. l%eir 
chief deity is K&li. They also worship a 
local deity known as Chamar. This is more especially done in the 
Naudurga of Chait and Kudr and when cholera or other epidemic 
disease is about. The offerings consist of cakes (puri), coarse sugar, 
and sometimes a goat. The last is taken by the Cham&r priest 
and the former by the local Brahman priest or Kherapati. Another 
spirit named Jakhaiya or Jokhaiya is largely worshipped by Oadft- 
riyas in the Western Districts. He is said to be the ghost of a 
Muhammadan Ghosi. His priest is a sweeper, and his offering a 
young pig. The chief shrine of Jokhaiya, who, according to the last 
Census, was worshipped by 87,061 persons, is at Pendhat, in the 
Mainpuri District. He is there said to have been a Bhangi, who 
was killed during the war between Prithivi Rftja of Delhi and 
Jaychand of Eanauj. His offering is a pig, which is presented by 
women who long for children and pray for easy delivery. The fair 
is said also to bring timely winter rain. To the west of the Pro- 
vince they are sei^ved by Sanadh Brahmans ; to the east by low 
class Brahmans of various tribes, 

9. In Bihar, according to Mr. Risley, the Gudariya ranks higher 

than the Ahir ; but this does not eeem to be 

Social statue. ., * ^i -n • m. i_ 

the case m these Frovmces. They are, how- 
ever, careful about food and drink, and maintain a fairly high standard 
of personal purity. Their original occupation is keeping and selling 
sheep and goats and making blankets; but besides this they cultivate 
and practice various forms of trading. The women have a reputa- 
tion for untidy habits, as the common proverb runs, — Mi to Oarerim, 
dusre la h tan khde—^^ a shepherdess and eating garlic in the bargain. 



99 



365 



OADARITA. 






' impviD iinn(ii If 






C 



o 
^ 



I 



-I 

CD 

V 



m 



•M«no 



JV«e«i«8 



•itUlf 8 I 



•^•^ntPH 



•jnvinva 






••»^5|!K 



s 



9» 

9 



«0 



1 1 



00 



^ 1^ lO « «> ^ 

pH ,-4 «-4 «-4 09 



fr« 9» Q ^ O 

S 3 2 t S 
rii4 00 8 S X 



o of fo ^ 9S ^ Mf ^ -r 



: S S : 8 2 : ? S 



s 






i 






9 S 



J 3 ff •* a 8 



S S CO 






s i 



: I B § S ^ S 

a 2 -^ 



•%Sf* 


■ • • ■ 
• • • • 

■ • • • 


: : S 5 : 

•9 • 


-ffttmuvH 


§ 3 S s 


•§•58 

. p^ •to 



: I 



'jvfofqa 



in^'Ho 



•pM^ 



3 = I » •• 



% ; S S a S : S 2 



R 



: : i : : : 5? a s s 8 



a 



8 



«« 

{ 



iJiili 








1 


1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 


1 ' 




■ ■ : : I S I : : ■ 


i 




," 


■«imno 


g 1 1 i S 3 i 1 i s 


8 


1?«M1BS 


• : 5 . i ■ ■ • I = 


1 


•jv2re 


• :!•.■;;;■ 


1 


■»[8in»a 


•.:■:■:;■■:;■'. 


i 


■*n«Hfa 


::•:■:■■•• 


1 




= 1 S :::::. : 


« 


■■"•IIIN 


617 

299 
13.743 
12.274 

2,21S 
14.070 
16.790 

2.79i 


s 

1 


■■1?* 


:••••• E •■ i 


i 


•nr«trawH 


= i • I ■ : • : i = 


! 


■JwSnnia 


25,069 

16,083 

310 

16,726 

2,668 

16,586 
7,948 
15,811 
10,824 


s 

i" 


lapimo 




1 




60 
2,641 


s 


•[BilSsa 


.......... 


i 


a 








1 


S 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 



869 



OADABITA. 



O CO 



•4 

H 

a 




^ 1 



Vol. !l 



t4 



O&DARITA. 





. 




.n 


^ 


S 




f. 


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rr 






^ 


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13 


K 


s 










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9 










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Si 










" 


















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s 


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jT^muBS 


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■jrfss 




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■jD.qna 










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■bKhs 






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s 




























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s 


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a 




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s 




























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s 




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^ 


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869 



OADABITA. 



CO 



« 



•4 

H 

m 



•a -3 



1 1 



t4 



Vol. II. 



i 



GADDI. 



870 



Gaddi. — The caete of Muhammadan cow-herds. They have been 
separately enumerated at the last Census^ but they are often regard- 
ed as a sub-caste of Ghosis. They are probably closely allied to the 
Ahirs ; in fact many of them are almost certainly Ahirs who have 
embraced IslSm. In the Panjab^ there are two quite distinct 
classes of people known by this name — the Musalmftn Graddis of 
Karnal and its neighbourhood^ who are identical with the Gaddis of 
these Provinces^ and a hill tribe inhabiting the mountain range 
between Eangra and Chamba. Some of them^ again^ are believed to 
be of Ehatri origin^ and these General Cunningham is inclined to 
identify with the Gandaridae or Gangaridae. In parts of these 
Provinces^ according to Sir H. M. Elliot,' it is not unusual to call 
any converted Hindu a Gaddi^ which is looked on by a true Musal- 
m&n as a term of reproach. They, with other low caste tribes, were 
old occupiers of Oudh, and they were powerful enough to make 
invasion costly to the advancing B&jputs^. According to one 
authority the women in Oudh are notorious for immorality, and the 
men for the filthiness of their persons and stupidity.* 

2. The complete returns of the last Census show 255 sections 
of the tribe. These are of the usual type : some territorial, such 
as Aharwar, Audhiya, Bahraichi, Balapura, Gorakhpuri, Kanaujiya, 
Mathuriya, Purbiya, Saksena, Sarwariya, and Shahpuri. Others 
are derived from the names of well-known castes or septs, as Ahir, 
Bachhar, Bais, Bhadauriya, Bhangi, Bhatti, Bisen, Chamarbans, 
Chandela, Chauhan, Chhatri, Domar, Ghosi, GAjar, Hurakiya, 
Jat, Kamboh, Kori, Mewati, Pathan, Rathaur, Sayyid, Shaikh, 
Tank, Teli, Tomar, and Turkiya. 



Dutributiov of the Gaddi according to tie Ceneue of 1891. 



DiBTBICTB. 

• 


Namber. 


DiSTBICTB. 


Number. 


Sah&raDpur . . 


360 


Aligarh • • • 


1.298 


MazAffarnagar 


5 


Mathnra 


7 


Me^rut • • 


3»421 


Agra • • • • 


79 


Balandchahr • 


1,201 


£tah • • • • 


886 



> Ibbetaon, PanjAb Ethnography^ section 498: Drew, Jammu, lOS. 

' Supplementary Glossari/, a.v, 

* Elliott, Vhronicki of Undo, 25 : WilliamB, Oudh Centui Report, 88. 



OADDI. 




8' 


71 


oaharwAb. 


Dutrihuii^n o/iU Gaddi aceordimg U ik§ Cmums iff /69i— Mield. 


DltTBtCTI. 


Kumbar. 


Ditrmicn. 


Nanbtr. 


B«reillj 




1364 ! 


AiMDgsrh 




479 


Badion • 




USl : 


lirii . 




863 


Moiidibid . 




S87 


Imekiiow 




ZMl 


8b4bjah4npar 




1.079 


UdAo • 




1»198 


Pilibhtt 




446 


£44BmU • 




888 


C^wnpur • 




8 


Stupor 




4464 


PaUhpor • 




90 


Uu-doi 




10696 


BindA 




8 


Kberi . 




7^47 


Allmb4b4d . 


, .i 48 


QoimIa 




68 


Benar*« 




1 


Ikbriieb 




f.008 


Q hill pur 




178 


Soltinpur . 




89 


Qoimkbpur • 


MM 


BIrmbaiiU . 

1 




1^10 


P Al 


1 • AmA 




IMBll • • • • 




1 TotAt .; 61^0 



Tiibd tndHioiu 



Oaharwar. — An important tept of Rijputs. Their name it 
spelt QmhadawUa in the l^rmnts, and an eminent authority, Dr. 
Iloemie, connects it with the Sanskrit root paA, in the tenae of 
** dwellers in caves or deep junffle."* 

2. The tribal tradition, as told bjr the family bards of the head of 

the tept, the Rija of Kantit, in the Mim^r 
District, is as follows:— 'From Chandrama 
the moon came Buddh, and from Buddh came Puniravas. Some 
^*nerations later was bom Yayiti, who, when he reached an old age, 
longed to recover hb youthful vigour. With this view he called 
his sons, born of his two wives, Devayini and Sarmishtha, and asked 
them to make over their youth to him. They all refused esoepi 
the youngest, the son of Sarmishtha. So Yayiti cursed them all, 
and prayed that they might never enjoy riiyal power One of 



I Indium Aniiqumry, XV, 
at Um OAbTarm or Qirif aliTAr*. 

Vol. 11. 



Is Um pMiriAik Wits wt tad s psopis kmomm 
tho AM dtschbod fts dvsOsfS laottvsB. Wlltoa, 

t4f 



oahabwAb. 872 

thopi^ Yadu^ was the ancestor of the Yaduvansis^ none of wliom have 
ever gained sovereignty, Yay&ti reigned many years^ and finally 
abdicated the throne and crowned his yonngest son in his room and 
became an ascetic. After many generations in his line Deva Disa 
reigned at Kashi or Benares. He was famons for his good works, 
and hence incurred the envy of ttie malignant deity Sani or Saturn. 
He endeavoured to divert Deva D&sa from his life of pieiy^ but he 
failed^ and the good king gained the title of graha-rdra or '' over- 
comer of the planet, ^' of which Gaharwftr is a corruption. He wor- 
shipped Mahadeva so fervently that the deify abandoned K&sbi 
and retired to the summit of Kailftsa. But he became tired of his 
life of seclusion^ and incited the other gods to mislead Deva Disa. 
All failed, but the DhundhS B&ja Ganesa, who overcame the piety 
of Deva D^, who was obliged to retire to SLanauj, which was then 
called Rashtradesa, and becoming lord of that land, his descendants 
were known as Rtlthaur. His descendant was the femons BAja 
Jaya Chandra, whose dominions are recorded in the Hindi verse : — 
Kara, Kdlpi^ Kamaru, Kashmir lawa desa : 
Kind, KdsAi, Kanaftj dhani Sri Jaya Chandra naresa. 
" Jaya Chandra, lord of men and powerful sovereign, was ruler 
of Kara, Kalpi, Kamaru, Kashmir, Kanauj, and Benares.'^ After 
his defeat by Shahabuddin Ghori, Jaya Chandra's nephew is said to 
have fled to Rohtasgarh ; another to Krishnagarh, in Marw&r; a 
third to Jodhpur, and a fourth to Ju&Iamukhi. The son of the 
King of Rohtasgarh was granted by Shir Shih the Pargana of Kera 
Mangraur, now in the Mirzapur District, and became a Musalm&n. 
The younger fled to Kantit, in the same district, and, with the aid 
of a Sukla Brahman of Dhaurahra, near Bijaypur, overcame the 
Bhar Raja of that place and founded the family of the Gaharw&r 
Rajas of Kantit-Bi jaypur. All the other Gaharwirs trace their 
lineage to Benares or Bijaypur. Those in Hardoi say that the 
countiy was held by Thathei*as, whom they defeated and expelled.^ 
3. Sir H. M. Elliot thinks it doubtful whether they preceded 
the Rathaurs at Kanauj, or, after being incorporated with them, 
were dispersed with them at the final conquest of Kanauj by 
Muhammad Ghori. Even now the Cawnpur branch derive their 
name from Gharbdhar, because they were turned out of house and 
home after the fall of Kanauj.' 

1 Hardoi Settlement Report, 89: Oldham, Ohanpur M§mo,^ II, 47, « 9. : Fawrukk^ 
hdd Settlement Report, 13 : Bachanan, Ea$UmJndia, U, 460: OldliMi, Im ca« L M. 
s Cawnpur SettUmeni Report, 22. 



878 



oaharwAr. 



4. The Oaharwin hold a high rank among Rijpat septa. 
They give danghtera to the Baghel, Chandel, and Bisen, and take 
brides of the Bais, Rijkam&r, Mannas, Oantam, Palwir, Chan- 
hin, Parih&r, Sombansi, Simet, and Dikshit. 

In FarnikbifaAd thejr give, brides to the Chanhin, Rithanr, 
Bhadaurijra, and Kaohhwiha, and take girls from the Nikumbh, 
Chandel, Raikwtr, Solankhi, Oaor, Chamar-Oaor, Parihir, and 
Ujjaini. They claim to belong to the Bharadwija foira. In Unio 
they receive brides from the Dhikrl, Janw&r, and Parihir ; and 
pve their girls to the Gaur, Bais, Chandel, and SombansL 

Dittribniion pf the Oaiarwdf Bdfput$ aeeordimg to He Cemms of 

1891. 



DiaTBlOTS. 


Nub«r. 


DiaratcTi. 


Nonbcr. 


Ilatbara 


If 


Minapiir 




80.849 


Acra • 


• 


46 


' jAimimr 




1.901 


Fam>kkib4d 


• • 


MM 


1 




4,668 


ISatnpari 


• • 


478 


oAiiia • 

1 




698 


Btiwah 


• • 


889 


Qorakhpar • 




898 


EUh . 


» • 


1.900 


BstU . 




869 


BodAan 


• • 


106 


Amofsro 




860 


MorAdibia . 


1 • 


8 


Loeloiow 




\fiU 


SbibJAliAopvr 


• 


869 


Ua4o . 




1,176 


PtUbkH 


1 • 


164 


BIABmli . 

1 




609 


Cawvpor • 


> • 


1168 


■ 

I 8tUpar 




860 


FaUkpar 


> • 


118 


HaiM 




8,119 


Bifida . 


1 • 


488 


KImH . 




176 


Huslrpar 


• 


817 


FaisAUa 




8 


AAOiAUd 


» • 


4,018 


Qoada 




190 


JUbsI . 


• 


17 


BskriMli • 




88 


J41«aa • 


) • 


819 ' 


8vlt4iip«r . 




Ifft 


Lalit|Mir 


» • 


1» J 


FWHAbgarli • 




411 


Bmmtm 


• 


846 


BiiaBMiki . 

1 




181 






J TOT4] 




68L477 



/ 



6AHL0T. 374 

Gahlot. — A sept of Rijputs also known as Sisodiya and Aliar- 
iya. One derivation of the name Gahlot is from Sanskrit guia^ 
'^a cave.'' It is said that when the ancestors of the Rina of 
Mewar were expelled from Gujarat^ one of the qneens named Posh- 
pavati found refuge among the Br^mans of the Maliya mountains : 
she was shortly after delivered of a son, whom she called from the 
cave (guha) in which he was bom^ by the name of GhJilot. Others 
derive the name from gahla, '^ a slave girl/' in allusion to their eap- 
posed descent. One derivation of the name Sisodiya is SivM sad' 
hi^tty "a devotee of the god Siva;" another is from «{m^ "lead'^ 
as one of the tribe once drank melted lead with impunity. A third 
is from iasa or 9UBna ^' a hare/' which is supposed to have| been 
the tribal totem. But it seems safer to regard the name as a 
local appellation^ derived from the town of Sisodha^ the first home 
of the sept^ as Ahariya is taken from the town of Anandpur AhAr, 
near Udaypur. The name Gahlot was changed to Ahariya when the 
sept migrated to Nagindra. The throne of Chithor was recovered 
in 1201 A.D. by Bharat^ who was succeeded by Bakflp. Two great 
changes were introduced by this prince — the first in the title of the 
sept to Sisodiya ; the other in that of its priDce from RsLwal to B&na. 

2. According to Colonel Tod^ they migrated from Kosala under 
Kanak Sen, and became rulers of Ballabhi and Ghtjni, from which 
the last piinee Siladitya was expelled by Parthian invaders in the 
6th century. ^^A posthumous son of his, Grahaditya, obtained 
a petty sovereignty at Edar. A change was marked by his name 
becoming the patronymic, and Grahilaut or Gahlot designated the 
Suryavansa of Rama. With reverses and migrations from the 
wilds of Edar to Ahar, near the modern Udaypur, the Gahlot was 
changed to Ahariya, by which name the race cod tinned to be 
designated till the 12th century, when the elder brother, BakAp, 
abandoned his claim to the throne of Chithor, obtained by force of 
arms from the Mori, and settled at Dungarpur, which they yet hold, 
as well as the title Ahariya ; while the younger, Mah&p, estaUiahed 
the seat of power at Sisodha, whence Sisodiya set aside both Ah&riya 
and Gahlot/^ There seems to have been always a prejudice 
against the tribe, and in ancient times they had a reputation for 
cowardice. Their name has been identified with the Gallitaluta 
of Ptolemy's lists." 



I Annali, I, 90. 

3 Boamofl, Indian Antiquary, I, 276 : MoCrindle, ihid, Yl^^^moU. 



376 OAHIiOT. 

8. One brmtieh of so-OftUed Ofthlots, who are now kbown m 

Chirir, were in the eerrioe of the Rljm of 
North-WMtem ProTin* MaiDpari, hat their olaime to pore Omhlot 
c«. aDd Oudh. y^^ ^ ^^ admitted. In FerrnkhlhAd^ 

the eept cimims to hare oome from Chitbor. OoTind Rio, the 
founder of the colony, is eaid to hmve oome with PriUuTi IUj% the 
Delhi prinoe, in hii expedition againet Jajr Ohand d Kananj, and 
to haTe rcoeiTed one hundred and eighty Tillages in this and the 
neighbourhood of Cawnpnr as a reward for the Takmr he displayed. 
From him they have preserved a pedigree down to the modem 
representative of the sept ; but this shows but thirteen or fourteen 
generations from Oovind Rio, while it would require over forty 
years a generation to make him a contemporary of Prithivi Kija, 
It is most probable that some names have dropped out of the list. 
In Unio* the sept were emigrants in the time of Aurangsdb and 
dispersed the original Kori inhabitants. In llathura' they are 
classed as pure, because they do not practise widow-marriage. The 
families there call themselves Sfth, Chaudhari, and lUo. In 
Bulandshahr^ they are supposed to have given their name to the 
town of OulAothi. In Cawnpur* they sre said to have turned out 
the Oaurs from Pargana Bilhaur, where their territory acquired 
unenviable notoriety which gave rise to the name Tisih or " thrf« 
harvests "-* k hat if, rabi, and plunder, lliey have a very remark* 
able legend that Partip Chand Gahlot, the conqueror of Chitbor, waa 
married to a daughter or grand-daughter of the famous Nausher* 
win, and hence the tradition that the RInas of Udaypur are of 
Persian desoent. 

4. In Sultlnpnr they are reported to take brides from the 
Bilkhariya, TWhaiya, Chandauriya, Kath Bais, Bhill Sultin, 
Raghubansi, Oargbansi, Rljkumir, Bachgoti, and Bandhalgoti ; to 
receive brides frum Tilokehandi Bais, Mainpuri Chauhlns, 8&raj« 
banais of Mahul, Oantams of Nagar, and Bisens of Mighauli. la 
Bulaad»hahr they receive brides fn»m the Chauhin, BargAjar, 
Pondir, Panwir, SoUnkhi, Tomar, Hlutti, and Rlthaur, and give 
brides to the Dhlkr^, Clmuhln, BIchlml, Kachhwiha, Baigftjar, aod 



* KUiotl, Vhramulm. 53. 



GAHLOT. 



876 



Tomar. They call their goira Stbrajbansi Sanoha of Chitfaor and 
Udaypur. In Unfto they usually many their daaghters to the 
Kachhwaha, Rithanr^ Chandel^ and Panwftr ; and select wives from 
the Chanh^^ Dikhit^ PanhAr, Chandel, and Sengar aepts. lo 
Ballia they take brides from the Doowftr^ Sengar, Karcbbnliya^ 
Baodphar^ Eaghubansi^ KSkan, Bhriguhansi, Barhauliya^ Ujjaini, 
Sombansi, and KiDwir. They give brides to the Ba^ubansi, 
Kikumbh^ Elausiky Siirajbansi, Gbvutam, Drigbansi, Maonas, Siriiet, 
R&jkum&r^ Jftdon, and Baghel septs. In Agra they daim to belong 
to the Kasyapa gotra. 

Dislribufion of the Oahloi Rdjpuii according io tie Cemiui of 1891. 



< = 
DIBTBIOT8. 




Hindna. 


HffnhaminailaiH 1 


TOTAI» 








8ah4ranpnr 


1 • • 


178 


8 


181 


Musaffamagar 






401 


166 


666 


Mderat • 






10J89 




10089 


Bnland^hahr 






8,140 


L900 


4840 


Aligarh • , 






2,827 




2327 


Mathara • 






2.177 • 


178 


8,850 


Agra • 






8,066 


26 


8/)88 


Farrokhib&d 






1,699 


6 


1.7091 


Mainpuri • 






669 




669 


BtAwah 






l,4i56 


14 


1,470 


Etah 






2.070 


88 


8,108 


Bareilly 






40 




40 


BndAuD 






899 


68 


468 


Mor&d4b&d . 






234 


18 


847 


8b4hjah4npar 






846 


15 


861 


Pjlibhlt . 






27 




87 


CawDpar 






2,536 


6 


8,649 


Fatebpnr • 






26 




86 


B4nda 






88 




88 



OAULOT. 



877 



GAHOI. 



Dutribmtion t^ih§ Oahloi Sdjpmi* meeordinfi to tk$ Cnums ^ laPi^eoneld, 



DitTBICTt. 


Hindot. 


MttbftmmadmM. 


Total. 


Hamtrpur « 


» < 






IftO 




160 


AIUhibAd . 


1 






& 


8 


8 


Jhinst 


1 






71 




78 


JiUnn 


1 « 






853 


4 


867 


ficoarw 


• 






108 


•••••• 


108 


Jftanpvr • 


• 






160 


116 


866 


Qhiiipvr . 


« 






840 


00 


448 


Ballia 


» < 






766 




766 


Qoimkhpiir « 


« 






167 




167 


Biiti . 


> 4 






87 




87 


▲saingmrii , 


» < 






467 


7 


464 


LnekDOW < 


» 4 






118 


•••••• 


118 


UnAo 


1 4 






091 




081 


lUABftrtU , 


» 4 






668 




668 


Stupor 


• < 






81 


6 


86 


flardoi 


• 






60 




60 


KlMri 


• 






174 


•••— 


174 


Bahriich . 


» 






88 




88 


SultAapar 


» 






87 


10 


66 


PartAbgATli 






81 




81 


BlfBUaki . 






07 




07 






TotAl 


k 


86J46 


1^8 


88.818 



Oahot.— A sttb-CMto of Banyai, feaiid ehitfly in Bandelkluuid 
mod MoridAhid. 

2. The Omboij of Mim^mr, who do not ^>pear in tbo Oomm 
UsU, mj that they are emignuite from BnndelUMuid in the eooi* 
nmotmtDi of Uiii century, wbeiioe they were diifen by the preeeme 



GAHOI. 



378 



o£ the Findiri raids. One Biya P&nrS Br&hman protected their 
families in their misfoHunes^ and divided them into twelve goirai 
and seventy -two ah. He is said to have been a Bchoolmaster and 
their tribal priest ; after marriages his services to them are com- 
memorated by the bridegroom pouring some butter and laying 
flowers and conseci-ated rice before a rude image of him painted on 
the house wall. The twelve gotrat as given by them in Mirzapor 
are — Basil, Gol or Groil, Gangal^ Bandal^ Jaital^ Kaunthii^ 
Eachhil, Bachhal, Kassab or Kasyapa^ Bharal^ and Patiya. The 
last or Patiyas act as a sort of Bh&ts or genealogists to the others^ 
and are feasted and rewarded at marriages and other entertainments. 
They eat and drink on equal terms with their constituents. None 
of them can give any trustworthy list of their aU. 

d. Their rule of exogamy is that they do not marry within their 
own gotra or the al of the maternal unclci Other's mi^iernal unde 
and mother's maternal uncle. Widow-marriage is prohibited. 

4. The Grahois are Vaishnavas ; none have adopted the tenets of 
the Saraogi or Jaina faith. Their tribal deity is Srikrishna^ whom 
they worship under the name of Bihiri LSI. They rank high 
among Banyas, and are said to be considered as respectable as 
Agarwalas and Farwals. They abstain from meat and spirits. 
Theii* priests are Bhargava Brahmans from Bundelkhand. They 
will eat pakki cooked by their clients. The Gahois will eat iaeieii 
cooked by their clansmen and priests. 

5. They are traders in country produce, commission agents, 
money-changers, and bankers. 



Distribution of Gahoi Banyai according to tie Cemui 


of 1891. 


Districts. 


Number. 


DiBTBICTS. 


Number. 


Mathura • • 


7 


Bijnor 




895 


Ajjra 


248 


Mor&d&b&d . 




3,510 


Farrukb&bad 


100 


i Sbjkbjah&opar * 

1 




la 


Etftwah 


266 


Pilibblt 

1 




6 


Etah 


1 


Cawnpur . , 




Ml 


Bareilly • • 


20 


1 
Fstehpar . . 




87 



GAHOI. 



379 GAKDHARB ; OANDHARV. 



Duirihmtion 9f Oakoi Bsnfms t^eemriing to ik§ Cemsms $f 1991^'t<mt\d. 



DllTBICTII. 


Nmnbor. 


DltTBICTS. 


NamlMr. 


Biodft 


M40 


LalUpor 


1,470 


Hamtrpvr • 


1,614 


Tun ... , 


83ft 


AnmhAl>id . 


8 


Lncknow 

• 


10 


JHinai • 


8.239 


RtUpvr 


U8f 


Jilaas 


8^61)0 


^ TOTA& 


1,198 




S9461 



Omadharb ; Oaadharv.^ — A emste of tingeni and prottitnteB. 
Of the ori^nal OmndluuTM ProfeMor DowBon' writes: — "The 
heavenly Omndharvaof the Veda was a deity who knew aod rereaiad 
the secrets of heaven and divine truths in general. He is thought 
by Ooldstiicker to have been a personitication of the fire of the sun. 
The Oandharvas generally had their dwelling in the sky or atmoa* 
phere, and one of their offices was to prepare the heavenly sosis juice 
for the gods. They had a great partiality for women, and had a 
mystic powi«r over thi^m. The Atharva Veda speaks of 6,883 Oan- 
dharvas. The Oandharvas of bier times are similar in character; 
they have charge of the #mm» are skilled in madicine, regulate the 
asterisms, and are fond of women. Those ol Indra's heaven are 
generally intended by the term, and they are singers and muaiciaiia 
who attend the banquets of the gods.'' 

2. The Oandharbs of these provinoosare found in small numbers 

only in Benares, AUahlhAd and Ohisipur. 

They address themsdves by the title of lU^ 
They name teven exogamous fa/r#j^-Arakh, 8ital» Hams!, Shihi* 
mal, Htwan, Pachbhaiya, and Udhomana^ The deUiled Census 
Returns give the pidrms as Anmkh, Arakh, Bacha, Bah^hana, Baj- 
bhin, Banal, Baturha, BiMJcwa, Chhatn, Oandwir, Kanaujiya, 
Kashmiri, Khodari, Manho^ Namahrin, Namin^ Rabisi^ Bamsan, 
Riwat, Sahmal, SaUyili, Shihi, and SomaL A man must many 
outside his own f sirs, that of hia fiUher, mother, and their anceslofiy 
to the fifth degree. lie, moteover, cannot many in the g^ifm of bis 



MAirUfv mUs. 






gandharb; gakdharv. 380 

sister's and brother's father-in-law. He cannot many two sisterg 
at the same time ; but if he marry the elder of two sisters and she 
die, he can marry her younger sister. 

3. Beautiful girls or those who show from their childhood a 

The rules of proafcitn- taste for music are selected for prostitation 
^*°°* and not allowed to marry in the caste. A 

meeting of the brotherhood is held before the girl comes to maturity, 
and it is settled that she is to be allowed to have intercourse with no 
one but a Hindu of high caste. If she does not abide by this 
rule, she is at once expelled from the caste. When the matter is 
thus settled, some sweets are distributed, and she is formally declared 
to be a prostitute. The first man who engages her services is re- 
garded as her quasi-huahvkiiA,. On such an occasion all the ordinary 
ceremonies of a Hindu marriage are performed at the house of the 
girl, except the walking round the fire (pkera). Other girls not 
selected for prostitution are married in the tribe in the ordinary 
way. But if a man take to any low or degrading occupation^ not 
sanctioned by tribal usage, he is not allowed to marry. 

4. The Gandharbs of Benares ascribe their origin to Delhi. 

They tell the following legend to account for 

Tribal traditioxiB. . , , 

their emigration. The fort of Chandrftvati 
was built by R4ni Chandr&vati.\\ This is possibly the place of that 
name in the JhallsLwar State in RajputsLna. She was a Chhatri by 
caste and married the Muni Uddalaka. Their descendants reigned 
there for many generations, until they were driven out by the Raghu- 
bansi Rajputs, and were obUged to retreat to the banks of the river 
Tons. Khemr^j was the first Raghubansi king of Chandrivati^ and 
he was succeeded by his son, Doman Deo. /'He had a groom named 
Shim, who one day went out to cut grass in the jungle and fell 
asleep. While he slept a cobra raised its hood over his head and a 
wagtail [khanjarit) kept flying over him. Doman Deo happened 
to observe these signs which pointed to his groom becoming a king^ 
so he sent for him and asked what he would do for him if he 
ascended the throne. Shim for a long time could not understand 
his meaning. At last he promised to make Doman Deo his prime 
minister. So he went to Delhi, the throne of which happened to 
be vacant at the time, and, as was the custom, an elephant was given 
a garland which it was to lay on the neck of the fittest.^ Three 



> For an •xunple of thii ouatom, sea Tawney, Kaiha Mrii Sdgora, 11. 108. 



881 qavdharb; gakdhart, 

times, to the sstbDishment of ereryonei the elephant laid the garland 
on the neok of ShtrUi and he became Emperor of Delhi under the 
name of Shir Shah, and according to hie promiw, he made Doman 
Deo hi« prime minister. It need hardly be said that there is no 
historical foundation for the story. 

5. Doman Deo continued to hold the office of Waxir for some 
time, and at last had a quarrel with his master, because he bought a 
horse which his master was anxious to secure. So he was banibhed 
and had to return to Chandrivati, and with him came a Oandharb^ 
named Nandu, with his wife Arjuni, the former of the Ramsi and 
the latter of Arakh goira^ and from them were descended the 
present Gandharbs. 

6. They do not admit outsiders into their caste. In most cases 

marriage is in&nt ; but there have been oc* 
casional instances of the marriage of adults. 
Sexual license before marriage of these girls selected for a respectable 
life is strictly prohibited. The prostituted girls aie never allowed to 
marry. Polyandry is totally forbidden, and polygamy is allowed 
only when the first wife is barren or suffering from some loathsome 
or contagious disease. A man can marry as many wives as he can 
afford to keep ; but they never have more than two or three. Their 
marriage ritual is of the usual high class type. Widow-marriagt 
is strictly forbidden ; but it appears that the keeping of widows as 
concubines is not unknown ; such are known as Surmiiim ; they have no 
rights, and their children are illegitimate and not admitted to caste 
privileges. If a man suspect hi« wife of adultery, be brings the 
matter before the tribal council {PmmcMdj^ai) which, if the case be 
proved, permits a divorce, though in some cases a stipend is assigned 
to the woman. A divorced woman cannot be remarriedi but she 
often lives with some one as a concubine. 

7. They follow the Hindu law of inheritanoe. Among the 

married people {grUstiA) the daughter has no 
rights of succession ; among the dancing 
classes, on the contrary, the shares of adanghter and a son are equal, 
and if a dancing girl lives with her friends and dies among them, the 
uncle, mother, sun, daughter, and brother would share equally. On 
this qiM»tion the Hindu law, as laid down by Mr. Mayne,^ is clear. 
** It im hardy nei^essary to say that as under the ordinary Hindu 



I UtHdm Uw, 171. 



GANDH/ifiB; QANDHARV. 382 

law an adoption by a widow must always be to ber bosband, and 
for his benefit^ an adoption made by her to herself alone would 
not give the adopted child any right, even after her death, to pr(^ 
perty inherited by her from her husband, nor indeed to ber own 
property, however acquired, such an adoption being nowhere 
recognised as creating any new status, except in Mithila, tinder the 
Kritima system. But among dancing girls it is castomary in 
Madras and Western India to adopt girls to follow their adoptive 
mother^s profession, and the girls so adopted succeed to their 
mother's property. No particuli»r oeremoniee are necessary, 
recognition alone being sufficient. In Calcutta, however, such adop- 
tions have been held illegal, and it seems probable that the 
recognised immorality of the class of dancing girls might lead the 
courts generally to follow this view." 

8. Gandharbs are Hindus of the Vaishnava sect. The women 

who are married specially worship Maha^ 
deva, while Granesa is the special patron of 
the dancing girls, since he is regarded by them as the author 
of music. They offer wreaths of flowers, and a sweetmeat made of 
sesamum and sugar called til'ia''laddu, to him on Wednesdays. 
Mah&deva is worshipped on no particular day with the leaves of the 
bei {aegle marmelos). They also worship a deity known as Thiknr 
Deota, who is probably some form of Vishnu. In the city of 
Benares these offerings are taken by a class of Br&hmans called 
Panda ; in villages by Bhanreriyas or Husaini Br&hmans. The 
Ghindharb women keep a fast exclusive to them in the month of 
Bhadon, known as the Tij bharat, in honour of the goddess P&rvatL 
Their special tribal deity is B4ba KinnariLm, who was a famous 
ascetic. His shrine {asikdn) is at R&mgarh, in the Cfaandauli 
Tahsil of the Benai*es District, and it is largely frequented fay 
barren women who come to pray for children, and by dancing 
girls in hope of success in their profession.^ They always employ 
Brihmans for ceremonial aiid seldom for religious purposes. Such 
Brfihmans are treated on an equality by other Brihmans: for 
their funeral ceremonies they employ Mahibr&hmans. The dead 
are cremated in the orthodox way and the ashes consigned to the 
Ganges. They practice the usual Mrdddha and feeding of Brih* 
mans after a death in the &mily. 

1 Fur KinnArAni, see under Aghori, 



OAKDHARB ; 6AKDHARY. 888 OAVDHX. 

9. The Omndharbs believe dmncing and rinpng to be their 

tribal oocnpation. A tew have settled doiwn 
in the Benaree Diitriot ae agriealtoriita. 
Some live with their dancin^^ girls and aooompany them to ent«r- 
tainmente, where they play on the sdt, which oonnste of the 
tambourine (tatla) and fiddle {idrmm^. Half of the danoing Ceee 
are received by theee men and distributed in the following way :^-> 
Two tambour'ne men get two annas each; the drummer three 
annas ; one tuner of the instruments one anna. Some, again^ 
act as trainers of dancing girls in music and dancing. Those in 
the villages are often tenants ; but it is a peouliaiity among them 
that they will never sublet their land to a person of their own 
caste. In Benares tlie sowing of poppy is one of their favourite 
occupations. 

10. They will eat the flesh of goats and sheep and scaly fish and 

drink spirits. A good many who consider 
themselves specially pious abstain from the 
use of meat and spirits. They will not eat kackeki from the hands 
of any but Brfthmans and clansmen ; and they will smoke with no 
other caste but their own. The lowest caste that they can take pakki 
from or drink with is the Ahir. Another peculiarity of them is that 
they will not eat ptikki with any Hindu landlord of their village. 

DiiirihuiUn of ik$ Qmndkarbt ^^eordinf io ik$ Cemms of 1891. 



DltTBICTS. 



AIUh4b4a 

BfCIATM 

Gk4&ipor ••••••••• 

Total 



finmhm. 



SI 
63 



064 



(Hndhi (Sanskrit, fomdkikm^gondkm ** perfume **), the manu« 
fa€*turer of incenses and perfumes.-^'* The tendency to suppbmt 
Hinduiftini by Pemian words has given rise to the use of many 
other tenna— ^'Itrfarosh, Khushbusli, 'Itrdli, and 'Attir used in a 
perverted sense."^ They are both Shaikh and Sayyid Musalmins, 
who marry only among themselves. Some of the more advanced 



GANDHI. 384 

follow the Musalmftn rules of exogamy, bat among those who 
live much with Hindus there is a tendency to revert to the 
recognised Hindu formula, and they will not marry the daughter of 
the uncles or aunts on both sides. The final Cengus Betoms 
include a number of sections which, however, do not appear to 
influence marriage. These are among the Hindu branch, which is 
not separately marked ofE in the returns, Din&r : and among the 
Muhammadans Deswali, Ghmdhik&r, Jagbasa, Kapariya, Kanju, 
Shaikh, Sadiqi, Sikhri, and Unta. They believe themselves to be 
descended from two ancient worthies. Shaikh Sana and Shaikh 
Zainuddin, to whom at various seasons of the year they make 
ofEerings of food and sweetmeats. In the Eastern Districts they 
look on Jaunpur as their head-quarters. Widow-marriage is 
forbidden. Marriage is performed in the forms known as sJ^ddi 
or cAarhauwa, and the dola, but by the Musalm&n ritual women 
of other castes are admitted by reading passages of the Qurftn over 
them and making them eat the leavings of a GfandhL Wives are 
divorced for adultery, but the custom of wives divorcing their 
husbands is unknown. 

2. They principally venerate Im&m Husain, 'AH andiGhizi 

Miy&n. To these aie offered sweetmeats, 
cakes {malida), and a special kind of pre- 
pared rice called iinehdtoali. On the 'Id, Shab-i-bar&t, and Baqar 'Id 
they make ofEerings of food to the spirits of their dead ancestors. 

3. The process of manufacture is distillation as practised at 
Occupation and aocial ^^V^^^ distilleries, but the still {bhahka, 

status. hhapka) used in distilling perfumes is of 

peculiar construction. '^ I can best describe it as a gigantic goblet 
{sufdhi) made of copper. In this is placed what is called the 
gdmtn or rndtoa of all perfumes, r»«.. Sandal 'Itr, which is made 
at Kanauj. The flowers from which the perfume is to be 
extracted ai*e thrown into water in the cauldron on the fire, and 
then peifume comes ofE in steam and passes through the worm 
into the copper bhapka and combines with the Sandal 'Itr. When 
the bhapka is removed the perfumed oil is separated from the 
water in the bhapka by skimming the surface with the hands.^'^ 
They follow the Musalm&n rules regarding food, but will not eat 
food cooked by Muhamraadan Mehtars. 



> Hoe J, Monograph on Trad* and Mant^faetur€s, 107. 



OANDHI. 




8{ 


)5 gakbhIla. s 


Diiiributiom if H$ Qamdkh aceordim^ to lit (kmiut rf 1891. 


DirrBicn. 


Nnmbar. 


DitTBIOT*. 


Number. 


Sabirmnpor • • 




26 


Jaonpur • 


8 


MoM£Fanugar 




124 


Gbizipur • • • 


87 


Meerut 




800 


EtXHm .... 


11 


FumikhibAd 




8 


Qonkbpar . 


89 


Kt&wah 




S 


Attmgarb • 


88 


Euh . 




1 


Tftrii .... 


1 


Bijnor • • 




8 


Locknow • • 


8 


MoHUiibAd . 




86 


UnAo . . . . 


8 


BhihJMbinpiir 




48 


BabHUob . 


88 

• 


CAtropur • 




1 


B4nbanki . 


79 


FaUbpar 




8 


Total 








778 



1. Qandhila (SanBkrit iandka, ''smell, "in the tense of 
" fc*ti(I, " ** mal-odorous^'). — A ^i^rant tribe which was at the bat 
C(^n!(u8 found in smAll numbers in the Meerut and Mnxaffamagar 
Dihtri«*t8. Their home appears to be in the PanjAb. Thejr are 
•aid by Sir H. M. Klliot* to be a few degrees more respectable 
than tlie Hawariyas; but in this araertion he was certainly mis* 
taken. According to Mr. Ibbetson,' " they wander about bars* 
hcailetl and Ijare-fuoted, beg, work in grass and straw, catch quails, 
clean and iiliar|)en knives and swords, cut wood, and generally do 
odd jobs. They are said to eat tortoises and ^-ermin. They also 
keep donkeys (whence their other name OadmkU), and eren 
engage in trade in a small way. It is said that in some parts 
they leail about performing bears, but this I doubt. They hare 
curious traditions which are reported to me from distant parts of 
the Province, reganling a kingdom which the tribe once possessed, 
and which they seem inclined to place beyond the Indus, Tlifly 



VOL.JI. 



* fttiV*^ 8U«#f r«f4y. 8mIw« AS*. 



8a 



gandhIla, 886 

Bay they are under a vow not to wear shoes or tarbans till their 
possessions are restored to them/' Of the same people Major 
Temple 1 writes : — "They are usually described in the courts as 
" homeless sweepers/' They are Mnsalm&ns of a very low order 
of intelligence, and in appearance more like beasts than men« 
They come principally from the Montgomery District, and are 
inveterate thieves, especially of dogs, which they eat. They will 
also eat animals which have died a natural death, and putrid flesL" 

2. In these Provinces' they are all Hindus. Some of them 
pretend to have gotras within which a man cannot marry, but of 
these they can give no list, and it would seem that they have no 
law of exogamy except a vague injunction that they should not 
marry near relations. In the detailed Census Returns four goiroM 
ai*e recorded —Abri, Chauhan, Grandena, and Gohal. They wander 
about with little huts made of reed (Mirki^, and seldom stay more 
than a few days in the same place. They call themselves indi- 
genous to the Upper Ganges-Jumna Duab. They freely admit 
outsiders into their community, and the only ceremony of initiation 
is that the new comer has to drink with the members of the tribe. 
Marriage takes place both in infancy and when they become adulta. 
As a rule they prostitute their girls, and infidelity is little regarded. 
They allow the marriage of widows and divorced women by the 
kardo form. They do not employ Brahmftns in any of their 
domestic ceremonies, and the duty at marriages is performed by the 
brother-in-law or son-in-law of the bridegroom known as dkiydmm, 

3. They call themselves Hindus ; but they worship none of the 
ordinary Hindu gods, except Parameswar, who is worshipped by 
the women and children in times of sickness or trouble. All their 
other ceremonies are performed by the Dhiy&na above described* 
They do not perform the trdddha ; but they lay out a little food 
for the ghosts of the dead and then eat it themselves. They eat 
any kind of carrion and vermin of all kinds which they oatdh. 
They Uve by begging and prostituting their women, and have wilj 
the most elementary industries, such as plaiting straw into basketSy 
sieves, and the like ; but of this they do little. No other caste 
will eat with them ; but it is said that some of them eat food from 
the hands of Kanjars, SSnsiyas, and similar vag^iants. 



1 Indian Antiquary, Xl, 42« 
' Not« by the Deputy Inspector of SohooU, Bailor. 



oakdhIla. 887 ganqIputea. 



Dutnhmtion of ike G^ndkilaM according to the Ceniui of 1891. 



DltTklCTS. 



8AbAraopur 
MozaffaniAgAr 



Total 



NninbOT. 



71 

68 



194 



1. Gaogaputra, '' Bon of the Ganges/' — A cIms of Brihmaiis 
who preside over the Lathing, trdddka^ and other oeremonies which 
are performed on the banks of the Ganges at Benares and elsewhere 
along its oourse. They say themselves that when Bhagiratha 
brought the Ganges from heaven, he worshipped certain Brihmanst 
and gave them the right in future to rocci\'e all otterings made to 
the*, saercd river. They are also known as Ghatiya, because they 
occupy ghits or bathing-places along the Ganges bank. The right 
to seats at such places is very valuable, and disputes about them 
often come liefore the Courts. The Gangiputras belong to no 
special tribe of Brihman. They may be Oaur, Sarwariya, or 
Kanaujiya, and though thctr profession is very lucrative, they have 
an evil n*putation for roguery and rapacity, and not finding it easy 
ti) inti*nnarry with respectable Brahmans, there is a tendency among 
tla*m t'wards endopuny. 

2. II is prinri|ial business is to act as the cicerone of pilgrims 
who c«>me to bathe. He keeps a book in which he records tha 
name and address of pilgrims whci have acce])ted his ministrations, and 
about the time of lAthiiig festivals, he and his oitiissaries beset tha 
roods leading to the holy placet and endeavour to attract visitors, 
whom he entertains for a consideration, and jiersonally conducts 
^lu^d the \-arious shrines and sacred bathing places. At his ghit 
\w kiti»s a cow wliich the pilgrim touches as he goes to Imthe, and he 
pntvides the wonihip|)(*r with a little kuta grass and the materials 
for the ptnda, which he uioially offers up to his deceased ivlations. 
In his occufiation the Gaiifrsi^itns clonely resembk^s the Gayawll 
who acts as an emissary for tlie owners of the shrines at Gaya, and 
wanders aUnit the country inducing villagers to undertake the 
pilgrimage, and |ienionally conducting his constituents. A similar 
functionary is the Prayigwal, who oflkiates at the bathing fasti- 

YoL.n. tat 



OANGAPt^TRA. 888 

tbIs at Fray%ji or AllaMbsLd and the Mathnriya ChsabS of 
Mathurs^. 

3. Another class of these mendicant Br&hman9 is known ss 
Sarvanriya Grangllputra. There is some doubt whether they are 
really Brahmans at all, and some connect them with other mendicant 
singers like the Khapariyas. They claim^ however, to be Br&hmans 
and wear the Brahmanical cord. They carry about a pair of sticks 
called kadalkdthy which they rattle together very much in the 
same way as the '^ bones '^ used by negro minsfa:el8w Some have an 
iron rattle called cAarua, with bells {g hung km) which ring as 
they walk along. Most of them wear an iron bangle on the right 
wrist, which is used to keep off the evil spirits who surround them, 
attracted by their singing. They derive their name from th^ cus- 
tom of going about and singing songs in commemoration of the 
tragic legend of Sravana, who is sometimes known as Sravana 
Rishi. He is by one account said to be the sister's son of R4ja 
Dasaratha, of the solar race and King of Ajudhya. His father and 
mother were blind, and prayed to the gods for a son, which was 
granted ; but it was decreed at the same time that their son's wife 
should be faithless. So when he came of age Sravana refused to 
marry; but his parents insisted on his taking a wife. When he 
brought her home she turned out to be an evil woman, faithless to 
her husband and harsh in conduct to his parents. She had a dish 
made with two compartments, one of which she filled with good 
food for her husband, and the other with foul scraps for his &ther 
and mother. One day the food was changed by accident, and Sravana 
discovered her deception. So, as the old people were near their 
end, their dutiful son resolved to take them in a basket {kanwari) 
slung across his shoulder to the Ganges. On the way he came to the 
village of Sarwan, in the Unao District, where the legend is now 
localised, and laid his burden by the banks of a tank while he went 
into the jungle to rest. It so chanced that R&ja Dasaratha was 
hunting in the forest, and hearing something move in the brushwood, 
he discharged an arrow, which killed Sravana. His parents, in their 
despair, cursed the Raja, and to their curse is said to be due the 
trouble which afterwards fell on the royal house. " From that day 
to this no Kshatriya lias lived in the town which is founded on the 
spot and is called Sarwan. Many Rajputs have tried it, but evil has 
overtaken them in one way or another. The tank remains to this 
day^ and by it lies under a troe the bxly of Sravana, a figure of 



OANOiPUTRA. 



889 



GANGARL 



«tone ; and as he died with his thirst anquenchedy so, if water ifl 
poured into the navel of the stone fi^ire, the hole can ne\'er be filled 
up, but is inexhaustible in its demand/'* 

Srax'anriya Gan^ir^utras used formerly to ji^ about liegging and 
ainfciiig; from abont 2 o'clock in the morning;. They acquired an 
evil reputation for snatching nose-rings and other jewelry from pious 
W(Hnen who got up to minister to their wants : they now usually 
defer their visits to a later hour. It is considered meritorious among 
Hindus to listen to the songs of the dutiful Sravana early in the 
morning, and on suoh occasions, the singers are given alms, which 
usually consist of uncooked grain, but seldom of money. Former- 
ly they were, it is said, in the habi tof sitting dkama at the 
doors of people who refused to give thisn alms. They find it 
dangerous to carry on such practices at present. It is needless to 
say tiiat they bear a most indifferent reputation. 

Diitribmttom of OanjfApmirat according to the Cen9H$ of 1^91. 



DirrmiCTt. ' Nani>>«r. 


DltTBICT*. 


Kiimb«r* 


F»mikkAt4a 




131 


Laliiimr • • 


1 


Mainpiiri 




1 


Pensres 


a 


KtiWAb 




i 


Gorakhpar • • 


189 


BarriQj 




80 


LoekBOw 


« 


l^dion 




112 


Uii4o . . • . 


lot 


Mor4!4U.l . 




411 


R4I Barvli . 


70« 


PilibbH 




t 

1 


HtiApur 


s 


i^wopvr • 




1?» 

1 


llsfdoi. .• • 


1 4$ 


FaUbpar 




i ^^ 


Faii4b4a 


17 


UAintrpiir • 




4 

1 


Bahr&ich 


8 

j 


AlkbibU 




47 


n4nUMki . 


1 10 


1 1 


Total 


tsu 



Oailg&ri — A dans of hill Brihmans, who are inferior to the 
Sarolas, and are so called because they lire on the hanks of the Gan- 
ges. " Those who have settled in Chindpur and Lohoa call them* 



I BlUott. Ck^^niiim cc( ru#. Mi. 



oakgAri. 890 

selves Sarolas however, and it would appear that the latter are the 
section of the Brahmans living along the Changes, who obtained 
employment at the courts of the petty R&jas. The offspring of 
any Sarola who sinks by intermarriage with a lower family 
becomes simply a Gangari. The offspring of a Saiola and a con- 
cubine also becomes a Gangari. Thus^ if a Gairola, a sub-caste of 
the Sarola^ marries, his offspring by a lawful wi£e will be called 
Sarola Gtingslri, whilst his offspring by a concubine are called C^an- 
g4ri Gairola. Indeed the inhabitants of the sub-divisions away 
from the river call all the people living along the Alaknanda^ 
whether Brahmans, Biljputs, Banyas, or Doms, by the generic name 
Ghbngari or Gangdl, and there is no marked line of difference 
between the Sarola and Gang&ri. The principal sub-divicdons of 
the latter are the Ghildyal, the D^ai, and the Malftsi, who came from 
the Tardi. The GhildyUs serve the temple of K&nsmardini Devi ; 
the Unyals at the temples of Mahikhmardini, E&lika, Rijra- 
jeswari, Gharari, and Damanda Uny&l ; the Aswals at Jw&Ipa and 
several Bhairava temples. Two explanations are given of the 
superior position generally assigned to the Sarolas : one that they 
were selected as the parent clan to prepare food for the Rijas of 
Grarhwal, and hence their name ; another is that when a standing 
army became necessary, they were appointed to cook for the troops 
in the field by Raja Abhaya Pal, who further enjoined that all should 
eat from one vessel the food prepared by his Brfthman cooks — a 
CTistom generally observed to the present day. All the Brihmans 
in GarhwsLl are commonly styled G^ngsLris, but the better classes 
call themselves Sarolas, amongst whom the following sub-divisions 
are found — Koty&l, Simwal, Gairala, usually cooks; Elanyflris 
attached to the civil administration of the Rajas ; Nauty&ls, teachers ; 
Maithanis, servants ; Thapaly^ls, Rat&ris, Dobh&ls, Chamolis, Hat- 
wAls, Dyondis, Malaguris, Karyalls, Naunis, Somaltis, cooks ; 
Bijilwars, Dhuranas, ManAris, Bhattalw&lis, Mahinya ke Joshis, 
and Dimris. Most of these names are derived from the village 
of origin (t/idt) of [the sub-division. The Dimris are the cooks of 
Badari Nath, and the food prepared by them may be eaten by all 
classes. Some are temple priests and claim to belong to the Dravira 
division, the Kasyapa polra and Madhindiniya sdiha^ and to follow the 
Yajur veda. Many Dimris claim a southern origin for themselves 
and others state that the Dimris are the offspring of the celibate 
R&wals of the temple and the BriLhman female attendants who 



oakoIbi 891 oIea. 

settled in the villaf^ of Dimar^ and hence the name. They are now 
the servants of Badari Nath in particular, and some have taken to 
agriculture, while others wander all over India, asking for alms 
and selling images of the deity stamped on metal, or exposing them 
for the worship of the faithful. The Raturis derive their name 
from KatAm, a village of Chandpur, and claim to have come there 
from MahAr^htra in the time of tlie Pala Rajas to ^'isit Badari 
Nath, and to have remained in the scr\ice of the Chandpur Rija. 
They belong to the Bhiradvaja §otrit. They now ocaipy them* 
selves with agriculture and service and as priests. They and the 
Dimris inti^miarry with other Sarolas. The Gangiiris, like the 
Khasiyas, serve in the temples of the village deities and as priests 
of Bhairava ; but the Sarolas, though not very orthodox in their 
ritual, only worship the orthodox deities. TheGarhwil Brahmans 
have a reputation for gaining their ends by servile flatteiy, and the 
Khasiya section are reckoned so stupid and stubborn as to be 
only managed by fear; hence the proverb — GarktrJi iamdndJim 
nakin^ hina idiki dita nakU. ** The Uarhwal Brahman will 
give only when you stand over him with a cudgel.'*' 

Qara (gdma^ "to bury '*). — A tribe of industrious cultivators 
practically confined to the Saharanpur and Mtizaffamagar Districts. 
Of them Sir II. M. Elliot writes :<^'' They aie Musalmins, 
and arc fr«|ttently considered to be, like the Jhojhas, converted 
slaves. They themselves assert that they were formerly Sombanai 
Rajputs ; that they came from Nagara Bambe^^ to the west of 
Delhi, and that Akljar located them in desert tracts, which have 
iK)w been cleared by their industry. There sceou reason to believe 
that they arc the pn>geny of Rajput ckns, becaose among them* 
selves they have the snb-dirisions of Barg&jar, Chauhan, etc., but 
there are also perhaps among them descendants of several inferior 
castes. All those on being converted to Muhammadanism, wevs 
called (pcrha|)s contemptuously) (lara, from the new practice thsry 
had adopted of burying, instead of burning, their dead. They now 
apply the term to themselves, but endeavoor Ui disguise its origin 
by pfiiending to high birth. The Uaras generally intermarry in 
their own cUn ; but there is a set of rillages in Saharanpur, called 
Sayyid Gara, from the fact of the daughters of G Iras marrying into 






1/ 



892 



dARO« 



Sayjid families/' He complete Census Betorns name 61 sections* 
Some of them are locals snch as Chanrasijra, Mnlt&ni ; others are 
those of well-known castes and septs^ snchas Bargiijar, Bhil, Bhattiy 
Chandela^ Chauhan, Julaha^ Pundir^ R&jpat^ B&thaor ; others are 
purely Muhammadan, as Ansari^ Aziz, Bahlim^ Ghori, Mughal, 
Mughal-Bharsawa^ Muhammadi^ Shaikh^ Shaikh Haidar^ and Yir 
Muhammad. 

2. The Graras are good cultivators^ but very quarrelsome and 
litigious. This is recorded in the native proverb that a Gara is as 
great a nuisance in a village as thorns in a GdA-^Gdnw men Gdra ; 
Khet menjhdra. 

DiftribuUon of the Odras according to the Cemui of 1891. 



DI8TBICT8. 


Kamber. 


Districts. 


Number. 


Dehra Dtn • 
Sali&ranpnT . 
MuzafEamagar 


203 

45,768 

5,053 

60 


Mathura • ■ • • 
Agra • • • • 
PaiUbgarh • 

Total 


1 
2 

1 


Meerat 


61,08S 



Garg; Gargbansi. — A sept of Rajputs, They represent 
themselves to be the descendants of the Rishi Garga who was the 
fcither of Sini, from whom, according to the Vishnu Pur&na, the 
Gargyas and Sainyas, " Brahmans of Kshatriya race, " were sprung. 
The statement of the Bhagavata is that G4rgya from a Kshatriya 
became a Biahman. With him we reach an age when the modem 
distinctions of caste were unknown. In the Grargbans are some- 
times included the Chanamiya {g. v.). In FaizsLbdd^ the sept assert 
that their ancestor the Rishi was summoned from Kanauj by Rija 
Dasaratha to assist him in poi*forming the horse sacrifice ; others 
say that Yikramaditya sent for him from Kaikaides on his restora- 
tion to Ajudhya. In the Eastem Districts of the North- West 
Provinces' they are both Bhuinhai's and Chhatris^ and in the latter 
caste they do not rank high.' Those of the Grarg Bhutnh&rs^ whose 
blood has not been tainted by admixture with inferior raoes^ take a £air 
rank among Bhuinh^rs. There can be no doubt that both are of 

» Seiilement Beport, 213. 

> Atamgarh SeiiUment Report, 29, 57: Sir H. M. Elliot. 

> Supplenuntary Qlouaryt «• v. v. Qarg Chanamiya* 



OABG. 



893 



OADB ; QAJTDJL. 



the flame stock. One division of the ChhAtri branch is called Soiv 
haniya, from Surhan in Pargana Mahnl of Axam^rh. In Faiza- 
bad thoy arc reputed to be thieves. The Chhatri 8q)t are generally 
regarded as Bais of inferior stock. 

2. In Sult&npur they are reported to marry girls of Bilkhariya, 
Tashaiya, Chandauriya, Kath Bais, and BhalS Sultan, Panwir, 
Chandel, Palwar ; and to give brides to the Tilokchandi Bais, Main* 
puri Chaubans, Siiiajbansi of Mahul, Bisens of l^Iajhauli, Rijku* 
mar, and Bachgoti. In Faizib&d they marry Palwar, Raghabanii 
and Chandcl brides, and give girls to the Bachgoti, Sombansi, and 
Bais septs. 

DiMtribution of the Oargbami Rajputt aeewdinf io tk0 C0it8u» pf 

lh95. 



DiiTBicrt. 1 Niimb«r. 


DiSTBicn. 


Nrnnbtr. 


Sahirmopnr 




> ■ 


4 


Gormkbpar . 


• 




183 


Afr» • 






6 


BmIi . 


• 




HU 


Euh . 






1 


Atamgmrb 


) < 




8,40S 


HorAdAbAd . 






46 


Locknow 


) 1 




3:1 


Cawnpar 






6 


^ lUA Bftrtli 


> 1 




1 


FAtebpnr 






1 


8ttAptir 

1 


■ 




3 


AlUh4l>4a 






U 


1 F«tt4o4d 

1 


i 




3.193 


Lalitpur 






4 


' Oonda 


« 




133 


Bt-narM 






M ' 


' BabrAieh 


t < 




6 


Jaanpor 






113 

1 


1 

, Sultiripar 


1 




3.316 


Gh&iipmr 






6 


Part4b|pirli 


• 




7 


Bdlu . 






74 


BArabaaki , 






26 










ToTAI 




11.176 



Oaur; Oanda.^ — One of the five divisions of the Northern 
Brihmans which make np what is known as the Pancha Oandai 
as distinguished from the Pancha Diavira or Soathem Bribmana, 
There has been mach controversy as to the origin of the name. The 



I I^ATftly band tm 
€f 8ckooU. BiJ 



wo%mhy Puidtt 
DkjiB 



RAnNrkftHb CiMbi, IkeDsra^ 



895 GAUB. 

The Adi Gfaudas or "original'^ (Jaudas^ who follow the 
white Yajur Yeda, and are by sect Smarttas^ Saktas^ or 
Vallabhacha ly as . 
>) The Suklwala^ who are a branch of the Adi Gaudas 
and come from Jaypur. Of these there are two 
sections — Ojha and Joshi. 
^ i) The Sanadhya, who have been separately enumerated at 
the last Census and form the subject of a special article. 

(5) The Sri Graudas or " honourable '' Graudas, of which one 
division is called Tamboli, and deals in betel leaf, and 
another Adi Sri Gb*uda, found at Delhi, Mathura^ and 
Brindaban. 

(6) The Otijar or Giirjjara Graudas. 

(7) The Tekbara Gaudas. 

(8) The Chamar Graudas, who serve the C!ham&rs as priests. 

(9) The Hariy&na Ghbudas, who take their name from the 

country of Hariydna, in the Hiss&r and Rohtak Dis- 
tricts of the PanjSb. 

(10) The Kirt&niya Ghiudas, who wander about these Pro- 
vinces and Rajput&na as singers^ reciters, and players 
upon instruments, 

(11) The Sukal Gaudas, who live by mendicity, accepting 
alms from Brihmans, but not from Kshatriyas, Banyas, 
or people of other castes. 

S. According to Sir H. M. Elliot the chief Ghiur tribes in these 
Provinces are the Adi Ghiur, Jugad Granr, Kaithal Graur, GAjar 
Ghiur, Dharam Ghbur, and Siddh Graur. A list obtained from a 
member of the tribe at Mirzapur makes them out to be divided into 
Gujar Gaur, Dadhicha or Daima, Sikhwftl, P&rikh, Ehandel- 
w&l or Adi Graur, and Siraswata. Of these the Dadhicha are 
classed by Dr. Wilson^ among the Ghijjara Brfthmans; the Piri* 
khas or Purohita Parikhas are the family priests of the B4jas of 
Jajrpur, in whose territory they are especially abundant. " They 
claim to be descended from Vasishtha. When his hundred sons 
with their wives were destroyed through the jealousy of his rival 
Visvamitra, a son named Sava fell from the womb of one of 
these wives, who had Parasara as his son, the father of Vyisa. " 
The Sarasvatas, again, are generally classed as distinct from the 
Ghtur^ and have been so recorded at the last Census. 

1 Indian Caste, II, 117, 190. 



GAT7R. 894 QAJJBA. 

tribal traditions all point to the ruined city of Gaur or TjaVhnanti, 
in Malda^ which was once the capital of Bengal, whence the story 
rons that they emigrated to the neighbourhood of Delhi in the 
time of the Pandavas. By another account they emigrated to 
Bengal on the invitation of Raja Agarsen^ the eponymous found- 
er of Agarwala Banyas. The objections to this account of 
their origin are two-fold. In the first place their supposed emigra- 
tion fi'om east to west reverses the usual course of the Br&hmanical 
movements^ and^ secondly, it is difficult to understand how they 
could have passed through the intervening Br&hmanical tribes^ such 
as the Sarwariya and Kanaujiya. This is not avoided by Mr. 
Colebrooke's supposition that Oauda was the name of a division of 
the country in the neighbourhood of the modem Patna. And still 
less probable is Sir G. Campbell's theory, that the name is derived 
from their residence on the banks of the Ghaghar, a tributary of 
the Saraswati, the lost river of the Western India desert. Perhaps 
the most plausible explanation is that of General Cunningham, who 
writes :^ — " These apparent discrepancies are satis&otorily explained 
when we learn that Gauda is only a sub-division of Uttara Kosila, 
and that the ruins of Sravasti have actually been found in the 
district of Gauda, which is the Gonda of the Maps. I presume 
therefore that both the Gb*uda Brahmans and the Gauda Tagas 
must have belonged to this district originally, and not to the 
mediaeval city of Grauda in Bengal. Brahmans of this name are stiU 
numerous in Ajudhya and Jahangirabad, on the right bank of the 
Ghighra river, in Gonda, Pakhapur, and Jaisni, of the Gonda District^ 
and in many parts of the neighbouring division of Gorakhpur," 
Our last Census Returns show the Gaur Brahmans most numerous 
in the Meerut Division, and in decreasing numbers as we come 
through Rohilkhand and the lower Ganges- Jumna Du&b. 

2. The divisions of this branch of the Brahmans are very intri« 

Diyi8ions of the Gam ^^> ^^^ ^^^ ^^^ '^^^^ i«> as a rule, SO ilU- 
BrAhmana. teratc and unintelligent, that it is very diffi- 

cult to ascertain their tribal constitution. Dr. J. Wilson' divides 
them into eleven divisions :— 

(1) The G^udas or Kevala G^udas, who are said to be Yajor 
Yedis, and to have their head-quarters at Hardw&r, 

1 Archceological Survey Reports^ I, 327 ; also see a long diaoataion on the Dra¥i« 
dian origin of the term in Oppert, Original Inhabitanti of Bharatavargck, Hi, §fq, 
s Indian Castes, II, 159, sqq. 



806 Qkvn. 

(2) The Adi OmdM or ''original'' (JaudM, who follow the 

white Yajur Veda, and are by sect Smirttas, Siktas, or 
Vallabhachiryag. 

(3) The Suklw&Ia, who are a branch of the Adi Gaudaa 
and oome from Jaypur. Of thene there are two 
sections — Ojha and Joshi. 

(4) The Sanitlhya, who have been separately enumerated at 

the last Census and form the subject of a special article. 

(5) The Sri Oaudas or " honourable '' Oaudas, of which one 

division is called Tftmboli, and deals in betel leaf, and 
another Adi Sri (Janda, found at Delhi, Mathura, and 
Brindaban^ 

(6) The O&jar or Gftrjjara Oandai. 

(7) The Tekbira Oandas. 

(S) The Chamar Oaudas, who serve the Chamlrs as priestn. 

(9) The Hariylna Oandas, who take their name from the 

ooontry of Hariyina^ in the Hiss&r and Rohtak Dis* 
tricts of the Panjib. 

(10) The Kirtiniya Oandaa, who wander about these Pro- 
vinces and Rajput&na as singers, reciters, and players 
upon instruments, 

(11) The Sukal Oaudas, who live by mendicity, accepting 
alms from Brihmans,but not from Kshatriyas, Banyat, 
or people of other castes, 

S. According to Sir H. M. Elliot the chief Oanr tribes in these 
Provinces are the Adi Oanr, Jugad Oanr, Kaithal (taur, Odjar 
Oanr, Dharam Oanr, and Siddh Q%nr. A list obtained from a 
member of the tribe at Mirtapur makes them out to be divided into 
Oujar (Hur, Dadhicha or DAima, SikhwAl, Pirikh, Khandd- 
wftl or Adi (}aur, and SAraswata. Of these the Dadhicha are 
chssed by Dr. Wilson* among the Oujjara Brihmans ; the Piri* 
khas or Pnrohita Pkuikhas are the family priests of the Rijas of 
Jaypur, in whose territory they are especially abundant. " They 
claim to be descended from Vasishtha. When his hundred sons 
with their wives were destroyed through the jealousy of his rival 
Visvamitra, a son named Sava tell from the womb of one of 
these wives, who had Pirasara as his son, the father of VyAsa. ** 
The Sirasvatas, again, are generaUy cfauised as distinct from the 
Oanr, and have been so recoided at the hut Census. 



I lnd%mm C««ltf, U. 117, 190. 



GAUR. 396 

4. Adopting this classification^ it may be noted tiiat the 

Dadhicha of tliese provinces claim descent 

The Dadhioha. x^ii'i t 

from Dadmcna^ the son of Atharvan, who 
was son of Brahma. The story runs that Dadhyang or Dadhicha 
had a wife, Satya Prabha, who was left pregnant when her husband 
died. She tore her womb open, and taking out the child^ which she 
laid at the foot of a pipol tree, joined her husband in beayen. 
After some time she remembered her child and prayed to Miil 
Devi or Sakti, who promised that the child should be incarnated out 
of a human skull. From being laid beside the pipal tree he 
came to be' known as Pippalayana, and begot twelve sons, who were 
the ancestors of the twelve gotran of the tribe. Each of these 
sons had twelve sons, and from these one hundred and forty-four 
persons are named the sections {at). The following are the go trot 
and aU as far as it is has been possible to ascertain their names : — 

(1) Gautama gotra with sections — Patodya; Palod 

Nahawal ; Kumbhya ; Kanth ; BadSdhara ; Khatod 
Badsaran ; Bagadya; Bedwant; Banrasidara ; Ledodya 
Kakarah ; Gagwari, Bhuwil ; Disiyel ; Masya ; Mang 

(2) Vatsa goira with sections — Ratawa; Koliwal 
Baldawa; Rolaryan; Cholankhya; Jopat; Ithodya 
Polgala ; Nasara ; Namawal ; Ajmera ; Kukarin 
Tararayan ; Abdig ; Didiyil ; Musya ; Maug. 

(3) Bharadwaja gotra with sections — Pedwil; Sukl ; 

Malodya ; Asopadyaki ; Barmota ; Indokhw&l ; Halsara ; 
Bhatalya ; Godiya ; Solyarin. 

(4) Bhargava go Ira with sections — Inaryan ; Patharyin 

Kasalya ; Silrondya ; Kurarawa ; Jagodya ; Khewar 
Bisawa; Ladrawan ; Baragaran ; Kadalawa ; Kaprodya 

(5) Kavacha gotra with sections — Didwftryin; Malodya 

Ghawarodya; Jatalya; Dobha; Murel; Maurjawil 
Sosi ; Gotecha ; Kudal ; Tretaw&L 

(6) Kasyapa gotra with sections — Choraida; Dirolya; 

Jamawal; Shergota; Rajthala; Baiawa; Balaya; 
Chaulankhya. 

(7) Sandilya gotra with sections— Raiawa; Bediya ; 

Bed ; Gotharawal ; Dahwal. 

(8) Asraya gotra with sections— Sulwal ; Yajrodya ; 

Dubarya; Sukalya. 

(9) Paribara goira with sections — Bheia ; Par&sara. 

(10) Kavala ^oira with section — Chipara. 



897 6AUB. 

(11) Gk)r^ ffoira, with section— 'TiikchhyB. 

(12) Mamraka ^oira of which the sectiont hare dit- 
a|)|)eared. 

5. A litft from Mirzapur givcfi the golrat and sections (a/) of 
Th«i oajar Q*or. the (i Ajar Gaur as follows :-» 

(1) Kausika goira with sections — Jakhimo ; Kurakyo; 
Tatlukyo; Raradolya; Surolya; Modharj'in; Sarsu; 
Guhadra ; Katattala ; Jirawalya. 

(2) Rauhika golra with sections — Chahadhota; Gobalya; 

Nagavalya ; Kaitha ; Kalaitha ; Tetrawa ; Kilsanda ; 
Kcthuryin ; Dudn. 

(3) Vasishtha golra with sections — Pa^hlida ; Dn^hah»» 
sya; 4Charar}'an; Akodra; Jhujhroily&n; Kibdoliya; 
Pandarya ; Sankhwat ; Achraundya ; LaiwAI ; Poparud- 
yan ; Raclihtinari ; Kbiyar}'an ; Pbaf^rj'tn. 

(\) Sandilya gotra with si*ctions^ Naut>alya ; Pachaswa; 

(talhwa ; Jajpura ; Nanera ; Katboriwil ; Sanjia ; 

Jhamkolya ; Karauriwal ; KusnnibhiwAl. 
(5) Kausika gotra with sections — Bhairjwil ; K&noilya ; 

Naa^ra ; Dii^hdolya ; Gnnitarj'in ; AdharApa ; Jodha ; 

Ilarkhahi ; Jastaryin. 
(0) IMianMlwaja gotra with sections— Pisa ; Ganr}'an 

Ja^la ; Raurinja ; Bapraundya ; Lad ; KallMtlra 

Silaura ; Jipirj'an ; Chitar}'in ; Gugaarj-an ; Pijnrj-an 

Kajaura ; Gauhandya ; Baf^la. 
(7) (Gautama gotra with sections— Bhawlnly a ; Jajada; 

Bijarjan ; Thinksara ; Bilovar}'an ; Pandaita; Dikhat ; 

Bilu ; Unitar^-an : Mandovai^va. 
(^) KaHya|)a pdra with Motions — Bararaila ; Rewal ; 

(tunwal ; Sanbhar}'a ; Baja|^*a ; Thariwal ; Lohdolya ; 

Ainialya ; Sajijjanwa ; Dewalya ; Jajandya ; I^Iatir^ 

van ; Kajdolya ; Kihdolya. 
(1)) Vatha gotra with sections — Kintra; Bachh ; Kaim* 

alya \ Cliatbuwa ; Dodwadra ; Vyas ; Ghil ; Gutaradya ; 

Paiwal ; Chanwadra ; Didwar}'in; Chhichhiwata ; Pal* 

liat ; Chulhat ; Suraulya]; Rainhata ; Sanuda ; Khinwa* 

vara ; Chhadak ; Baf^ada. 
(It)) Atrima gotra with setrtions^Bardundhya ; Ba^^^her* 

wal ; Akodra ; Kariudiwil ; Priyalaoja ; Bakherwil | 

Paljhailra ; Kvnjaiidra ; Irhharmarua. 
(11) Muhrila gotra with sections— Surtaryln ; BhntAr* 

van, Dhamanntya ; Thlwalya, Liuhawa ; Bamhaorya % 

Kiimlera ; Gadaryin ; Raiswil ; Kunjodrm ; Moth | 

Piimlya. 



OAUR. 



898 



(1'^) Parasara gotta with sections— Khataad ; Daigjra; 

Pahadra ; Nariry &n ; Kuchila ; Baresnra ; KachraudTa ; 

Dewalya ; Dobarhatta ; Qumataryftn. 

(18) Grarga gotra with sections— Oudnftda ; Elacharya ; 

Ladaryan ; LaiwslI ; Bhangdolya, Ukhairwal. 

6 Graur Brahmans are^ as a rule^ endogaroons, but they are 

singularly libeial in their views as contrasted 
with the Kanaujiya, and as in Bihar^ 
where the groups consist of hmited namberS| they have commenoed 
to intermarry with the Ssiraswata. In other repeects they practise 
the ordinary rule of exogamy common to other Br&hmans. When 
the bride is introduced into the house of her husband there is a 
solemn confarreatio rite known as d4dhahkML Their domestic 
ceremonies are of the usual orthodox type. 



Marriage. 



Distribution of the Gaur Brdimans according to He Ceneue of 

1891. 



DiSTBICTB. 


Number. 


DiBT BICTS. 


Number. 


Dehra Ddn . 




1,904 


Bud&an 


7^74 


8ah&ranpur • 




40,821 


Morl^&bAd . 


28,0m 


MazaffarDagar 




37,786 


Sh&hjah&npnr • 


1.160 


Meerut . « 




94 723 


Pilibblt 


S.625 


Bulandshahr 




77,132 


Cawnpor • • 


4,473 


Aligarh 




25.179 


Fatebpar 


«77 


Mathara 




24,630 


B&nda 


18S 


Agra • . 1 




3,792 


flamtrpar • • • 


817 


Farrukh&bad 




1.613 


Allab&b&d . 


1.296 


Mainpuri • 




1,559 


Jh&nsi • • 


486 


Et&wah 




1,313 


J&Iaan . • 


94 


EUh . 




1,485 


Lalitpar • • 


190 


Bareilly 




7,289 


Benares • 


3,179 


Bijnor • i 




24,969 


Mirzapar 


3J67 



y 



899 



GAUR. 



Dutribmiian ofik§ Qtur BriAimmns aet9rdittg to I4« Cmmm ^1891^^ 





1 






DlSTBICTS. 


Nombcr. 


DlflTBXCTS. 


Namb«r 


Jaunpnr 






463 


RAABftreli . 


117 


ObAiipor 






S46 


SiUpnr 


1.462 


Ballia • 






1,284 


Hardoi • 


882 


Oormkb]rar < 






672 


Kh«ri • • • • 


2.286 


BmU . 






876 


FaiiAbAd • 


808 


Kamaan 






40 


Qimim . . 


828 


(iarkirll 






1.987 


Babr4ieh . 


2;146 


TAr4i • 






2^7 


Sultinpor . 


112 


Lacknow 






ifie% ; 


ParUbgArb . 


83 


UnAo 




» ^ 


877 


BinUuiki . 

Total 


846 








414.082 



Oaur. — A nept of RAjputs who are sappoeed to tako thdr name 
from the kin^om of Gauda, in Bengal ; bat aa shown in the 
artiekfl on Gaur Brahmans, their name may be derived from Oaud% 
the modem Gk>nda in Northern Oudh. Coknel Tod^ ranks them 
among the thirty«mx royal races and remarks :— '' The tribe was onoe 
respected in Rajasthan, thongh it never attained to any consider* 
able eminence. The ancient kings of Bengal were of this race, and 
gave their name to the caintal Lakbnauti. We hare every reason to 
believe that they were possessors of the land afterwards ocenpied by 
the Chauhins, as they are styled in the old Chronicles, The Gaor 
of Ajmer. Repeated mention is made of them in the wars of 
Prithivi RAja as leaders of considerable renown, one of whom formed 
a small state in the centre of India, which sanrived through seven 
centuries uf Mughal domination, till it at length fell a piey in* 
directly to the successes of the British over the Marhattas, when 
Sindhiya in 1809 annihilated the power of the Oaur and todc 
possession of his capital Supar/' lie gives the five »JJHd of the 
Gaur as Untahir, Silhala, Tunwar, |^snns, and BudAno. 



I iMMl^ 1, 184. 



0AT7B. 400 

2. According to Sir H. M. Elliot^ they fall into three 
The Oanra of the sub-divisions, the Bhat Gaur, Bihman 

North- Western • Pro- ' 

vinoea and Oudh. Gaur, and Chamar Graur, names derived 

from some intercourse with Bhats^ Brslhmans^ and Chamirs. 
*' To these are sometimes added the Katherija Ghiur, descended 
from a Katheri ; or carpenter. But it may be doubted if the 
Katheriya are really Gb,urs. No argument, however, can be 
derived from the fact that daughters of Gaurs marry in Katheriya 
families, because the Chamar G^ur and B&hman Graur also 
intermany/' The Katheriya really take their name from Katdiar, 
the old name of Rohilkhand. " The Chamar Gaur, who are divided 
into Raja and RaS, i*ank the highest, '' which is accounted for by 
the legend already given in the special article on that sept. In 
Farrukhabad* they call themselves Rathauriya, and are said to have 
come from Shahjahanpur under the brothers SarhS and Barh£. 
Each received a Chaurasi or block of eighty-four villages. Barh^s 
descendants chiefly settled in the country now forming the 
Pargana of Shamsabad West, while Sarhe kept to the south in 
Shamsabad East and Bhojpur. The Etowah bianch say they 
came from Supar in the west as early as 650 A.D., having 
expelled the Meos, and they allege that their power was broken by 
the Banapliar heroes, Alha and Udal, early in the 12th Century.* 

3. As regards the Gaurs of Oudh, the Hardoi tradition* runs 

that Kuber Sah Gaur was deputed bv Jay 

The Gaurs of Oudh. ^ o rjr . n . m • 

Lhand or Kanauj to collect tribute from 
Thathei-as. While he was at Kanauj twin sons were born to him. 
Of these the Bi-ahmans in attendance on the Thathera chief pre- 
dicted that they would achieve greatness and expel him from his 
kingdom. To avert such disaster the Thathera Chief ordered the 
babes to be done away with ; and the Brahmans, giving out that 
i£ Kuber S3h should i-eturn and look upon his children's faces he 
would die, canted them to be buried alive. Hardly had the deed 
been done when Kuber Sah returned, heard the evil news, and had 
the babes dug up. Both wei*e still aUve. One of them had lost 
an eye and was hence named Kana, — *^ one-eyed." The other was 



1 Supplementary Qhssaty, «• v. 
^Settlement Report, 13. 
*Cefi8u8 Report, 1865, I, App. Si, 
* Settlement Report, 100. 



401 OAVH. 

named Andi or Pakhni,-^'' under the wall.'' From them are 
bprung the Kina and An&i or Pakhni sub-divisions of the Gaur»« 
One family in UnAo^ profess to hold their lands by virtue of a 
^n^nt from the Emperor Bibar. They are Bihman Gaurs of the 
Minlal gotra. There is another colony of Gaurs in Pargana Ilarba, 
who arc claimed by the others as an offbhoot from themselves 
They aliK) are B&hman Gaurs of the same gotra^ but ^ve a 
different account of their origin. According to them Banthar was 
formerly inhabited by a race of Gaddis or cow-herds who lived 
by the pasturage and paid an annual tribute of ghi to tlie Govern- 
ment. One year, whether with intent to defraud or to bhow their 
insulionlination^ they filled the vescels in which the tribute was beni 
with cowdung and covered it o\'er with a small quantity of ghi. 
The fraud was dibcovcred at oourt, and Gorapdes Gaur, wh«> held a 
military command at Delhi^ %vas directed to raise a lio'ly of followem 
and extiqiate the offen<lers. After performing tliis ber\iei*, lie 
r(M«ived a grant of tlie conquered nllages and bettled there with 
liib clan. 

4. In the village of DudliAwal, in the Lucknow' District, 

stands a pipal tree, and there is a small 
monument, a memorial of the place wheie 
the Bahman Oaur widows used to perform «a/i\ to which tlie 
Bahnian (laur t<» this day bring offerings for the old family 
priests of their tribe on the occasion of I marriage or any other 
solemn ceremony in their bouse. 

5. In Sitapur thvy api^car usually to give brides to the Tomar 
and Ahlian scpt^, and to take brides from the Bachhal, Janwir, and 
€H.rabiunally fn»m the AhlAn. In Farrukhabad the Katheriya 
Gaur give their daughters to the Sombansi, Bais, and Bamtel^, and 
receive girls from the Chandel and Kaithiya septs. In Ilamirpur 
they give brides to the Chauhan, Bhadauriya, KaohhwAhay 
Parihar, Chandel, Rathaur, and Chamar Gaur, and take wivea 
from the Dikhit, Nandwani, and Bais. In Hardoi tbey claim to 
belong to the Bharadwaja ^o/fa, marry girls of the Raikwir, 
CIuiihU'I, Dhakrj, Janwar, Kachhwaha, and Gaharwir septs, whtia 
they give wives tu tlic Sonibausi, Chauhan, Pramir, Rithaur^ 
Dhakie, Nikuuibb, and Itaikwar. 






VuL. II. t c 



/ 



GAUR, 



402 



OAURAHAB. 



Diatrihution of the Gaur lidjputs according to the Censmi of 1S9U 



\ 



DiBTBICTB. 


Nnmbers. 


BiSTBIOTP. 


x^mnbon. 


Bah&ranpur . 




102 


Jbftnai • 






1/BS 


Mnza0*araagar 




132 


J&laan • 






1,816 


Meerat 




958 


LHlitpnr • 






5«5 


Bnlandsbahr • 




3.063 


Benares < 






IS 


Aligarh 




147 


Jaunpnr 






SI 


Matbura 




1,053 


Ghazipnr . 






1 


Agra . 




465 


Ballia . 






7 


Farrukhab&d 




4,741 


Gorakbpur , 






184 


Mainpari 




1,908 


Azamgarh 






1 


£t&wab 




3,224 


TaiAi . 






29 


Etab . 




2,804 


Lucknow , 






S69 


Bijnor • 




65 


Un&o . 






1,847 


Bud&QD 




6,123 


R&d Bareli . 






47S 


MoradlLblid • 




2,442 


Sitapar 






^6d5 


Sb&bjabAnpar 




2,531 


Hardoi 






11,687 


Pilibbit 




323 


Kberi • 






1,145 


Oawnpnr • 




13,246 


Faiz&bAd 






SS 


Fatebpur 




1.663 


BabrAiob 






39 


B&nda • 




1,477 


Snlt&npur 






86 


Hamirpar 




1,770 


Partftbgarb 


• 




386 


Allab&b&d . 




197 


Bftrabaaki 






S16 








TOTAI 


:. 


nMo 



Oanrahar. — A small Rajput sept found in Roliilkhand and the 
borders of Aligarh. They are supposed to be descended {rem the 
Chamar Ghiur, and it is sometimes added, by way of reproach, thai 
ibey have a little Ahir blood in their veins. They trace their origin 



GJLUIIAHAR. 403 OAUniTA. 

to Kftinftr ib the weet^ whenoe they say they came to servo the 
Emperore of Delhi*^ 

OMiriya; Bangali Om&tn.— A VaitbnaTa order of recent 
ori(;^iL This oommunity ** has had a more marhed influence on 
Brindaban than any of the others, since it was Chaitanya, the 
founder of the sect, whose immediate disciples were its first temple 
builders. lie was bom at Nadiya, in Bengal, in 1485 A.D., and in 
his youth is said to ha\'e married a daughter of Vallabhachirya. 
However that may be, when he had arrived at the age of twenty* 
four he formally resigned all connection with secular and domeatio 
atTairs and commenced his career as a religious teacher. After 
spending six years in pilgrimage between Mathura and Jagannith 
he finally settled down at the latter place, where, in 1527 A.D., 
being thtMa only forty-two years old, be disappeared from the world. 
There is reason to believe that he was drowned in the sea, into whioh 
lie had walked in an ecstacy, mistaking it for the shallow waters of 
the Jamuna, where he saw in a vision Krishna sporting with the 
GoiHH. His life and doctrines are recorded in a most voluminoua 
Bengali work entitled Chaitanya Charitimrita^ composed in 1690 
by one of his disciples Krishna Dis. Two of his colleagues 
Adwaitanand and Nityanand, who like himself are »tyled Mahi 
Prabhus, presided over his establishments in Bengal, while other sax 
Gussjuri settled at Brindaljan. Apart from metaphysical subtleties^ 
which naturally have but little bold on the minds of the populace, 
the hpccial tenet of the Bengali Vainhnavas is the all-sufiieieDoy of 
faith in the divine Krishna; such faith being adequately expressed 
by the mere repetition of his name without any added prayer or 
concomitant feeUng of genuine devotion. Thus roughly stated, the 
doctrine appears absurd ; and possibly its true bearing is as hi 
regarded by many of the more ignorant among the Vaishuavas thi 
selves, as it is by the majority of superficial outside obMnreis. It 
is, however, a legitimate deduction frum sound principles; for it may 
be prenumed that the formal act of devotion wouU never have br«i 
commenced, had it not been prompted st the outset by a devoiaonal 
intention, which intention is virtually continued so long as the aet 
i« in performance. Th^ sectarial mark consists of two white perpeo- 
dicular streaks down the furebead united at the root of the nose and 
continued to near the tip. Another ebsracteristic is the use i^ a 



> Rllioi, BffUwk^nUf^ Qlimrf, •.*• : OamUmt, Hmtik^W^ti JV^riaMs VI* 41* 
Vol. U. Scl 



QAUBIYA ; OAUBUA. 



404 



GAJSTAM. 



roBary of one hundred and eight beads made of the wood of the 

2. The order takes its name from the city of Gaur, the indent 
capital of Bengal, which now lies a mass of rains in the Milda 
District. 

Distribution of the Gauriya Outdi/a according to iho Census 0/ 

1891. 



BiSTBICTS. 


Number. 


D18TB10TB. 


Nvmben. 


Balandshahr • • 

GawnptiT 

Eheri 


9 

2 

283 

34 

246 


Bahr&ioh • • • 
Bkabanki 

TOffAl 

Females • . 


70 
M 


Gonda 

Males • • • . 


48S 
186 



Oanrna. — Hardly the name of a special B&jpnt sept^ but a 
general term applied to those Rajputs who have lost rank by the 
practice of widow-marriage {kafdo) Those to the west of the 
Jnmna are said to have emigrated from Jaypur about nine handred 
years ago. In Mathura some call themselTCs Kaohhwihai, others 
Jas&waty others again Sisodiya. Towards Delhi they axe said to 
be particularly quarrelsome^ but stui-dy in build and olannish in 
disposition.* 

Oautam.-* A sept of Rajputs who claim as their eponymous 
ancestor the Rishi Gautama. They are usually treated as one of 
the Chandrabans, but not in the thirty-six royal races. Their ori* 
ginal home is Fatehpur^ and they claini to have been originally 
Br&hmans^ the descendants of the Rishi Gautama, By another 
account they are descended from the Rishi Siringi. The descendant 
in the sixth de<>rce from Gautama is said to have married the 
daughter of A jaypal^ the Gaharwir Bija of Kanauj^ and to have 
received as her dowry the whole extent of the country from Praylg 
(Allahabad) to Hardwar. From this event the sept ceased to be 
Brahmans and became Rajputs ; the issue of the marriage took the 



> GrowBO, Mathura, 183, sq. 

s Knioi,Supi}lementaryGUssary,8,v.: Growse, ifaC^ttra, 12 : IbbtliOli» Pcm jtt 
Ethnography, para. 446. 



406 GAUTAH* 

title of RAja of Argal, a villaf^ in the Tmvines of tbe River Rind, 
alkmt thirty miles west of Fatehpur.^ Sir H. M. Elliot' 
distmsts the Bt«>ry of tlieir connection with Siringi Rishi or with 
the Gaharwirs, hecanse it is, in the first place, impossible that Siring 
Rishi could have l)een the contemporary of any Gaharwir Rija ; and 
in the second place, it is highly improl^able that tbe (Hharwirf 
conld have prece led the occopation of the Gantams. Nevertheless 
the story is devoutly believed by many Gantams. In Oudh' they 
were oertainly very early settlers. They chum to be an offshoot 
from the Ar^al RAj, bat their traditions as to the cause and manner 
of their occupancy are too faint and varying for record. In the 
Eastern Districts of the Province^ there is both a Chhatri and a 
Bhmnhir branch : the former ignore the latter, and ssy that they 
themselves came from Argal. Tbe Bhutnhsrs allege that they art 
sU one stock of Sarwariya Bribmans, the Cbhatris bavins^ assumed 
their present caste only when tbe ancestor of tbe RAja of Azamgar 
became a Muh^immadan and rose into power. In the Ayin*i«Akbari 
they are described as zamindArs in Pargana Nizan:abad. The 
Cawnpur branch is said to have emigrated from Argal four and-«- 
half centuries ago, and to have expelled tbe Arakhs. 

2. The Sakyas of Kapilavastu also redu>nfd the saint Oantamm 
among their forefathers, and they are repretented by tiie existing 
Guutamiyas.* These Gantamiyas are an inferior branch. Tbey 
seem to lie Gautams, who from the low marriages <if their daoghtem 
or other reasons have fallen from a higher status or Cbhatris of 
inferior stock who Iiave adopted tbe patronymic of the more famous 
clan. The real Gautams hold a respectable rank among HAjpata. 
Those of the Eastern Districts give their daughters in marriage to the 
Somfaansi, Rachgoti, Bhandhalgoti, RajwAr, and RAjknmAr. Thosa of 
the DuAbgire their dangfaters to tbe Bhadaiiri}*% KacbbwAha^ BA- 
thaur, Gahlot, ChanhAn, snd Tomar. To the east tliey marry their 
daughters in the Simet, Risen, OaliarwAr, SArajbansi, Baghel, and 
Chandel septs, and take brides from the Kalltans, PalwAr, RajkamAr, 
Kansik, ChanhAn, and Sengar. In Patohpur they give their daugli* 



* KlUot, Cknm%ci€$ ^ Vmim. S4. 

« OldhMi. CIA iMrvr M*mo, I 3S : A—m^mtk a«fflm#«l Jkp^rl. H. •§• 

• DmaelMr. Huf«ry </ iAli|«ilf IV» SSS iff. BathnuM, Mt/lm% imMm. TL. 
4AS. 



gautam. 



4m 



ttrs to the Ghaahin, PariMr^ Bhadauriya^ Kaohhwtlia^ and J&doo 
tepts^ and marty wives from the Bab^ 'Pbhw&i, Dikhit^ Somhana, 
Chandel^ Bidei>, and Khicbi. In Bundelkhaiid thej espedall/ 
worship Gajpati Rae Durga at the Naui&tra of Ku&r and Chait. 
Nothing but a b word is kept in tlie temple^ and it is wonhipped with 
prayers and offerings of sandalwood, rieei perfumes, in<«i8e, 
and kmpsw On the first lunar day of Ku&r a decorated jar (Jtatsa) 
is placed in her temple^ and ten Pandits^ sitting round it, recite ib« 
praises of Durga Devi : a buffalo and a he^goat are daily saorifioed 
during the feast. On the ninth day twenty or more boSaloea and 
fifty or sixty he-goats are sacrifioedf None but a Gautam can per- 
form this sacrifice ; and only a man of the Bargstti caste, who aie the 
hereditaiy servants of the clan, is allowed to hold the victim. 
Before ofEering the sacrifice the sacred sword is worshipped. On 
the last day {naumU) the Mja himself offers the sacrifice. The 
heads of the victims are buried deep in the ground, but the goat- 
meat is regarded as holy (jprusdd) and divided among the worship* 
pers. Only Chamars eat the meat of the bufEaloes offered to the 
goddess. It is beheved that if anyone but a R&ja perform thifi 
sacrifice, he will be destroyed root and branch. 

3. In Lucknow they worship a tribal saint Biba Nahok, of 
Nigohan, and burn a hght daily at his shrine,^ 



Distrtbulion of the Oautam BdjpnU according to the CemiUi 

of 1891. 



DiBTBICTH. 


Hindus. 


Moham- 
madana. 


DiBTBICTS. 


Hindus. 


Muhaai- 
madana. 


Dehia Diin 


1 


••• 


FarnikhAl>&d • 


76 


••• 


SahAraDpur 


8 


• • • 


Mainpuri . 


217 


6 


Mazaffamagar 


6 


• •• 


EtAwah 


16 


••• 


Meerut 


13 


••• 


Etah 


47 


••• 


BdlandBhahr 


73 


2 


Bawilly . "^^ 


765 


4 


Aligarh 


26 


• • • 


{ Bud&iiii 


7.780 


8 


MathurH 


3 


#•• 


MorftdAb&d 


1.377 


12 


Agra 


30 


• •• 


ShahjaliAaptir 


843 


... 



1 Oudh Gatetteer, III, 31. 



GAUTAM. 



407 



OHAKt^K. 



DUtribuiiom vfth€ Oauimm S^'pmU aetordim$ to IA# CnMiu of 189l^~towi\L 



DitTBICTt. 


Hiadua. 


llaham- 


DllTBIOTB. 


Hiadna. 

• 


llabam* 


Pilibhh . 


178 


43 


AwBgarb • 


6348 


22) 


Cawnpur • 


i^i 


1 


Tarii 


S 


• • • 


FaUbpar • 


11,613 


1.883 


Lueknotr 


1.786 


8 


£4iida 


8.8S0 


46 


Un4o 


2,691 


7 


Hantrpiir • 


8.1W 


• • • 


Bi6EbreIi. 


3348 


S9 


AlUhibid . 


854 


• •• 


Stupor • 


161 


Ml 


Jhinit 


21 


1 


Hardoi 


236 


••• 


JAIauo • 


110 


... t 


Kbari 


634 


714 


Lalitpar 


4 


••• 


FaixAb4d . 


849 


••• 


B«nare« 


2.293 


92 


Qonda 


690 


129 


Minapnr • 


2.772 


^ 


BabiAidi . 


240 


20 


Jaunpar • 


3,694 


19 


StiltAopur • 


1J92 


84 


Ghiiipur • 


7,777 

1 


238 


ParUbgarb 


900 


10 


lUllia 


8,407 


••• 


B4nbanki . 


430 


6 


Gof akbpvr . 
Iktti 


2.610 
6,204 


411 

778 


Total 
QRAKD TOTAL 






6,926 1 


6.198 
123 



Obar&k. — A tub cante of Kahire, bat they have now so com- 
pletel y miMumUid from the parent ftock that they may be moft ooii* 
vcniently treated at an abnolutely dijiiiict icix>iip. Their only vague 
tradition is that they are the detocndantt of the PAndavai, and thcj 
alk*ge that there b a temple at Ilastinapur dediofted to Kali Darga, 
at which they womhip. They have a tribal ooanctl [PmmcSdfi) 
preaidcd over by a ehairman {wutiam^ who U elected by the mem* 
ben of the caste. They do not marry in the familiee of their ma- 
ternal uncle, fiuher^f niter, and mother^t sister. Tliey can many 
two kiaters, but not at the same time. Polygamy is permitted to 
an unhmited extent. Inoontinenoe before marriage is seriously 
dealt with, and the girl's parents have to pay a fine to the tribal 
oiuncil, and so has the man who subsequently marries her. Divorce 
is allowed, and divorced W4»men may remarry by the lower form : 



OHARtyK. 408 GHA8ITA. 

such wives are called uriari. Widows can. marry again, and the 
levirate is allowed under the usual restrictioiiB. 

2. Their domestic ceremonies are of the normal type. They live 
much in fear of ghosts, demons, and the Evil Eye^ the effects of 
which are removed by the sorcerer. Their oath is by the Gmnges. 
Their chief object of worship is K&U Durga. They drink spirits, 
but will not eat pork, beef, fowls, or vermin. They abetain from 
meat and wine during the fortnight in the month of Ka&r sacred to 
the sainted dead. They will not eat from the hands of low castes, 
like the Chamar, Bhangi, or Pasi ; but they can eat from the hands 
of Brahman s, Rajputs, and Bhurjis. Their chief occupation is fish- 
ing; eome do a Uttle cxdtivation; and they supply many of the 
bearers in the service of Europeans. 

Ghasiya. »A Dravidian tribe found in the hill ooontry of 
Mirzapur. They do not appear in the returns of the last Censos, and 
it is now impossible to say among which of the allied Dravidian 
castes they were included. Under the name of Ohiai they are 
found in the adjoining Bengal districts.^ In Mandla one of their 
septs, Markam, is the title of a sept of Gonds.* They extend aa far 
as Bastar, where they are described as an inferior caste who serve as 
horsekeepers and also make and mend brass vessels. Thejr dress 
like the Mariya Gonds, and subsist partly by cultivation and partly 
by labour.' Dr. Ball describes them in SinghbhQm as gold-washers 
and musicians.^ Colonel Dalton speaks of them as an extraordinary 
tribe, foul parasites of the Central Indian hill tribes, and submitting 
to be degraded even by them. If the Chand&las of the Porinas, 
though descended from the union of a Brahmani and a Siklra are 
'^ the lowest of the low,'^ the Ghasis are Chandalas, and the people 
further south, who are called Pariahs, are no doubt of the same 
distinguished lineage. If, as I surmise, they were Aryan hetoto, 
their ofBces in the household or communities must have been of the 
lowest and most degrading kinds. It is to be observed that the 
institution of caste necessitated the organisation of a class to 
whom such offices could be assigned, and, when formed, stringent 
measures would be requisite to keep the servitors in their position. 



1 Bisley, Tribes and Castes, I, 877 : Dalton, Descripiiv Ethnology, 825. 

s Centrdl Provinces QoMetteer^ 278. 
. > Ibid, 34. 
4 JungU Life, )28. 



il 



409 GHA8ITA. 

W«^ ini^ht thence cxi)eot that they would avail themeclves of every 
o)>i>«>rttiTiity to escape, and no safer asylums oould be found than 
the retreats of the forest tribes.^ *' In the uncertainty that still pre- 
vailH as to the connection between the forest tribes and the menial 
caKtes of Hindu society, it is premature to deny the possibility of 
this the(»r}'; but their totemistic system of septs and their appearance 
generally, which approximates closely to that of th«> tribes which 
surround them, p»int to the supposition that they arc of local Dravi- 
dian origin and not refugees driven into the jungles liefore the advano* 
ing Aryans. The legend recorded by Colonel Tickell makes them 
of common origin with Kols, Bhuiyas, and Santils.* The word 
Gliasiya appears to mean a grass-cutter. (Hindi $ids, grass: SMim* 
krit pkdia\ 

2. Tliere seems to be little doubt that the clear distinction which 

now prevails between the Ohasiya and the 
neighbouring tribes is of com])arativeIy modem 
growth. A case recently occurred in which a Ghasiya adopted a 
Chero \n\y, and ho has been n*adi'y received and married among 
them. Uniike many of the kindred tribes, the Ghasiyaa in Mirta« 
pur have retained a complete set of totemistic septs. Tliese are 
se\'en in numlier. Tlie first bcpt is the Khatangiya, which is said 
to mean " a man who fires a gun. ^' This sept worship the matdi- 
lock. Then comes the Sunwan or Sonwin, who are the highest in 
rank. When any Ghasiya becomes impure, one of the Sunwin sept 
is ^aid to take a little bit of go'd ($o»s) and put it in a vessel of 
water, which he sprinkles on the impure person with a mango leaf. 
Frnm this practice of using fi>»1d it is said that the tribe takes ite 
name. It may more probably be connected with their bii»ine«i of 
gold-u aching.' The Janta is haid to take their name from the 
qi:ern or flour*mill ijami^). Thi*y have a story that a woman of 
tlie sept was delivered of a chikl while sitting at the mill, from 
which her descendants gained their name. The BhainM say they are 
dfH'ended frnm the godling (deoia) Dhainsisur,* whf^m they war* 
ship with the sacrifice of a ycmng pig on the second of the light half of 



s tbtd, 8S&. 

* 8m tb# rttm*ne% to Dr. BaU is p«i». i. 

« Tbu tM Om Mcidtrm rtprMraUtiv* ol %hm baido drnw^on U^kUk^ or lUki»MssrBi 
wbo, AoeurtiiBc to varioM Icgvad*. nm kUUd by kMttU*jr*. hkaailA t Uttig^ 
1 Im iMt Ctmss rMonb l\UI pmtma m wmnktppun ol Wmub^av. 



GHASIYA. 410 

K&rttik. Of the Simariya or Simarlokwa sept there is a cariooB 
legend which explains their abhorrence of Eliyaflths^ and is told in an 
imperfect form by Mr. Bisley. The Mirzapor version rons that 
once upon a time a Ghasiya was groom {iais) to a Eliyasth. One 
day he went with his master's son for a ride in the jungle. They 
came to a very large and deep well : the boy dismounted and looked 
into it. The Ghasiya said^ — ^^ Let us both look down and see whose 
reflection looks best in the water.'' Then the Ghasiya pitched the 
boy into the water. The boy was hurt^ but managed to hold on to 
the side of the well. He called out to the Ghasiya,— *' You have played 
a vile trick on me^ but as we are old friends I vnH give you some- 
thing which will ensure your prosperity.'' So he took a piece of 
tile which lay in the well^ and having scratched on it an account <^ 
what had happened^ he gave it to the Ghasiya saying,— *' Take this 
to my father, and he will give you a great reward.'' The foolish 
Ghasiya did as he was told, and when the K&yasth read the message, 
he sent men to the well without the Ghasiya's knowledge. They 
found the boy dead. So the Kdyasth planned his revenge. One 
day he said to the Ghasiya, ^^ As you have been my old and faith- 
ful servant, I intend to give a feast to your tribe." On the day of 
the Holi all the Ghasiyas — men, women, and children-— collected. 
Then the Kayasth said: — ^'Therc is a great cotton tree (ieMal) in the 
forest which I wish to cut in order to bum the old year {8ambai)y^ 
but not a bit of the wood or leaves must touch the ground, 
otherwise there will be no merit in the sacrifice, and you must 
bring the tree as it stands." So all the Ghasiyas stood under 
the tree and tried to hold it up as it was being out, but it 
fell down and crushed them all. Only one pregnant woman 
escaped, who took refuge with a Panika. The Kfiyasth tried to 
seize and kill her ; but the Panika passed her ofE as his wife, and her 
descendants were called Simarlokwa, or ^^ the people of the cotton 
tree, " and to this day this sept eat with Panikas, and on eadi Holi 
festival throw out all their earthen vessels in memory of this tra- 
gedy and cherish a hereditary hatred of Kayasths.' The Koiya 
sept have a legend that a Ghasiya was servant of a Gond R&ja^ 
and went out hunting with him. One day the R&ja killed a ¥rild 



I Fur thiri ouMtom.Boe Biydr, fmra. 17. 

' ThiH Htory of a tribe recruited from a ainglo pregnant woman who etoapdd ib« 
(general deHtruction iH common ; see the legend of OrandoOj tho progei|itor of tlM 
Chuudol Hujputfi, aud that of tho Chamar Qaur tribe. 



411 OUASfTA. 

dog [Kuija, Choh rniiUHM) and permuuled the Ohasiya to eat it ; 
whence this contemptuous title clung to his descendants. The 
Markim sept take their name from the tortoise. This is also a 
sept among the Oonds. ^ One day a Ghasiya crossed a river in a 
boat. The floods arose and he was unable to return, when a tor* 
toise took him on his back and carried him across. Hence the sept 
worship the tortoise. The Bengal Ohisis have a Kachhua (tortoise) 
and a Simarloka or cotton tree sept.' These septs are exogamous, 
and hypergamy is so far practised that the Sunwin is the most 
respectable of all, and marriage alliances with that sept are much 
desired. The Mirsapur Ohasiyas are very mgne in their traili* 
tions : some fix their head-quarters at a place cattled Koriya in 
Sarguja, others say they come from Nigpur, others from Singrauli, 
in Mirsapur. In Sarguja there is said to be a mountain called 
DidihikAra, in which there resides a deity called Janta Deo, whose 
only representative is a stone in the form of a flour-mill {janta). 
He is said to have some connection with the sept of that name, and 
many Ohasiyas worship him through a Baiga. 

3. The Ohasiyas have a very powerful tribal council (/las^M/^i). 

The president (mmkto) is always a member 

The tribal eoQiiou* 

of the Sunwin sept. The post is hereditary ; 
but if there is any dispute about it, a reference is made to the RAja 
of Sarguja. The council deals with three cksses of cases-* As sitil^, 
Pkilftariy mad Zinatdri. A'svi^/i or *' ear cutting " is when any 
woman in a squabble gets the k>be of her ear, in which thick |ialm • 
leaf ornaments {fsrH) are worn, torn. It is belie^-ed that any 
wonmn who gets uito a m^U0 of this kind is a shrew, and if it is 
proveil tieforo the council that her ear was torn, she is put out oC 
caKte. She is not restored till her friends give a three days' feast 
of goat's meat and rice and a fourth of butter calces {j»Jri) and liquor. 
Pkiipari is when any one gets on his body any white mark or 
scab of the nature of leprosy, or has a wound or sore which bresds 
>>>^g^^* Such persons are put out of caste, because it is beliersd 
tlM^ such diaiasfs art a punishment for seriaas crimes eommitlad 
in a pre% ious life. In sncfa cases the line is five goats and two days' 
rif-e for the clansmen. After tUs the Sonwin Mahto purifies 
the utFendcr as already dcM^ribed. Zimsidri embraces all otFences 



* 8m M^fciMr, para. S. 



GHASITA.. 412 

against morality. In adultery or incest oases the fine consists of a 
certain number of goats and rations of rice according to the means 
of the offender; and^ in addition^ he has to give, as a special fee, to the 
MahtO; a water vessel {lofa), tray {tkdli), turban (pagri)^ jacket 
(kurta)^ and loin cloth {dhott). 

4. As already stated, the septs are exogamous, bat the only 

additional provision is that the children of a 
sister are barred, while marriage with the 

children of the mother's brother {mdmn)^ and Other's sister are 

allowed. 

5. If a man takes to shoe-making, no one will many in his family,. 

and the making of drums {mdndar) is also 
thought a low occupation. Polygamy is 
allowed, and the number of wives depends on a man's means. Few 
have more than one. Polyandiy is unknown. If a girl is caught 
in an intrigue with a stranger, the father has to give two dinners : 
one pakki (or food cooked in butter) and one kacieki (or plain) 
with five goats and a still of liquor. They practise adult 
marriage, men being married at eighteen or twenty and girls at 
fifteen or sixteen. The marriage is arranged by the Mahto, who 
gets as his fee a turban and Re. 1-4 in cash. All marriages are 
supposed to take place with the consent of the parents ; but as a 
matter-of-fact the parties often arrange their matches, and if a 
girl fancies a young man, all she has to do is to give him a kick on 
the leg at the tribal dance of the Karama, and then the parents 
think it as well to hasten on the wedding.^ In fact, it seems 
often to be the case that the man is allowed to try the girl first 
and if she suits him, and seems likely to be fertile, he marries her.* 
The bride-price is twelve rapees in cash, two cloths, one for the 
bride and one for her mother, and ten bottles of liquor. This is an 
invariable rule. If after marriage the husband becomes insane, 
impotent, blind, or leprous, his wife may leave him ; but no fault 
of this kind in the wife will justify the husband in discarding her. 
Mistakes of this kind are provided against by the careful 
tion of each by the friends of the other previous to marriage. 



1 For a similar onstom among the Garcs, see Dalton, Defcrij>K«« BihmnAogyt 64: 
Oraons, ibid, 248; Khandhs, ihid 300. Qonds, Central Provinces OaMdt§0r, 277. 
> On this see Westermarck, Uittory of Human Marriag; 580. 



418 0UA81TA* 

6. DivoroeB, or imther the putting awsy o( wives, are uii* 

_. oommon, becmase intertribal immorality ie 

DiTorc«. 111. !• <ii .» • 

thought httle of, and the punishment on the 
relations of a woman for liahon with a stranger are so severe that 
women are looked after. Besides this nothing but the evidence of 
eye witnesses to the act of adultery is accepted. But it appears to 
be good tribal law that a woman may leave her husband if he 
intrigues with another woman«^ In such case her parents can 
give her in sagdi to another man ; but if they do so they must 
return the bride-price. 

7. Women married in the regukr way and those taken in iafdi 

Widow.marrUice and ^^^ equaUy, and both are known as AWtia. 
the UriraU. Though there is a rule against concubinage, 

the children of a concubine are recognised as children of the father, 
and admitted to caste. When a man wants to take a widow, he 
goes to her father with a set of glass bangles {eitlri), some red lead, 
a sheet, a boddice {jAnta)^ and a set of ear-ornaments {iari*). The 
father says:— "All right I Put on the things/' Then she touches 
them all, and takes them inside the house, where the other women 
decorate her with theuL Next morning the father makes a pretence 
of pushing her out of the house as a disgrace to her family, and then 
she goes off with her husband. When he comes home, he feasts a 
few clansmen, and returns to her younger brother-in-law the bride* 
price. A widow can marry an outsider only if the levir refuse to 
have her. She leaves bdiind her all the children by her first husband 
save a child at the breast. If she takes a young child away with 
her, her first husband's brother gives her a cloth every year for her 
trouble in taking care of it. There is no pretence of attributing 
the children of the le^ir to his elder brother. 

8. They have some vague adoption rules in imitation of their 

Hindu neighbours. There is no religious 

Adoptios. 

sentiment in the matter, and when a man 
does adopt, he takes his brother's son, the son of the eider brother 
being preferred. An adopted son does not kise his rights in the 
estate of his natural hther. 



V,U4. 



GHASITA. 414 

9. Beena marriage known as ghafjaigdm is common; intbis 

case the period of probation is one year, 
during which the son-in-law works for his 
&ther-in*law, and is entitled to maintenance ; but has no right to 
inherit from his estate. 

1 0. Tribal offices are hereditary. When an old Baiga is giving 

up office he goes with his son to the 



shrine {deohdr) with two fowls, which he 
makes his son sacrifice. Then he is considered to have abdieated his 
f onctions. The sons are a man's heirs, and primogeniture so far 
prevails that the eldest son gets a tenth more than the others. In 
a joint family the sons can claim partition inter ffivoi : the sons get 
each the same share as their father, and his share is divided at his 
death. A widow, if she remain unmarried, which is nnosoal, ia 
entitled to maintenance ; but can be expelled for nnchastity . A 
daughter has no rights ; but if she becomes a widow or leaves her 
husband she is entitled to maintenance in her father's house until 
she remarries and as long as she remains chaste. A sonless mother, 
too, has a life interest in her husband's estate. She may spend 
something in charity, but not waste the inheritance. If there are 
no sons, the associated brothers succeed ; a sister or her sons never 
succeed. 

11. The system of relationship is the same as among the Kols. 

They remember the names of male and female 

Eelationahip. i. u xi. i? ^• 

ancestors for three or four generations. 

1 2. When a woman is ascertained to be pregnant, they invoke 

the marriage god Dulha Deo in the words — 

Birth oeremonies* 

" If you cause the woman's child to be bom 
without trouble, we will give you an offering. " The offering to 
him is a goat and a red cock. The woman is delivered on the ground 
facing east. When the child is born the Cham&in midwife is called 
in, and she cuts the cord and buries it in the place the child was bom, 
over which she lights a fire into which she puts a bit of iron and 
copper to keep off evil spirits. While the cord is being cut, the 
women of the clan sing the Sohar or song of rejoicing. For three 
days the mother gets nothing but a decoction of herbs.^ On the 
third day she is given a decoction of the root of the KhajAr palm 
(Phanix dactylifera) and of the sarpat grass {Saccharum procerum) 



1 This is also the rulo among the Birhora. Dalton, De»cr\pt\v9 Bthhology, 219* 



416 OHASITiu 

mixed up in a hall with some of the mantftail teed (nifMm indiem), 
ginger [tonH), coane sugar, and the loni? P^PP^i^ (P^P^O* ^^*^ ^ 
this doee is drunk hy the husband, probably a mirm'al of the cou\'ade« 
On the sixth day (clitiHi) the midwife bathes the mother and child, 
and the barber's wife cuts the nails of all the women in the family, 
and colours their feet with lao dye (mtikdmar). The Dhobi takes all 
the clothes to the wash, and the barber shaves all the men. On thai 
day the husband's sister (namad) cleans the delivery room Uamr) and 
receives a present, g^enerally a calf, for her trouble. On the twelfth 
day is tlie bar^ii : the child ^s head is shaved, the mother is bathed 
by lier sister-in-law, and the barber^s wife cuts her nails and colours 
lier feet with lac dye. She puts on clean clothes and she cooks for 
the household and a few clansmen. 

13. As umial among these tribes the ear-boring (kamekkedam), 

which is done for boys and girls at the age 
of eight or nme on a lucky day nxcd by the 

Mahto, represents their introduction into caste and thrir abstention 

from food cooked by a stranger. 

14. Tlic father of the lioy inspects the girl, and when he is 

satisfied, he sends the Mahto, who compktoa 
the negotiations. The girl is produced before 
him and her father says : — " I intend giving you to the son of so-and- 
so. Are you Mtistied ? '* Generally the girl agrees, but someiimca 
she nrfiiscs. In the bitter case the affair ends. If she agrres a date 
is fixi*<l for the betrothal {$ukkdan), whan the boy's father, acoom* 
panicil by the Mahto, makes over to the girl's father semi rupees in 
caiih, t4'n ))ottles of liquor, a set of glass bangles (ckiiri), some red 
lead, a set of ear ornaments (UfH), some oil, and five 9tr$ of butter 
cakes (pmri). Then the fathers exchange platters of liquor as 
described among Bhuiyas (psf«. 13). A marriage shed is erected at 
both houses containing nine bamboos on the sides and a ftole of giddk 
wood {Ihrditiekia 5ts4/4) in the centre. Xmr this is placed a jar 
{kalsa) full of water mvered with a lamp saucer with a burning 
wirk surroundM with some mrsd pulse. ITien follows the m^tw^ngarm 
ceremony as deN*riU*tl among Bhuiyas (/v»f«. 14). The mother oC 
tlv* bride or bridcgnMim, as the case may be, stands near the Baiga 
an<l throws the border of her sh<vt over him as lu* digs the earth* 
Ho {lasses five handfuls to her over his shoulder, and some maideii 
of the tn)ri> brings it in the comer of her sheet and places it in the 



OUASITA^ 416 

marriage shed, and lays the sacred water jar over it. On that day 
the anointing begins {kardi mtkna). It is b^an by the Brihman, 
who takes up a little turmeric and oil with a bunch of the holy dub 
grass and sprinkles it over the bride and bridegroonu Then the 
women relatives anoint them vigorously^ and this is done five times 
a day for three days. On the day the procession starts^ the mother 
does the imli ff Aetna " or mixing of the tamarind, ^' as described 
among Bhuiyas (para. 1 4) . Then she warns her son to behave nicely 
to the relatives of the bride, not to take it ill if they play jokes on 
him. " If you lose your temper your marriage wiU not come off. ^' 
After this she kisses him on the head and sends him off accompanied 
by music. As they approach the bride's village, her friends come 
out to meet them {agwdnt), and at the bride's door her mother waves 
over his head for good luck a rice pounder [muiar), some cowdung 
and seed of the cotton tree (semal). After this they retire to the 
place arranged for them (f'anwdnta), and the bride's father goes there 
and washes their feet and invites them to dinner with the words 
ai^usf ai^as ! Then the marriage is done. The bridegroom comes, 
and, in the form of marriage by capture, drags out the faintly 
resisting bride into the courtyard. They walk seven times round 
the branch of the aiddh tree, and each time as they pass, her brother 
pours a handful of parched rice into the fold {kkoinehkm) of the 
bride's sheet, then the BrAhman puts five pinches of red lead 
(sendnr) into the hand of the boy, who rubs it on the parting of the 
bride's hair. After this her sister-in-law (bkanf'ai) comes and wipes 
ofE as much of the dust as she can into her own sheet, and gets a pre- 
sent of four annas. They then go into the retiring room (iokabar), 
andthere each of them fills with rice a little earthen pot. If after 
filling it once the rice overflows the second time, it is an omen of 
good luck. The rice, it is needless to say, is pressed down the first 
time and then filled in loosely. After this, indirect opposition to the 
customs of the kindred tribes, the bridegroom at onccKSU'ries off the 
bride to the Janvdnaa, where his clansmen are staying, and passes 
the night with her in a shed arranged for the purpose. Next day 
he takes her home. The day after they arrive, they go through the 
ceremony of drowning the water jar [kaUi dubdna) as already 
described among the Bhuiyas (para, 16j. The binding part of this 
marriage cercniony (ckarhnuwu) is the payment of the bride-prioe 
and the marking of the parting of the bride's hair with red lead. 



417 eHASITA. 

15. They have abo the form of marriage by exchange {^mrdwtii), 

when two persons agree to exchange nsters. 
Mr. Wcfltermarck calU this ''the simplest 
way (»f purchasing a wife. ''^ 

IG. Like all these trilies the Qhasiyas are very lax in the disposal 

of the dead. Many simply singe the faoe 
and throw the corpse into the jungle, where 
it is eaten by wild animals. Those who are more exposed to Hindu 
influence cremate the adult dead. The corpse is cremated on a pyre 
arranged near the bank of a stream : it is laid with the feet pointing 
south. The chief mourner walks five times round the pyre, and 
after throwing a small piece of gold on it sets it alight. After 
bathing he ]>lant8 on the edge of the stream or tank a few stalks of 
the jkurai grass.' Returning home all the mourners wash their 
fivt ainl then touch some oil in which a flower of any variety has 
Uvn placed. AfUT this tlu*y hit silent round the chief mourner for 
an hr»ur. On the tenth day they go to the place where the grass 
haK iKvn planted and sliave. On returning home the chief mourner 
preM*ntH a turlan, jacket, and loin-cloth to the chief mourner, fay 
whom the whole death ceremony is carried out. In the e%'ening the 
clansmen are fed and the death impurity ceases. 

17. On the lant day of the fortnight of the dead lpiir€pai$ia) 

in the mtmth of Kuar, they plaster a place 

AocMtnr wonhip. - • i • • i 

under the eavea of the house, sprinkle some 
flowers there, and lay out five leaf platters {dammm) containing all the 
u^uaI f(MMl, iMiilcd T\i\\ meat, etc. Then they call out, "O ancestors, 
take this and lie kind t4> our children and cattk*.''* 

1^. They call tWrnHclvi^tt Hindus, but their Religion is of a very 

irregular tyjw. They sometimea worship 
Maliadeva with a Imrnt offering {iom). At 
marriages i\u*y worship Dulha Deo. When they are cntting the 
ri(v, tlM*y kwe a little uncut in ca<'h field, and when harvest ia done 
<'Ut this, ckiui it, and Isiil it, and then offer it to the field gcddeH 
Harivari Din-i, with a sa4*ritiM» of rvA cHiloured hens and cock.^ This 
itfTcring is consunutl by the family of tlu* wonihi|»|ier. Thry abo 



■ U%$tory of Human Miarrut/t, 9P0, 
^ On thii COtttoin. ••« l>iy Ir, i^ira U. 

* Fcir utb«r ••lanjilrs < f tin* t*^ H|M*tir9r. PtintiyUi of .*4Mno7*^y, 1, lU. 

* Thii m^j |>rrhA|ff )•«» a relic of tlie c«»r«m(tffiy tir«mK««| bf tW Aslbrtf ..,•« 
HIi.»tt, iiuikmrn^mhrnd H^UUmtni kt^ri^ ITf.qo^Ud hj I'mMr, iM^m H^if i^ I, ITS. 

Vol ir. Sa 



GHA8TYA. 418 

worship the village bouBdary deify Srw&na (Terminns) with a goat, 
some liquor and a thick cake {rot), the head of the goat and the cake 
being the perquisite of the Mahto, who performs the worship. 
Curiously enough in this worship they do not employ the Baiga. 
On the sixth of the month Migh^ they worship an obscure tribal 
god Chhat Baba— ''The lord of the sixth,'' of whom no informa- 
tion can be obtained except that he appears to be some deified 
worthy of the tribe. In Bhidon they have the tribal dance of the 
Karama. Unmarried girls fast that day, and in the evening drink 
liquor, dance, and indulge in rude debauchery. As already remark- 
ed [pora, 5) this is the time when young couples arrange their 
matches. In the month of Mdgh or Pus they have the Khichari 
festival^ when they eat coarse sugar, a sweetmeat {chtlra)^ made 
of rice and sesamum, and drink liquor. They do the Phagua in 
the ordinary way, but do not Ught the HoH fire unless any of their 
Hindu neighbours do so, when they join in the ceremony. 

19. They are greatly in fear of evil spirits, which particularly 

infest rivers, wells, or tanks, where a person 

Various snperstitions. - ,, . 

has been drowned, or trees, by a tall from 
which a man has been accidently killed. They are propitiated by a 
bumt offering {horn) and by pouring Hquor on the ground. They 
have the usual omens and lucky days. They commence sowing on a 
Friday, when the Baiga sets the example to the village. They swear 
by the Granges, and by placing their hands on their sons' heads. 
If they forswear themselves, they believe they die and contract lep- 
rosy. They do not practice sorcery or witchcraft themselves, but 
they believe in the evil influence of witches. This is reUeved by 
passes {ihdrnd) done by the Baiga. 

20. They do not eat beef or the flesh of the monkey, alligator, 

lizard, rat, jackal, or snake. They eat fowls. 

Social cnstoms. , . , i 

goats, and pork, which last is not allowed to 
women. The yuse liquor, smoking and chewing tobaooo freely. 
They will not touch a Kayasth or Dhobi, or the younger brother's 
wife ; nor will a male connection by marriage ($amdh%) touch the 
mother of his son's wife or daughter's husband. Juniors salute se- 
niors in the form known as pdelagiy and an old woman repUes,yijro 
putra Idl'h baras ! " Live child ten thousand years !" They treat 
jiG^ed relations and women well, and respect the latter for their powers 



* A mull); liiixluti tLis is solcmuized on tho luflt day of Magb. 



ghasita; ghasiyAra. 419 OHoai. 

of work. They drad Btrangers and are very clannish among them- 
velvet. Thej' work generally as groomB and ktvpew of clepliantg. 
Their Boeial status is decidedly low, tliough as oom^iared with the 
Bengal tribe, tliey are somewhat higher, as they do not eat beef.* 
They will not do degrading occupations, amung which they consider 
shu^niaking ditfres]H!ctable, and one who practises this trade is 
deliarrcd from marriage in the caste. Dr. Ball notes that one of 
tlH»ni refused to carry his dog in a basket.* No Uindu exoept 
a Duni will cat fotxl touched by them. 

Ohaaiyara, Ghasyara— (Sanskrit yi«f*«, "grass," kJraia 
''occupied with*';.— Grass-cutters, merely an occupation. But a 
few Muliainmadans so entered themselves at the last Census as a 
K»i>arate lafcte. They have, of course, no connection with the Dravi- 
dian (ilia^iyas. 

Viitribuiion of (ie Ohaiydrat actordinf to the C€n$n$ of 1891. 



DltTEICT. 



Nnmb«r. 



ShV(ij.ili4npur 
Ootid* . 
IWhriiicU 



66 



•i 



Total . IM 



Ghoti*— (Sanhkrit jf^oiko, root gkmik^ " to shout,*' as he herds 
his cuttk*).— 'A triU^of Muhammadan henlsmen. There can he little 
doubt tluit like the Oaddi most of ttiem are Ahirs who have been 
oonvcrU^l to Ihlam. To the cmst of thi^ Province they claim a 
(f ujar (»ngin ami profi-«s to be divided into three endogamous sub* 
caHtiH — Lilar. C'h«>|iar, an<l (taddi Oujar. In North Oudh again thej 
liave thnv endi»gaiiKiUH sub-caste« — Padhan or Pradhan ; (taddi and 
Lala. The detaiktl Cefinuji liitUi give 1 1 1 sei*ti«As ; but it is at pre* 
mmt irii|HHihible to di^tinguil»h tlu* exoganioua from the endugamoos 
grouiw. Tiu-M'are of the tistal ty|H% some kxtil like Desw&li, Kanaa* 
jiya, Magliadya, Puiab.ya ; antl otlM-n* folkiwing the names of 



* Pa««<l %m •B^airiM al MiriApof mmI « ttoU Vj B4btt Btdri Nfttk, l>*p«|j Osl- 

Vol. ll« tat 



OHOsi. 420 

well known castes and septs^ such as Baghela^ Behnaiy Chaudhariy 
Chauhan, Gaddi, Gahlot, Gaur, Oual, Gn&lbans, J&dabansi, Pathin, 
Rajput, Sayyid, Shaikh, Sadiqi, Tomar, Turk. The word Ghosi is 
in &et rather vaguely used. In the PanjslW it is applied only to 
Musalmans, and is often given to any cow-herd or milkman of that 
rehgion, whether Gujar, Ahir, or of any other caste, just as Guala 
is used for a Hindu cow-herd. In Lucknow the Ghosis have no 
other employment but the keeping of milch cattle, chiefly buGEaloes 
of all kinds, and they breed buffaloes. They sell milk to Halwiis, 
and make inspissated milk {ikoa). The Gu&la, on the other hand, 
is generally an Ahir or Gadariya, and keeps both buffaloes and cows, 
and frequently cultivates some land. They seldom sell milk and 
curds to Halwais. The Shirfarosh or DudhwSla is a still more gen- 
eral term. They are of no special caste, but are generally Ahirs, 
Lodhas, Kurmis, Gadariyas, Halwais, or Br&hmans. 

2. The Ghosi conforms to the rules of Islam, but retains, Uke 

many of these lower Muhammadan tribes, some 

Manners and oastoms. tt'iii'i» i a' mi « 

Umdu beliefs and practices. To the east of 
the Province they say that the ancestor of the race was one Daya 
Ram Gujar, who was in high favour with one of the Muhammadan 
Emperors, and was by him induced to accept the &ith of Islam. He 
was settled in the neighbourhood of Karra Manikpur, which they 
regard as their head -quarters. They profess to follow the Sunni 
sect, and to the east worship as their tribal deities the P&nchonpir, 
Imam Sahib, andGhazi Miyan. To these they offer sugar and water 
and cream. Like all Muhammadansthey bury their dead and wor- 
ship the spirits of the sainted dead at the Shab-i-barat and 'Id. On 
the former feast they offer the kalwa sweetmeat and cakes of wheat- 
en flour ; at the Litter vermicelli (iiwaijudu), milk, and dates. In 
North Oudh they worship Gorakh, Shah Madar, Sayyid Sal&r, and 
Bliairon, besides various saints and martyrs (phyShahid). They em- 
ploy Brahmans to fix the auspicious times for marriage and other 
observances. To the east of the Province they will not eat beef nor 
will they eat with any Muliammadans who consume it. This is 
said not to he the case in North Oudh. They rank rather low in 
the social scale, and are proverbial for their stupidity and for never 
takinpr to any other occuimtion, but the care of cattle and dealing in 
n ilk, buttxT, curds, etc. 



J Panjdb Ethnography, para. 497: Hoey, Monograph, 104. 



0H08I. 



421 



GIKDAUaiTA. 



Uiiiribuiion of the Giosii according lo ike (7#i»««t of 1891. 



DltTBlCTl. 


Nombar. 


DltTMICTS. 


Nnmbar. 


Dehn DAn 


71 


JhiDti . . . . 


874 


Sahiranpar 


S.066 


b«iuirM .... 


8 


Mauflarnaf^r . 


817 


Minapar 


118 


Me«»rat • . . • 


763 


Ballu . . . . 


10 


Bulandfhahr 





; Gorakhpur 


1*641 


Alif^arh .... 


488 


'Haiti . . . . 

1 


830 


Hiithiirft .... 


187 


1 
Ataagarfa 


88 


Ajfn .... 


118 Tarii .... 


1.818 


FarmkhAUd . 


6 

1 


Looknow. , 


866 


Euh .... 


83 Ufi4o . . • • 


8 


Bareillj .... 


63 


RiA Barali 


1,108 


Bijnor 


1.898 i Kheri .... 


866 


MorAdiUJ 


4.180 


FaiiAUa. 


|/>68 


Pilibhlt .... 


48 


Gooda «... 


746 


CairnpQr • • • . 


881 ; 


Bakriieh .... 


1J70 


Fateliptir .... 


190 1 


SultAnpnr 


8.188 


BAndA . . J 


818 


Partibfarh 


646 


AlUhiUa. 


886 . 

j 

1 


Birabaaki 

Total 


868 


1 


87.760 


^^ % • »r^ •• 


m • 


\ » ■• . 


• • . a 



at marrapw, etc.). — A aniall iiub-cm«teof Uanj-ma, mnat numrroua in 
Mwnit. Tiny worship Dvn, Mahadcn-m, Si^rmj Nariran, the Sun* 
f(<Kllin^, aiifl Pan-aii, the unake. and Uie Gan^^, and hare a apocial 
rtii|»ivt for the cow and the Pi|ial tmr. Siioie of them now huU land 
aa Lmillonlii or tenanta, and live by Government or private fervioa. 



6INDAI7BIYA. 



422 Q0LAHE£; OOLAPl&BAB. 



Distribution of Oittdauri^a Banya* aeeording to the Cemus of 1801. 



DI8TEICT8. 


Nnmber 


DlBTBICTS. 


Number. 


Muzaffamagar . 

Meerut . • • • 

Bnlandsbabr 


211 

6,974 

17 


Bijnor • • • • 

Mor&dAbftd 

Allab&b&d 

Total 


686 

15 

lOQ 




7,003 



6olalir§ — {goloy "a grain mart"). — A small sab-caste of 
Banyas foand only in Jhansi^ numbering 603. They are all 
Jainas. 

Golapurab.^ — An interesting caste of agriculturists found only 
in the Agra District, where they occupy several villages in the 
southern parganas, and a few in the northern pargana of Ihtimad* 
pur. The fonner claim to be the earlier residents ; but they have 
no traditions as to the period of their emigration. They are, 
however, unanimous in fixing the village of Birthara, about 2S miles 
south of Agra, as the head-quaiiers of their ancestors; and this 
assertion is corroborated by the fact that one of their most influen- 
tial gotras is called Birthariya, though they have been residing for 
generations a long way from that place. The caste is known by no 
other name than that of Golap(irab. In Khairagarh they attribute 
their origin to Dholpur. According to Raja Lachhman Sinh, their 
correct and original name seems to be Golak Purna Brahman, wfaieb 
is equivalent to Golak Brahman or "bastard'' Brahman. The ad- 
verb p4rna is often inserted between the two component parts of a 
compound word, when periphrastically expressed in Sanskrit. As 
for Gola, which is evidently a corruption of Golaka, " a bastard," it 
is well known tliat the sons of concubines among the higher castes 
are known as Gola or Chefa, and in Sholapur there is a tribe known 
as (Jola, who say tliat they were originally Brahmans who were 
degraded for killing cows. The triljal tradition which derives their 



* Thin account ifi almost entirely based on a note by B4ja Laohhrnan 
Botirod Deputy Collector, A|^a. 



423 golapCrab. 

name from the Rishi Oulava. who, accordinfif to the Ilanvansa^ wm 
the son, and, according^ to the Mahahhilmtay the pupil of Visvamitra, 
n»st8 on no authority, and no rtile of syllabic mutation would con- 
vert the di»t«ci*n4lantH of Galava into (lulap&rab. This Rishi, some 
SUV, wa.s marrieil to a low caste widow ; aecordin^^ to others to 
Sukseni, the daufi^hter of the Chandraljans Raja Chandra Sen. 

2. Raja Lachhman Sinh ^ves various reasons for believing that 

the GolapQraljs are a spurions branch of tha 
CunnecUcn jHth SanAdh Sanadliya Brihmans. Hi« argument is Ortt 

that the villa^^es occupied by the two tribts 
are cloK'ly intermixed ; secondly, that the namea of the ^oirss of 
both are derivi^i from tiie names of villages occupied by thair 
un<'ostor, and not, as am<»ng other Brahmans, from the namea 
of their anei^tors or their titles. Several g^trai, again, notably 
Birthariya, are «*ommon to both. Tliirdly, the customs and cera- 
moniiiU of (iolapArabsc lot*ely resemble those of the Sanidhyaa. 
BoUi wear tlie sacred coni {J^netf) and do not permit widow-mar- 
ria*;e. l^nlike the* Sanailhyas, howo'er, they employ family prietta 
[purokit), which implies that they are not pure Brahmans. Fourth* 
ly, they will eat kaehchi from the hands of Sariadhj'as alone, and 
from no other eastt^ or even trilie of Brihmans. Some of the 
Ihtimailpur families attriltute tlieir origin to tlie village of Chitora, 
whi(*h is said to lie somewhere south of Agra. They pi*rform the 
tonsure {m^imfan) cerem<my under a ntm tree, which tlk*y consider aa 
sa4*rt*d ait t Ik* pipat. ()f this custom they can give no explanation ; 
but tlM>re are some Rijput clans whi«*h reverenoe the mim tiae, and 
will, im no aix^ount, cut e%'en the smalU«t l»rani*h «if it. In Agra 
tli«* names of the chii«f yo/raf of the caate are derived from thoae 
of villagi*ii situated immediately roimd Birthaim, such aa Birthariya^ 
P.tiriha, Khosariya, Madheriya,and Badhiya. Their conDertion with 
th«> Sanadhya Brihmans is also shown by the lisct that their priasia 
are all «lrawn from that sul>-di\niuon uf Brahmans. 

«H. At tik* same time tlieir sections, as given in the detailed 
(Vnsiis lists to tik* numl#r «if 70, do not tend to establish their 
Brahntaniral ori^nn, ami we finil »> trat^e of even the »t4krk namea 
siu'h as Hharail«iaja. Ka«iya|ia, and ttk* Uke. On the contrary are 
found l(H*ml terms such as Jaiswar, Mathnriya, or titU*» derived from 
Hajput (»r other triU-s such as Cliauliin. Kaildiwiya. Panwir, 
Kajput. Tluikur. or oivupational as (ihaskata, '* grass cutteia,^' 
All thin decidedly weakens thair claim to Brihmanioal origin. 



eOLAPtRAB. 424 

4, Marriage of two sisters is permitted. Difference of belief is 

no bar to inteimaniage. Generally polygamy 
is permitted only when the first wife is barren 
or unfit through some infirmity or disease for household work. 
When there are two wives, the senior enjoys more respect than the 
junior, who, however, naturally receives more of the affection of her 
husband. Unless serious quarrels arise, the wives hve in the same 
house. There is no fixed age for the marriage of males, but g^is are 
almost always married before puberty, when they are about nine or 
ten years old. The marriage negotiations are carried out by the 
village barber and the family priest. The marriage is void in the 
absence of the consent of the father or other legal guardian. No 
physical defect subsequently ascertained can annul a marriage, and 
divorce is prohibited. Bastards or the offspring of illicit connec- 
tions are known as Dasa,^ and are not admitted to full caste rights, 
and do not inherit. As a rule they follow the tribe of the father, and 
only in very i*are eases that of the mother. Not only are illegiti- 
mate children excluded from inheritance, but they are not admitted 
to the domestic meals or to tribal feasts. Illicit connections involve 
the excommunication of both parties. Widow-marriage and the 
levirate are both prohibited. 

5. There are no ceremonies performed during pregnancy. 

During parturition neither the mother nor the 
midwife must face the south. Some elderly 
woman of the family, or in default of such a person, a hired woman 
acts as midwife, and after deliverythe mother is attended by the 
women of her own family. On the fifth or sixth day after the 
child is bora is the Chhathi worship, and on the twelfth day the 
Dashtaun. On the former the women of the family and iheir 
neighbours sing songs, eat rice and sugar, and worship the goddess^ 
Shasthi, the protectress of children. On the Dashtaun food and 
presents are given to Brahmans. The child-birth impurity rests on 
the family until it is removed by the Dashtaun feast. There are no 
special ceremonies in connection with twins. 

6. The adoption ceremonies are of the normal type, as laid 
,^. down in the Dattaka Mimansa and the 

Adoption, initiation. -nw i /-.i i ., „« . • 

Dattaka Chandrika. The regular mitiati<»i 



* I>aiia and Bina, aa we have Boon in connection with some of the Bany* tribei^ 
mean '* the t«nB " and " the twenties/' the hitter claiming to be of blae blood. 



426 oolapCrab. 



coromony or iiivrstituro ci*iTnu>ny (^njnopatUa ) i8 pi»rforined 
amon^ all " twict»-lM>ni '' csiHtet*. 

7. Tlio inarrmifi* cfn*m(»nii*s van* liltlo, if at all, fn>in tliot4e 

etirrt'iit anxm^ the higher ('aiitctt. Tlit* bridc-'t 
fatluT or ^iianliaii hi'iulK a C(M*4)uiiut aim a 
rujH»o <»r a ^oltl mukar to the brulejFpH»iii. If i\w*<* an* at^t-cpt*!!, the 
IttrU'r who carrit*H tliem piitn a mark of naiulal ( roli ) <*ii tlk* tMiy'M 
fon^hc;!*!, and placei* a t(\vi*ftiiu*at ( bai*thha ) and a U'tvl liaf in hin 
mouth. This (vromony is kno\^n a«i lika, $tkkit^ or jaimt, Tlio 
first nam<* it» dorived from tht* ntl forvhitul mark, tlie KtH'oud frt»m 
the coin ukchI ok a ]>lt*d^e of lM*trothal, and tin* third is tht* fi'ast 
Ijivcn to the ImrK-r at tin* hi»use of tla? hridi*jjnK>m. While tlu» 
negotiations for tlu* betn»tbal are ^oin^ f*n tlu* Inrber niay visit the 
hride^rtMimV house si*venil timt*s, but he will not eat there until 
the mateh is finally settled. Tlie U'trotlial is not t^»mp!ete before 
the Ciia ivremony, and aftiT this eeremony it ean lie annulled, first, 
if eitlhT of the parties is found to be suffering from some 6t*riouB 
disi'use ; Mrondly, if it ci»incs to lipht tliat they are within tlie prohi« 
Ikited diHrrees ; tliinlly, when a doubt is raised as t4> tht* purity of 
deseent of either |»arty. Ketn>tlial takes place any time liefore 
marria^o. jji-neially when the jifirl is K»ven years «»f ajje. If the 
b(*trotliaI is annulled tin* pn*s(*nts are Ubually rt^tuim'd. 

^. Tlie a<iual marria^* eervmony is of tlu* normal typo. The 
hindinir {nirtion of it is the nsptapa'it or walking K*ven Jimes rouiid 
the hutchI fire. In moi»t eases now-a-<lays «>n]y six |»eramUilationift 
are |ierformetl. Tlie «»uly ap|karent survival of niarriap* by cupture 
is wliatis known as tlie *'d<Nir''or ** vt^tibuk* <vremony " {*imfwdta^ 
t^arotki ) in wliieh a nuH'k ii^rht ik i^rriul i»n by tlie reUtions 4if the 
bride and bridi'trMuni. It is |K*rfornu<d at tlie diior of tlie bride's 
hous4\ and tla» bridegroom is alway» girt with a sword while it is 
going on. 

9. The diwl are rremaU'd. Customs vary in different pbu\s. 

as to tia* |Ni»ition in wliirli tlii* i-virpsi* is laitl 
Di«|M««l <if the ti««d. , , • • I ' I * 

f(ir eremation. In some plait's it is laid faiv 

downwanls, in others ontia* Isu'k. The latter is tia* more p*neral. 

Till* Ikad is ill H*me pkuv laid in tla* dire<'ti«»n of tlie ni»rtk, in 

otlk«*r ti'Wnids the lu.uth The latter is in at*t*«inlaniv with the 

ruli> of the Sliastra. If tla*re be a river vVm.* bv tla* aslies are oon* 

t'i^iKil to it, while any fragnients «if Uiue whieh remain art* reserved 

ti» lie thruwn into the (laiiges when a cunvenieut oi^irtunity oooors. 



GOLAP^^BAB. 426 

The fire is lit and the skull broken by the nearest relation of the 
deceased. After disposing of the ashes if there be a river close by the 
mourners return home. 

1 0. Besides the ordinary srdddhay which is performed in honour 

of deceased relations^ childless relations {opul, 

Propitiation of the dead. . ^ ^ . ... i , 

a corruption of aputra) are propitiated by 
performing the Eirtan ceremony. At this certain professional 
Brahmans sing religious songs, and a feast is given to them. The 
srdddha performed on the eleventh day after death is known as 
EM dish t. or "directed towards this single deceased person 
alone." The subsequent srdddhas are common to the whole body 
of deceased relations. They are done either monthly on the day the 
deceased died, or annually in the month of Kuftr (September-October). 
Tliose who are paiticularly religious visit some holy shrine, such 
as the confluence of two sacred rivers, or, in preference, Gaya, for 
this purpose. In most \dllages there is a particular spot on the out- 
skirts which is supposed to be haunted by the ghosts of deceased 
relations, particularly those who have died childless or perished by a 
\'iolent death. Some pieces of stone are thar representatives, and 
these arc worshipped by women at marriages, when the bride goes 
home with her husl^and, and at some other festivals. If there have 
boeu a .sati in the family she is worshipped at the same time.^ Ti» 
ordinary »rdddha is performed in accordance with the standard 
ritual, and in all cases among Golapurabs, by the family prieet. 

1 1 . The parents and the nearest relations in the direct line are 

impure for ten days after the Irirth of a child. 

Ceremonial impurity. m, i , • . i 

ITie death impunty lasts for twelve or 
tliirUvn days, and a woman in her menses is impure for four days. 
In the first two cases the impurity is removed by a regular cere- 
mony in which Brahmans are feasted ; in the third case the woman 
purifies herself l)y bathing on the fifth day. 

12. Golapflrabs invariably belong to the Vaishnava sect, and 

employ as their priests Sanadhya BnUnnans. 

Beligion. • i i i i « 

In common with other and lower castes they 
worship the xnllage godlings, Chamunda Devi, a form of Durga, 
Pathwari Devi, who is the guardian of roads [patka) and the protec* 
tress of travellers. Ilardco Buudela, the cholera god ling; Sitala, the 



1 At the Iai<t CenPUH 8,533 porsona soatterod all oyer the proTinod reo«rd«d 
themaelvca as Sati woruhippers. 



427 qolapOrab. 

god(lo88 of gmall-pox ,^ mm\, Bhumiya, the gfiiartlian of the village 
B\tc. Cows and ImliookB are wrtrnhipiK'd on the Govanlhana day in 
th(* middle of Karttik (Oc*toU*r-Novenilier), and horses at the Dasahra 
in Kuar ( Si*pteniU*r-OeU»b(T). The animals are smeari'd with 
colours^ and are ^iven a special feed of i^i^i^- ^^ only mtana of 
propitiating the gfhosts of the dead is by the ordinary itiddka. 
Tliey U'lieve in dreamt and visions in which the spiritu of the 
dejtarted apiK^r to their relations, and there are certain places which 
are («]Kviallv liaunted hy malignant ghostn, which very often appear 
in animal forms, such as those of the dog, cat, buffalo, etc. The 
appi'arance of such malignant ghosts is generally understood to 
imply tliat their obsequies have not been duly performed ; and this 
can be remedied by a performance of the srdddAa, or pilgrimage to 
(iaya, and by erect ing a tomb or platform in the name of the deceased, 
or by planting one of the varieties of fig tree {pipml, bar^ gdUr) 
in his h<»n<mr. The ghoste of persons who have died childless are 
much dreaded and are kni»wn as tftf/, or those who have ni^m* to pour 
water for their refreshment in the world of the dead. The only 
tnuf of special tree worship is the N^neration felt by some of the 
gvlran for the nim tree. llu*y believe in astrology and tht* influence 
of e>nl stars : thes«* are propitiated ljy worship (pdja \ and by givin|[^ 
f(MKl and pretients to the low class of astrologer Brahmans, known 
ah Kliaiblri. Bharara, Parokhiya, or Dakaut. They lielievi* in the 
UMtial meeting omens. When a first child dien, the next l^iby b 
given an opprobrious name as a protect ir^n against the Kvil Eye 
an<l deiii(»niacal influenc^e generally. Such names are Tinkauri or 
Parhkauri (** liought for three or five cow rites'' ) ; Kanc^hheda (''ear- 
piiTeeil), Nathiia, Nak«'liheil. Chhidda, (" nost^pieiccd '') ; Bhika or 
Bhikari ( " U^ggar " ); ChhiUriya, Gha«ita, Kadhera (" one put in 
a lAKket imnutliately after Urth and dragged aliout the house '^ ; 
(fhasi (<<eh(«p as graM''); Jhiu (" valuekis as tanuuisk'') ; Phiba 
(*' i*h4«p as straw'') ; Mi*nda (" one taken immediately after birth 
and partly buried on the boundary of the field a* if it were already 
dtiMl ">; C'huri (*' thr«>wn on th» dung-hill '') ; NakU (" withont a 
iioM* "), and m» on. Tlii>e prai*ti<^e» are rarely i*niployed in the 
of girU, who are ronritlered naturally protected. 



I At th« '.A*t Cfbtto*, llV.ia^ p< fo i rtcunUJ iti— imU— •• ttorsLipptrs ti 



OOLAPtBAB. 428 

13. The common forms of oath are — swearing in a temple, by 

holding Ganges water in the hand or touching 

Oaths* , " 

the idol, by the leaf of a jpipal tree, by the 
sacred cord of a Brahman, by going seven paces in the direction of 
the Ganges, by touching the forehead of a Br&hman, by jBwearing 
with son or grandson in the arms. The last oath, if taken falsely, 
is supposed to cause the death of the child in a &w days. Violation 
of the other oaths brings sickness of men and cattle, plague and 
pestilence, loss of ci'ops, and so on. 

14. The control of witches and other forms of demoniacal 
_ , agency is in the hands of the Sy&na or " cun- 

Domonology* 

ning man.'^ He is called in .in cases of sick- 
ness and smokes some tobacco which has been touched by the sick 
man since the attack began. This causes him to fall into a state of 
ecstacy, in which he mutters the name of the evil spirit which is 
attacking the patient, and suggests the proper means of propitia- 
tion. The Syana generally has a private devil or two of his own, 
which he lets loose to pursue the evil spirit which is afflicting his 
patient. The office of Syana is not confined to any special caste : 
any one may undertake the duty if he learns the appropriate spell 
[mantra) from some teacher (^f#f«), or by intensity of devotion 
reduces an evil spirit into his power. Some people learn the inter- 
pretation of dreams from the special printed manuals on the subject. 
Any tiling valuable is liable to the Evil Eye, because malignant people 
covet its possession. The best means of obviating it is to throw 
grains of the small mustard irat) salt and bran into the fire. Great 
care is taken of substances, such as clippings of the hair, fragments 
of the nails, etc. These if allowed to lie about may get into the 
hands of some witch and enable her to obtain influence over the 
original owner. 

15. Meat of all kinds is prohibited food, and so are onions, 

garlic, and turnips. They will eat with no 
caste which they consider lower than their 
own, and will not touch a Bhangi, Dhobi, or Cham&r : Khattks and 
Kanjars are aiho held in abhorrence. A man should not mention 
by name his Haja, his Guru, his father, elder brother, eldest son, or 
father-in-law. Similarly women should not name their husbands, 
mother-in- law, or the wife of the husband's elder brother. If a 
Kaja is mentioned it is Rajaji, the Guru as Guruji, the father as 
Kakaji, the eider brother as Bhaiyyaji, the eldest son as Lallu or 



429 OOli kVtRAB. 

Nanhfl. For other senior re'ations they um a periphrasis^ calling 
them " the son o£ so-and-so " or *' the father of so«and-so/' 

16. A Brahman is always consulted as to the most propitious 

day for lie^inninir to plouph, sow, or reap. 

AgricoltunJ beliefs. _, • . i *% 

The most important operation is the first 
plou^hinf^ after the first fall of rain. This is known as kalaiin 
Una, The time is fixed by the Pandit, who also names the member 
of tlie family who should drive it, and in which dire<'tion it should be 
worked. A shower is unlucky if it &li on the first day of the li^ht 
half of Jeth (May- June), and at midnight on the fifth of Siwan 
(July-Auprnst). These indicate a bad rainy season. Rain on the 
Heventh of Sawan is lucky, and thunder on the seventeenth of Jeth 
in ronsidcred propitious. Vegetables and <»ther more N-aluable crops 
are protected from the Evil Eye by subpending a black }>ot in the 
field. 

17. Inhere is no special kind of food allowed to men and pro- 

hibited to women. When a person is initiated 
into any of the Vaishnava sects (iHrw^iakk' 
nk'i Unt^ gufumukh hona) he is ob*ige<l to aljandon the use of one 
jiartirular kind of f<K>l or frait. Women do not eat with men, and 
youn«^ children, who are re^ardtnl as impure becaune they tmch dirt 
and eat without reganl to eabte rules, are not allowtnl to enter the 
c« oking plat^e [ek.iukm) of the ailult males of tiie £|^ily. All the 
men eat together or a|iart as is found moht convenient. At the 
<*ommencemi*nt of meairt ofTenngs are maile to the deities, and those 
who are htrict and in a p>hition to (»)Kser\'e tlie religious nikv, per- 
form wliat is known as the rai^watitva ^'tJ¥a, ^liich consists in 
cmhting a little of the f(M)d as an offering to the deities at the com- 
menc^emont of a meal. Others mert»ly rejHut the wonls Ai'/Vfe 
TkakHfji M^kdrdj, ** \\e pl<*a»ed Great Ii<»nl to accept our offering." 
The smoking of gdnja is (considered disreputable ; against (»hanp and 
opium theie is no prohibition; anyone drinking spirits is excom- 
municatttl. 

IS. Eldrrs, Rrahmanb. and men of rank an* entitleil to a salute 

fmin ail males. The salute to a Brahman is 
the wonl PdlJtj'tn ; *• I tourh thy livt ' to a 
lUjput JukAr or .l/»7**'a, ar.d toothers Ram ! Kiim .' or the name of 
tl»e ]«krtlriiliir doity w«»rhhip|MNl by the ]vrH»n nuikin;; tlk» halute. 
Pethons of mnk an* givMi tlie highe-it plaice at a feast or social 
nii'eting* If a superior and inferior Imppen io sit (»n tlie same cot. 



qolap^rab; goli. 430 gond; goxr. 

the former sits at the head and the latter at the feet. They will eat 
kachch i roti or food cooked without ghi, with no one but a Sanadh 
Brahman, and they will eat ^ahhi roti with no one lower than a 
barber. 

19. The Golapiirabs are a purely agricultural caste, and are one 

of the most industrious peoples of the pro- 

Ocoupation. . , .. i , i 

vince, and the women are particularly noted 
tor their excellence in domestic work. 



Bistrihnliofi of the Golapiirabs according to the Cen$ui o/ l%9l. 



Distsicta. 



Agra 

Etah 

Total 

Males • • • 

Females • • 



Numbers. 




Goli. — A caste shown at the last Census only to the number of 
21 in the Muzaffarnagar District. As far as can be ascertained 
they are really only a sub-caste of Luniyas. The detailed Census 
Returns give only one section, Kaprahti. 

Oond ; Gonr. — Probably meaning an " inhabitant of Grauda^' or 
Western Kosala; according to Mr. Hislop from the lelegu. Konda, 
''a hill.'' Dr. Oppert^ suggests that the names of tiibes with the 
first syllable Ko or Go, such as the Kodulu, Konda. Gonda, (}anda, 
Kurava, etc., are derived from the Grauda Dravidian root Ko^ 
Konda, etc., in the sense of "mountain." In the Census Returns 
under the name Gond two quite distinct classes of people seem to be 
mixed up, — the true Gonds of the Central Indian bill country, and 
the Gonr of the Eastern Districts of these Provinces, who is usually 
clabised with tiie fishing tribes of Eahar and Mallab and is a domes- 
tic servant, stone-cutter or grain-parcher. In the detailed Census 
Returns the sections of these two distinct tribes are inextricably 
mixed up together and defy analysis, 

' Original Inhahilanii oj Bhaf€Aavar»Ka, 13. 



< ■ ' 



■; » I ■■».■. 



\L 



r. A • ' 



I 



. \ I" '..}\** 1...:: *•'•! I :' 

■ 1 1 ] k: .1- - I* • • i . . -•• I 

■I- : ' * f 



'■'..;' \ ii \ h^a'" or 

.' .■ .;• ■ ••^■ • i* '. !•' . ^^ iT '. :h-' 

* 

]** ' ■ - * ■'■'^ '" ^*-' 

• ■ ' . 1- ■ ' . ' :■ ■-. •..•y. !• ii 

1- ' . '■ I '• .1 ... 



. J -. ;. ■ .1 



• ■ 

I* • 



•• •!.. ' 

• .1 , • - 
I .- 1 1 ■ ■ . 



431 OOND ; QONB. 

2, Of the Central Indian Gondi there are very few in tbete 

Provinoas exoept in Jhansi and Lalitpur. 
Th« Central Indian flut as will be se«n from the aeocmnt of the 

U<*IMlt« 



Manjhis and Kharwars of South Mirzapafi 
they are almost certainly an offuhoot from the great Ooiid raee, and 
still preserve much of the tribal organisation of the real Gouds 
aloti^ the Hills to the wt-st. According to Mr. Hisk>p> the true 
Ootids divide tliemMlves into twelre and-»-half castes or class* s in 
imitation of the Hindus. These are Raj Gond ; Raghuwal ; Da* 
dav«; Katulya; Patial ; Dholi ; Ojhyal ; Thotyal ; KoiUbhutal ; 
Koikopal ; Kolam ; Madyal, and an inferior sort of Padal as tlie 
half coste. The first four, with the sddition, aecordinir t<» some, 
of the Kolam, are comprehended under the name of Koitor, the 
Gond par ereeiience. 

3. The only branch of the tribe which seems to exist under 

this name in these Provinces is the Raj 

The BAj Oood«. * 

Oondy some of whom are reported to exist 
in the Jhansi District. They are divided into the following sretions 
{go^ra) :— Soham; Chagaba; Markam; PosAm ; Koram ; Dewar, 
which are exogamous. Of the Kij Gonds Mr. Hislop writ«*s:— 
''The Rsj (fondh are so called iMHsame they have furnished from 

tlieir numbr most of the fumili«'S who have attainid to roval 

• 

piiwer. They are widrly spread over the plains and mountaiits of 
the Pri»vim*«' of NAg|»ur, and mie found in Berar and tlie jun^rle 
s«»uth of the Warda, a** well as those north of the Xarbsda. The 
Rsgliuwal and Dadavd are m(»re limited m their range, being ci'n- 
finrd print'ipally to the District of Chhindwara. Thrs«> thrt<e 
cbudieti generally devot** lhrm»(*lves to agiiculture. llwy eat with 
ea4*h other, but do n4>i intermarry. The Katulya, though not a 
very numerous ebus in ngard to individuals, is extensively scatter* 
rd. it iiichiJes all those wh*>, originally belonging to one or other 
of the preceding Koitor classes, have begun tooonform t4> the Hindu 
relipou ami to a|)e Hindu manners. ProfsMiing to be Kshatriyas, 
they have invest^ themselves with a sacred thread, and make great 
efTnrts to get the «*laim allowed by contracting marriage with needy 
RAJinit brides. With scrupulous exactness they perform the pre- 
scrilied aMuti(»ns of their adopted faith, and carry their passii>n ta€ 
puritkatioti do far as to have their faggota duly sprinkled with water 



GOND ; GONB. 432 

before they are used for cooking. At the time of dinner if a stranger 
or a crow come near them the food is thrown away as polluted. 
These practices, which other Koitors regard with profound contempt, 
are gaining ground among the rich. It was only one or two genera- 
tions ago that the Zammdar or petty R&ja of Khairagarh, the pre- 
sent Ijearer of which title still carries in his features unmistakeable 
traces of his Gond origin, was received within the pale of Hinduism ; 
and similar transformations, though at a more distant date, seem to 
have been undergone, by the royal dynasties of Bastar, Mandla, and 
various smaller principalities. The tendency to claim connection with 
Rajputs is not peculiar to ambitious Gonds : it prevails among the 
]3hils of Malwa, and is not unknown to the wandering Kaik&dis of 
the Dakkhin, both of whom boast of being Yadavas or Panwirs, or 
some equally highborn section of the Kshatriyas.'^ Exactly the 
same is the case with the Kharwars of Mirzapur, one of whom has 
in quite recent times blossomed into a Rajput and invented a clan, 
the Benbans, for himself. He has succeeded in marrying into a 
clan as respectable as that of the Chandel. 

4. Of the physical appearance of the Gonds Mr. Hislop writes : 

— " All are a little below the average size of 

^^^of Tbo Sfnd*?''*'® Europeans, and in complexion darker than 

the generality of Hindus. Their bodies are 
well proportioned, but their features are rather ugly. They have a 
roundish head, distended nostrils, wide mouth, thickish lips, straight, 
black hair, and scanty beard and moustache. It has been supposed 
that some of the aborigines of Central India have woolly hair ; but 
this is a mistake. Among the thousands I have seen I have not 
found one with hair like a Negro. A few, indeed, have curly locks, 
as a few Britons have ; ])ut I have not met with one inhabitant of the 
forest who exhibited any marked resemblance to the African race. 
On the contrary, both their hair and features are decidedly Mongo- 
lian.^^ ^' Their women/' writes Captain Forsyth,* ^* differ among 
thems?olvps more than do the men of these races. Those of the 
Gonds are somewhat lighter in colour and less fleshy than the Kor* 
kus. Bui the Gond women of different parts of the country vary 
greatly in appearance, many of them in the opener parts near the 
plains being great robust creatures ; finer animals by far than the 
men, and here Hindu blood may be fairly expected. In the inte- 



1 Highlands of Ceniral India, 156. 



488 €K>ND ; OOKR. 

rior, ftgiun, bevies of Oond women may be seen who are liker monkejs 
than human beings. The features of all are strongly marked and 
coarse. The girls occasionally possess such comeliness as attaches 
to general plumpness and a good-humoured expression of face ; but 
when their short youth is over, all pass at once into a hideous age. 
Their hard lives, sharing as they do all the labours of the men, 
except that of hunting, sufOce to account for this. They dress 
decently enough, in a short petticoat, often dyed blue, tucked in 
between the legs so as to leave them naked to the thigh, and a 
mantle of white cotton covering the upper part of the body, with a 
fold thrown over the head. The most eastern section of the Kor- 
kus add a boddice, as do some of the Hinduised Gonds. The Oond 
women have the legs as far as they are suffered to be seen tattooed 
in a variety of fantastic patterns, done in indigo or gun-powder blue. 
The Pardhans are the great artists in this line, and the figures they 
design are almost the only ornamental art attempted by these tribes. 
It is done when the girl becomes marriageable ; and the traveller will 
sometimes hear dreadful shrieks issuing from their villages, which 
will !« attrilmted to some young Oondin being operated upon 
with the tattooing needle. Like all barbarians, both races deck 
themfielves with an inordinate amount of what they consider orna- 
ments. Quantity rather than quality is aimed at; and both arms 
and legs are usually loaded with tiers of heavy rings, in silver 
among the more wealthy, but, rather than not at all, then in brass, 
iron, or coloured glass. Ear and noserings and bulky necklaces of 
coins and beads are also common ; and their ambrosial locks are 
intertwined on State occasions with the hair of goats and other 
animals/' 
6. The following account of Oond domestio ceremonies by a 
I>aBMttc ntM-MM^ writer in the Cemiral Pro9imce9 Gaseih may 
"•*•• be quoted, as the book is rare : — " Some of 

the Oond ceremonies are peculiar. 1 hus, they have seven different 
kinds <if marriages, some much more binding than others, but all 
supposed to contain a suflicient quantum of matrimonial lanctity 
abr>ut them. The first and surest is when a G<*nd wants to marry 
his daughter, he first looks for a huslrimd among his sisteHs chiklren, 
as it is considered the proper thing fur first cousins to marry when* 
ever such an arrangement is possible ; though, strange to say, Iha 



■ FBiSfie,M. 

Vol. II. i 8 



gond; ookb. 434 

rule is only thought absolutely Iwding wfaeH the brother's child 
happens to be a girl, and the sister's a boy. Evea in the opposite 
case, however, it is very commonly done, as by so proyiding^ for a 
relation for life, the man is said to have p^iormed a Tery ri^it 
and proper act. Another reason is that less expense is entailed in 
marrying a relation than the daughter of a stranger, who in apt to 
be more exacting. Among the poorer classes who can afEord do 
money as a dower, the bridegroom serves the bride's &ther £or perioda 
vaiying from seven or eight months to three years, or sometime 
more, according to arrangements made by the parents. When the 
children are ten or eleven years old, a committee of the village elders 
is generally held, and the term of apprenticeship decided ; the term 
of service being usually somewhat longer when the youth is serving 
his uncle for his cousin, as relations are iK)t supposed to exact so 
much work from the Lamjina. The youth lives in one of the out* 
houses, and has to perform all the menial work of the household^ 
l)oih in the house and in the field. During his period of probation 
he is forbidden to hold any intercourse with the girl. 

6. '' Anotlier dchcnption of mai'riage is when the woman makes 
her own match, and declining the husband provided for her by her 
relatives, inns away with the man of her choice. A case of this 
sort Bcldom happens. It is, however| quite recognised among the 
(iondH tliat the women have the right to take their own way if they 
have the courage ; and the elders of the village in which the man 
resides generally endeavour to arrange matters to the satisfaction 
of l)oth pailies. Connected with this is compulsory marriage. Even 
aft^n* the girl has run away from her father's house, and taken up 
her rc^hidenee in the house of the man of her choice, it is quite 
allowable for the man she has deserted to assert his rights to her 
person by carrying her ofE by force ; in fact not only is this right 
allowed to the deserted lover, but any one of the girl's first cousins 
may forcibly alxluet her and keep her for himself, if he has the 
power. Once carried off, she is kept in the house of her captor, 
carefully wateheil, until she finds it useless to attempt to resist, and 
gives in. Occasional ly where the girl has made what is considered 
an objeetioiiable match with a pooraian, who has few friends, abduc^ 
tions of this sort are successfully carried out; but, as a rule, they are 
not attempted. The last form is for very poor people^ or girls 
with no relations. In the latter case she selects some man of her 
awiuaintaiice, nn-l ^oin*,^ to his house takes up her abode there. 



435 €K>in>; QOKE. 

He signifieB his aooeptance by patting on her arms banglet {cMrH 
and giving a small feast to the village etden. Sometimes ha objects^ 
if the woman is useless or of bad character ; but he gets little redresa 
from the elders ; and unless be can induoe some other man to taka 
her off his hands he is generally supposed to be bound to keep the 
woman. As, however, the women are usually good labourers, and 
well worthy of their hire, a man of property addom raises any ob- 
jection, and the women, too, are usually sufficiently worldly-wiaa to 
choose for their keepers men &irly well*to-do/' 

7. ''^Vidows are expected to re-marry, and the Oond customs 

provide for their re-marriage in two ways. 

The first consults sunply m the woman 
proceeding to the house of the man she has agreed to live with 
after her husband^s death. The other is where the younger brother 
marries his elder brother^s widow, which he is expected to do by 
the custom of the tribe, unless the widow should inxint on making 
some other arrangi»ment for hi'melf. The ceremony in both tha 
casi*s consists simply of a presentation of Ijangles by the husband to 
the wife, and a feast to the village elders. Elder brothers am 
n* it allowed to marry the widows of their younger brothers. Tha 
only limit to the number of wives a Goiid may have is his means 
uf supp<»rting them. 

8. '* Cremation is considered the most honourable mode of dia* 
. P^^i^? <>' ^hc dead, but being axpenAva ia 

very seldom resorted to, except in the caaa 
of elders of the tnbe. The rule is that, if possible, men over fifty 
should lie burtiul ; but as those wild tribes have no means of telling 
the agt*s of their fricMids, it results that all oU men mte bamk 
Women arc al^-ays buried. Formerly the Uonds usud to buiy tiMir 
Aemd in the houses in which they dicil, just deep enough to prevani 
their being dug up again by the dogs ; now they ha%ie geneially 
some place, set apart as a burial-gnmiid near the village. Their 
fuiieml ceninonies are very few ; the grave is dug so thai the head 
sliall lie to tlie stiuth and the feet to the north ; the idea being thai 
tla* dctxttscd has g«»ne t4> the home of the deities, which is supposed 
t*) U* iHinu-where in the north ; but the Ootids do not apfiaar to hava 
any real theory as regards an after-life, or the immortality of tha 
soul. 'I hey sivm t«) consider that man is bom to Uve a ceitain 
number of years on the earth, and, having fulfilled his time, to dia« 
apjicar. When tha Cather of a family dies, his spirit is suppofad lo 
Vol II. iaa 



OOND ; GONR. 436 

haunt the house in which he lived until it is laid. The oeremonjr 
for this purpose may be gone through apparently at any time after 
death, from one month to a year and-a-half^ or even to two years. 
During that period the spirit of the deceased is the only object of 
worshipr in the house. A share of the &mily food is set aside for 
him, and he is supposed to remain in the house and watch over its 
inmates. After his funeral, when, if the relatives can afEord it, they 
clothe the corpse in a new dress, a little turmeric «nd a pice is tied 
up in a cloth, and suspended by the Baiga to one of the beams of the 
house ; there it i^emains till the time comes to lay the spirit, which is 
done by the Baiga removing the cloth and offering it, with a portion 
of the flesh of a goat or a pig, to the god of the village ; a feast is 
given to the relations and elders, and the ceremony is complete.'' 

9. In Jhansi they worship all the ordinary Hindu gods, Mahar- 

_, .. . deva, Bhaw&ni, B^a, Krishna, Mahabir,and 

Hardaul ; but their special tribal ddty is Oonr 
Baba, who is apparently one of the deified worthies of the tribe; 
They seem to have become completely Hinduised : cremate their dead^ 
throw the ashes into the Ganges or one of its tributaries, and employ 
the ordinary village Brahmans in their domestic ceremonies. 

10. In theii' real home the number of their deities seems every- 
where to differ. Mr. Ilislop says that he could never get any one 
man to name more than seven. The best known are Dulha Deo, 
Narayan Deo, Suraj Deo, M&ta, Devi, Bai-a Deo, Khair Miia, Th4- 
kur Deo and Gansyam Deo. Besides these, the Gond peoples the 
forests in which he hves with spirits of all kinds, most of ihexa vested 
with the power of inflicting evil, and quite inclined to use their power. 
To propitiate these he sets up a shiine (pdl) in spots selected either 
by himself or by his ancestors, and there performs certain rites, 
generally consisting o£ small offerings on certain days. These 
shrines are sometimes merely a bamboo with a piece of rag tied to 
the end, a heap of stones, or perhaps only a few pieces of rag tied to 
the branches of a tree. However, the spirit is supposed to have 
taken up its abode there, and, in consequence, on the occasion of 
any event of importance happening in the Gond's &mily, the spirit 
has his share of the good things going, in the shape of a little spirit 
and possibly a fowl sacrificed to him. In Mandla Thakur Deo is 
supposed to represent especially the household deity, and to preside 
over the well being of the house and farmyard ; he has no special 
residence, but lias the credit of being omnipresent, and is oonse- 



487 OOND ; OONR, 

qoently not represented by any image. In RImgarfa, too, this deity 
is held in great reverence ; but there he is suppoiied to occupy more 
than one shape. One village in the Shahpur Ta'aloqa is snid to be 
very highly favoured as one of the residences of their deity. Captain 
Ward was shown there a few links of a roughly forged chain which 
the superstition of the people had gifted with the power of volun- 
tary motion; this chain looked very old, and no one could say how 
long it had been at Jata ; it was occasionally found hanging on a 
itr tree, sometimes on a stone under the tree, at others in the bed 
of a neighbouring stream. At the time of Ca{itain Ward's visit it 
was on a stone under the tree, from which it was said to hare 
descended four days before*. Each of these movements is made the 
occasion for some petty sacrifice, of which the attendant Baiga 
reaps the benefit, so that it is, of course, his ad%-antage to work on 
the credulity of the Gonds ; he does not appear, however, to abuse 
his power, as these movements only occur about once in four months ; 
so that the Oonds can hardly complain of being priest-ridden to 
any extent." 

1 1. The following account of Gansyim Deo may be compared 
with what has been elsewhere said about this deity. ^ "Throughout 
the greatet part of Ramgarh, and also in parts of Mandia, Gan* 
syim Deo is held in great reverence, and about one hundred yards 
from each village where he is in favour, a small hut is built for him. 
It is generally of the rudest material, with little attempt at orna- 
mentation. A bamboo, with a red or yellow flag tied to the end, 
is planted in one comer, an old withered garland or two is hung 
up, and a few blocks of rough stone, some smeared with TermiKon, 
are strewn about the place, which is thus especially dedicateil to 
Gansyam Deo. He is considered the protector of the crops, and in 
the month of Kirttik (November) the whole village assembka at 
his shrina to worship him : sacrifices of fowls and spirits, or a pig 
occasionally, according to the sixe of the village, are offersil, and 
Gansyim is said to descend on the head of one of the w<mhip|iers» 
who is suddenly seixed with a tort of fit, and wJttm staggering 
about for a httle, rushes ofT int4> the wildest jungles, mhers, the 
popular theory is, if not pursued and brought Ladi, he wouM inevi* 
tabiy die of starvation, a raving lunatic ; for as it is, after being 
brought back, he does not recover his senses for one or two days. 



gond; gonk. 



438 



60RITA. 



The idea is that one man is thus singled out as a scapegoat for the 
sins of the rest of the village/* 

Distribution of the Gonds according to tie Cemun of 1891, 



Districts. 


Dhuriya. 


Jetwant.. 


Others. 


TOTAf.. 


Cawnpnr • 




••• 


1 

••• 


"7 


7 


Bftada 






■ »« 


•«• 


, 166 


160 


Allahibftd . 






16 


• w 


€ 


21 


Jbftnsi 






1 

••-• 


• •• 


8 


8 


J&laan 






••' 


• • • 


10 


10 


Lalitpur • 


) t 




••• 


• •• 


625 


626 


Benares • * 


» < 




11,363 


9 


1.407 


12,779 


Mirzapur • 






8,368 


• •• 


493 

r 


8,861 


Jaunpnr . 






2,171 


••• 


• •• 


2,171 


G^iAzipuT • 


( i 




6,976 


6,407 


1,926 


141,309 


Bftllia 


• 




1,227 


2p,868 


4,200 

• 


28,735 


Gorakhpur 


1 




7,431 


38,603 


1,960 


47,884 


Azamgarh 


t 




4,586 


••• 


4;387 


8,972 


Ud&o 


t 




2 


••• 


• 

• •• 


8 


Babr&ioh • 


t 




• • • 


1 


3 


4 


Total 


41,138 


68,278 


16,088 


124,504 



Goriya, Guriya.— A fishing and cultivating caste of the East- 
cm Districts, in all respects analogous to the Gonrhi or Ghinrhi of 
Bihftr.^ They are usually treated as a sub-caste of MallAh. They 
correspond closely to the other allied castes in manners and customs ; 
but their women are said to bear an indifferent character — a state 
of things naturally resulting in a caste the male members of which 
ai-e compelled by the nature of their occupation to absent themselves 
from home for long periods. Their tribal gods are the P&nchonpir. 
'' Some again worship a water god called Koila JMha, described as 
an old grey-bearded person, who, as Ganga ji ka beldar, ' the navvy 



1 For whom see BUley, Tribet and Ca$Us, I, 294, sqq. 



GORITA. 439 GOVIKDPANTHi; 6UJAK. 

of our Imij the Osnges ^ mqm mnd swallows up whatever opp ow i 
the Miered stream. Before castinfif a new net or starting on a com- 
mereial venture, offerings of mohsscs and se\'en kinds of grain^ 
kneaded into balls, are offered to him, aiid at the end of the oere» 
monj one of the balls is placed on the edge of the water, another 
on the bow of the boat. Another rite common to many, if not to 
all fisher castes, is the Barwariya or Barahi PAja, when a subscrip* 
tion is made, and in the alisenoe of a Br&hman a pig is sacrificed in 
a garden or on a patch of waste land outside a village. Jay Sinh, 
Amar Sinh, Chand Sinh, Dayal Sinh, Kewal, Marang Bandi, 
Ooraiya, and a ri\'er named Kamalaji, arc regularly worshipped. 
Jay Sinh, who is also a favourite deity of the Tiyar caste, is said to 
have been a Gonrhi of Ujjain who had a large timber trade in the 
Sundarihan. On one o(t*asion the Raja of the Sundariban im- 
prisoned 700 Oonrhis in coniiequencc of a dispute about the price of 
wood. Jay Sinh slew the Rilja ami released the prisoners, and has 
ever since been honoured with daily worship. Ooats, sweetmeats, 
wheaten cakes, ^</« nf/hiri and flowers are offered to him at regu- 
lar intervals, and no Oonrhi will light a pipe or eml*rk on a fichtng 
excursion without first invoking the name of Ja^ Sinh. Once a year, 
in the month of Sr^van, a flag is set up in honour of Hannman on a 
bamboo pole in tlie courtyard, and offerings of sweetmimts and 
fruits are presented to the god. These offerings are ivcei%*ed by the 
Brfthmans who ofRciate as priests, while the articU*s of food given to 
the minor gods are eaten by the memliers of the cahte. Tlie dead 
are buried, usually on the brink of a river, mmI the ai^hea thrown 
into tlie stream. In Sui^al the practice is t^i iNim in a mango grovo. 
SrJM^it is p(«rformed on the thirteenth day after death.'^^ 

Govindptiithi, Oobindpanthi.'— A Vaisbnava sect whose 
adherents at the last Census numbered 4,605 persons. It waa 
fr>undi*il by Govind DAs, a mendicant Imried at Ahrauli, in the 
FUzih^l District, in whose h«>nour an anmuil fair, attemled by 
several tliousand wt^rshippers, is held in thi* month of Aghan.* 

Odjftr» Ol^ar*^An important agricultural an«l pastorai trilie 
found principally in the Western District!!. Thfy take their name 



> Bial«7. lot, cit. 

« Cmsut §Upori, Ni^rth'Wesi^m Pm^iw^'ri. 5IA. 

* Rii»d OQ Botot r«r«ive«l fr« m Mr. F. W. Hr\>wBhfff, C.R. SolUnpvr : Kavib 
MaKAa«iMd Ali KUq. HalaiiathAhr . Bilm Taritti Ob*iuifm tf MjAl, Haad MmUt, 
High 8o1mm>I, HfthAnuipw : thm Dvpvty Imptt U r of aelhwl*, M Mrak 



GtjAR. 440 

from the Sanskrit Ourjara, the original name of the ootmtry now 
called Gujarat. The current derivation from gd4^kafdma ''to 
pasture cattle *' cannot be accepted ; as a cariosity of folk etymology 
it may be added that some derive it from the fact that the tribe 
once took to feeding their cattle on carrots {gdjar) . The traditions 
of the tribe give little information as to their ori^n or history, 
fiy one legend current in the Fanjab they claim descent from a 
certain Nand Mihr^ who is perhaps Nanda, the foster father of Krish- 
na^ who was raised to distinction because he slaked the thirst of 
Alexander the Great with a draught of buffalo milk. They are 
identified by General Cunningham^ with the Koshan or Ynchi or 
Tochari^ a tribe of Eastern Tartars. ''About a century before 
Christ their Chief conquered Kabul and the Peshiwar country ; while 
his son, Hima Eadphises, so well known to the numismatologist, 
extended his sway over the whole of the Upper Panjib and the banks 
of the Jumna as far down as Mathura and the Vindhyas, and his 
successor, the no less familiar King Kanishka, the first Indo-Scy- 
thian Buddhist prince, annexed Kashmir to the kingdom of the 
Toehari. These Toehari or Kushan are the Kaspeirsei of Ptolemy ; 
and in the middle of the second century of our era^ Kaspeiray 
Kasyapura or Multan was one of their chief cities. Probably about 
the beginning of the third century after Christ, the attack of the 
White Huns recalled the last king of the united Yuchi to the West^ 
and he left his son in charge of an independent Province, whose 
capital was fixed at Peshawar ; and from that time the Yachi of 
K&bul are known as the Great Yuchi, and those of the Panjab as the 
Kator or Little Yuchi. Before the end of the third century a por- 
tion of the Gujars had begun to move southward down the IndnB, 
and were shortly afterwards separated from their northern brethren 
by another Indo-Seythian wave from the North. In the middle of 
the fifth century there was a Gujar kingdom in South- Western 
Bajputana, whence they were driven by the Balas into Gkgar&t of 
the Bombay Presidency ; and about the end of the ninth oentoryf 
Ala Khin, the G&jar King of Jammu, ceded the present Oftjaidesa^ 
corresponding very nearly with the Gujarftt District, to the King of 
Kashmir. The town of Gujarat is said to have been built or 
restored by Ala Khan G(ijar in the time of Akbar.'' 

2. The present distribution of the Gdjars is thus described fay 



^ ArchiMological Rtportit II, 61. 



441 QtJkRs 

General Cunningham : ^^" At the present day the OAjars are found 
in great numbers in every part of the north-west of India, from the 
Indus to the Ganges, and from the Hazira Mountains to the Penin* 
sula of Oujar&t. They are specially numerous along the banks of 
the Upper Jumna near JagidH mmI Buriya, and in the Sahiranpur 
District, which during the last century was actually called Gujarftt. 
To the east they occupy the petty State of Samptar, in Bundel- 
khand, and one of the northern districts of Gwilior, which is still 
called Gftjarg&r. They are found only in small bodies and much 
scattered throughout Eastern Rajputina and Gwilior ; but they are 
more Numerous in the Western States, and especially towards Guja* 
'.it, where they form a large part of the population. The lUjas of 
Riwiri to the south of Delhi are GAjars. In the Southern Panjib 
they are thinly scattered, but their numbers increase rapidly towards 
the North, where they have given their name to several important 
places, such as Gujrinwila, in the Rechna Duab, Gujarit, in the Chaj 
Duab, and Gftjar Khin, in the Sindh Sagar Duib. They are 
numerous about Jahlam and Hasan Abdil, and throughout the 
Ilazara District ; and they are also found in considerable numbers 
in the Dardu Districts of Chills, Kohli, and Palis, to the east ct the 
Indus, and in the contiguous districts to the east of the river/' 

?). As regards their ethnical affinities Mr. Ibbetson writes :*— * 
'* It has been suggested, and is, I believe, held by many, that Jita 
and Gujars, and perhaps Ahirs also, are all of one ethnic stock ; and 
this because thi*re is a cloae connection between them. It may be 
that they are the same in their far distant origin. But I think 
th€*y must have entered India at different timet or settled in sepa* 
rate parts, and my reason for thinking to is precisely because they 
eat and smoke together. In the case of Jit and Rijput the reason 
for differentiation is obvious, the latter being of higher rank thaa 
the former. But the social standing of Jits, Gujars, and AUis 
being practically identical, I do not see why they should ever have 
separated if they were once the same. It is, however, possible thai 
the Jits were the camel grasiers and perhaps boshandmen, tha 
G A jars the oi>wherds of the hills, and the Ahirs the cowherds of tha 
plains. If this be so, they afford a classification by occupation of 
the yeoman class, which fill up the gap bet wee n, and is abaolnlalj 






eontiimous tvitb^ the simllai* olassification of thd caates above them, 
as Br&hmans, Banyas, and Rajputs, and of the classes bdow them, 
as Tarkhans, Chamjlrs, and so forth. But we mnst know more of 
the early distribution of the tribes before we can have any opnion 
on the subject. I have noticed in the early historians a connection 
between the migrations and location of Gfljars and Biljpnts^ which 
has struck me as being more than accidental, and Mr. Wilson notes 
that the Gfljars and the Bargdjar tribe of R&jputs are often found 
together, and suggests that the latter may be to the Giijars what 
the Khanzadas are to the Meos, and what most B&jputs are to the 
Jats/' 

4. In these Provinces they do not, as a rule, claim to be BUjputs : 
but say they are descended from a Rajput father and a woman of 
some low caste. The Kalsan branch, in Muzaffamagar, claim des«* 
cent from Kalsa, a Rajput chief. " The R&wal Gfljars of P4nipat 
say that they are descended from a Khokhar Rijput (a clan which 
has been considered the same as the notorious Ohakkar) ; the 
Chhokar from a J3don ; the Chamayan from a Tomar; the Knl-^ 
siyan of Kairana and the Mavi from a Chauhin ; the Pilwan from 
a Pundir ; the Adhana from a Bargfljar, and the Bhatti from R&ja 
Kansal, a Bhatti R&jput from Jaysalmer/'^ Besides this an 
examination of the sections shows that it includes the names of 
many well-known Rajput septs, such as B&gri, Bais, Chandel, 
Chauhdn, and Tomar. 

5. On the whole it seems probable that in the Panjab and in the 
Western Districts of these Provinces, at least, the tribe is &irly 
free from intermixture with the lower races. Mr. Ibbetson 
describes the Gftjar as " a fine, stalwai-t fellow of precisely the same 
physical type as the Jat, and the theory of aboriginal descent 
which has sometimes been propounded, is to my mind conclusively 
negatived by his cast of countenance. He is of the same social 
condition as the Jat, or perhaps slightly inferior ; but the two eat 
and drink together in common without any scruple, and the pro-' 
verb says : — " The Jat, the Gujar, the Ahir, and Gola, are all four 
hail fellows well met.'* Of the Kashmir Gfljars Mr. Drew* 
writes :— ^'^The race is Aryan, but their countenance cannot be called 
high Aryan ; their forehead is narrow ; they want the well-fonned 



^ Elliot, Supplementary Qlosiary, «,v« 
* Jammu, 109, sq. 



443 otJkU. 

brow of the finer nces. The lower part of the faee Is narroWi too ; 
but the note hae always eomething of the cunre as is often seen in 
Aryan nations. Some I met with had lig;hter eyes than ar^ 
common among the other tribes of the coontry, and generally their 
beard was scant. In figare they are tall and gavnt, in motion slow 
and nngainly. They are rather snrly in disposition^ having that 
kind of independence which consists in liking to be left alone, and to 
hare as little as possible to do with other races. When, however, 
one does come in contact with them they are not bad to deal with/'^ 
On the other hand, the eastern branch of the tribe, and particnlarly 
those who have become Mnhammadans, appear to be verj much 
mixed in blood. 

6. Like many castes which have a preference for seven or one 

of its multiples, the GAjars pretend to have 

Tribal ftrgmnitrnti^yn. 

eighty«four exogamous ^tras or sections* 
It has been 'found impossible to procure any consistent or definite 
Kst of thef«. In the appendix to this article three lists are given, 
two of the Hindu GAjars of the Upper Dulb, one from Buland- 
shahr, and the other collated from Sir H. M. Elliot's account of 
the tribe ; the third of the Mufealman OCijars of Snhinpur. The 
Census lists contain no less than 1,1 78 gotra^ of the Hindu and 330 
of the Muhammadan branch. Of these those k>cally of meet 
importance are the Datar, Buchar, Chhotkana, Hamar, Kanas, 
Khatina, Khabar, Rath£, and Riwal, in Sahiranpur : the KaUyin 
and KhAlAr, of Muxaffamagar, the Adhsna, Bhatti, Chandel% 
Dhandhal, Hela, Kasina, KharA, KhAliar, Marsi, and Nagari, of 
Meerut : the Adhana, Bbadana, Bhatti, Kasflna, and Nagari, of 
Bulandslmhr : the Tomar, of Mathura : the Dalel and Pomar, of Agra : 
the IxihAr, of Jilaun. It will be seen that the names differ alnnvt 
all thruuf^h the lists. Most of these names arc iaid to he derived 
from the titles of tribal leaders or from the villages in which their 
early settlements were formed. It is now im|Kissible to identify 
many of these with any degree of certainty. Tiie most important 
sections in the Upper Duab are the Bhatti, who claim descent from 
Bhatti Rijimts, and date their settlement fmm the time of Prithivi 
Rlja. One <if them was gi^-en theoflSoe of "thief taker *' {ctarwkiri) 
by the Emperor Shah Akm. The Nagari aay that they are the 
illegitimate descendants of Rija Nagraj, fourth in descent from 
Anikpal Tomar of Delhi. Thi«y date their immigration from 
Ilastiuapur in 799 A.D., when thej expelled the aboriginal 



otJAR. 444 

Botijas, with whom and the Oiijars they intermarried and thus 
became degraded. The Nadwasiya claim to be Panw&r BAjpnts, and 
are said to have come from Badli in the thirteenth century, and 
settled on the banks of the Ealinadi^ whence they take their name.' 
It also appears that hypergamy occurs among some of the sections; 
thus in Saharanpur the Ealsiyan, Khapr&£, Rathi, and Banse sec- 
tions hold the highest rank and intermarry, while the Kalsiyan will 
not give their daughters to the Chhokar, Diveru, and Ddpu sections. 
The sections, as already stated, are exogamous ; but they have an 
additional formula of exogamy, which is thus stated by the Saharan- 
pur branch of the tribe. A girl may be married who is not of the 
gotra of the paternal or maternal ancestors of the boy within six 
generations, or who is not shown by her family name to be of the 
same stock as his father or mother. But this rule seems not to be 
of general application. In Bulandshahr a man will not marry 
within his own section or that of his maternal uncle ; but the chief 
rule which seems to be most genemlly observed is that a man will 
not marry in his own village and will not give a bride to a &mily 
from which within ordinary memory they have received a bride. 
On the other hand, there seems no doubt that G&jars are very lax 
in their matrimonial arrangements. The infanticide reports swarm 
with instances of those clans, who used to practice this form of 
crime, supplying the resultant want of wives by the introduction of 
women of other castes, and even now-a-days when in&nticide has 
practically disappeared, as is believed, among them, they take 
concubines freely from other castes, and their ofEspring are in most 
cases recognised as legitimate.' 

7. Another social arrangement arising from the same canse is 

polyandry, of which we have perhaps the 

i olyftnory* 

only well established instance among the 
Hindus of the plains. On this subject Baja Lachhman Sinh, 
who is a most competent authority regarding the Hindus of the 
Bulandshahr District, has kindly furnished the following note : — 
" I was assured on the spot that in almost every O&jar village in 
the vicinity of the Jumna, in the Bulandshahr District, polyandry 
was a fact. The custom was mainly due to the scarcity of women 
in the tribe, and this scarcity was the result of female in&ntioidey 

^ B4ja L&chliman Sinli, BuXanilthahr Memo,, 175, sq. 

' At the same time it is significant that at the last Cenaat tlM Hindo Q^^Jan 
«howed 160,573 males to 119,540 females. 



4M etjAB. 

which several seotions of the caste practiied very largely before the 
passing of the Infanticide Act of 1870. Polyandry was not reoog- 
nised as an acknorvledged or legal custom; but if adopted in a 
village the neighbours made no objection to it, nor was it considered 
a serious scandal. It was to the benefit of the married brother and 
his wife that all the brothers should live together, and that the joint 
earnings should be enjoyed by the single wife and her children. 
It was through this feeling of self-interest that the wife and her 
real husband permitted the other brothers to share her favours. 
The cufetom prevailed only among the poorer families, the male 
members of which found it difficult to get married in oontequenoe 
of the scarcity of girls in the caste, and also from the natural desire 
of parents to marry their daughters to as affluent persons aa 
possible. Brothers only and not other relations or strangers were 
allowed to be the joint husbands. The wife was formally married 
to one of the brothers, usually to the eldest, if he were not too old, 
and her children were known as his children only, though he aa 
well as the other brothers knew that she was at the disposal of all 
of them. Now as the Infanticide Act has put a stop to the murder 
of infant girls the scarcity of women is no k)nger felt, the custom 
of polyandry is dying out, and will soon be a thing of the past. 
While making these enquiries I was struck with the fact that poly* 
andry did not, as might hs%'e been expected to be the case, affect 
the child-bearing powers of the women who practised it, that is to 
say, these women gave birth to as many children as those who had 
but a single husband. I questioned my informants on this sobjcoC» 
and was informed that the visits of the brothers wtie not io fra- 
quent as to produce any efltect of this kind.'^^ 

h. Girls are allowed no freedom before marriage, and an un* 

married girl detected in immorality is ex* 
pelletl from the community. It is only if her 
lo%'i*r be a member of the tribe that she can be restored and remarried 
in the tribe if her parents feed the clansmen. Marriage usually 
takvs place between the age of nine and sixteen* A wife may pro* 
cure a se^iaration if tier husband be impotent, and he can put her 
away for infidelity proved to the satisfaction of the brethren. 
Widow-marriage and the levirate under the usual restriction are 



* Ob thu frmtonud poljMidnr, Ms WMtsrwATok, HuUwy 1/ Hmmmm Mmnim^^ 
471, *n. 



CktyjAH. 446 

permitted. Betrothal consists in the acceptance of a sum of money 
in the presence of the brethren^ and then the girl's barber, who ads 
as envoy, makes a knot in the boy's sheet, which clenches the 
engagement. The marriage is of the ususd respectable form, and the 
binding part of the ceremony ie the giving away cf the bride 
{ilranydddtt)y and the usual procession of the pair {diamwmri) round 
the marriage shed. 

9. There are no ceremonies during pregnancy except sat occa* 

sional vow to do some act if the delivery be 
easy. The mother is secluded for ten days, 
but is not allowed to cook or enter the cooking room for thirty 
days more. If the first child be a boy the women of the clan 
assemble daily and sing songs of rejoicing as long as the seelasion 
of the mother lasts. The family priest ofEers some dM grass to 
the father as a sign of congratulation, and receives a present in 
return. On the third day the bed of the mother is moved with a 
rite known as " the coming out '* {bdkar nikeUna) On the tenth 
day the confinement room is purified by being plastered with cow« 
dung, and Ganges water is sprinkled on the clothes and utensils of 
the household. A Brahman is called in, who recites some verses 
and does a fire sacrifice {horn), casts the horoscope of the child, after 
which some Brahmans are fed. 

10. Gujars cremate their dead, and all the rites are of normal 

type. They perform the *rdddka^ and some 
even go on pilgrimages to Graya for that 
purpose. 

11. In religion they appear to be usually Siuvas or Saktas, 

and are particularly careful in the worship of 
eigion. sttala Bhaw&ni, the small -pox goddess. 

Among minor gods they worship Chamar, but their real tribal 
worship is that of Pyarfeji^ and Bdba Sabha Ram. The temple 
of Pyareji is at Randewa, the parent [thika) village of the DApu 
Gujars, equidistant Ix^tween Nakur and Ambahta, in the Sahiranpnr 
District. Ilis father, Ramji Paddrath, born in Sambat 1545, 
at Durjanpur, in Pargana BurhSna, of the MuzafEarnagar District, 
disap^x^arcd suddenly after his birth. The consternation of the 
infantas father, Sajan, a rope-seller (bddkfarotk) was, as may be 
imagined, great. In six days he mysteriously reappeared. After 



1 Thero is a eo: d uccouat of this saint in CaUMa Review^ LVII* 207. 



447 otJAM. 

diif he was piit to herd cattle. One day the herd strayed into m 
■u^rcane 6eld, and the owner made a complaint. Before the 
official eent to make an investigation could reach the epot* the crop 
was miraculously restored. The lad then gained lOMuy diaoiplee, 
and he married a daughter of Bhaw&ni Daa, rope-tdler of Kbodi* 
Shikarpur. Their son was Kaghu Niith, and his soUt the famoof 
Pyardji. Abiut this time there was a feud between the GAjars and 
Brahmans of Sadarpur, in the course of which the GAjara^ having 
invited the Brahmans to a feast, treacherously murdered several of 
them. Thoir ghosts avenged themselves in the form of terrible 
Rakthasas, and tlieUAjars were in such evil plight that hearing of 
the fame of Py&r^ji, they invited him to take them under his pro* 
tection. He expelled the demons, and Sadarpur reguned its former 
proHperity, so that its name v^-as changed to Annadeva."lord of grain,^ 
of which RandcMi is said to be a corruption. PyirAji died there, and 
prayers are said and offerings made liefore his cenotaph. His son, 
Lil ji, having no male issue bequeathed everything to his wife. Jada 
Bairagi managed her affairs, and the people elected one of his discipleS| 
Hargoviml, to succeed him. Ever since the appointment has been 
in the hands of the people of the Badhfarosb clan, descended from 
Mailari, brother of Pyarcji, and the brothers of his son's widow. 
1'lioy own ono-third of the village ; the Mabants two-thirds The 
Saint's followers are Vaishnavas, ami wear Uack necklaces. His 
holiday is on the sixth of the dark fortnight of Chait. Baba Saliha 
Kam, another tnlnl worthy, has a shrine on the banks of the Jumna^ 
in the Ambala District, where the GAjars make occasional pit* 
grimagcH. 

12. The O&jars as a tribe have always been noted for their turbu* 
^ . , ^ . lentv and habit of catt'e-steiding Bihar* 

cMxa(*ati.D. in his IU$moiri describes how thea>mmander 

(»f the rear guanl captured a few GAjar ruflSans who followed the 
i*uiiip, decupitatitl them and M*nt their hnuls to tlie Km|)enir. 1 he 
(iujar<( of Pali and Palial IxHaine exc^eeiliiigly audacious wliile 8htr 
Sh&h waft fortifying Delhi, so he marched ti> the Hills and expelled 
them S4> tliat ** not a vi>tigi» of their haUtations was lefU*** JahA«* 
gtr* remarks tliat tlie G A jars hve chiefly un milk and curds and 



I IX.«KHi*a riKtfl, IV, 851 «: 



Mfiom 'TiIttLTate Und ; ami Biiar^ 

HLxutniiraa 'mi^ J^4 and Grijjga hwm msgrdasiY {jwuiml tovx 

prvti^nna 3nznhtf?i &111L ^& BEiI» and wiid» lai (sxrw »iS 

oar/uhipft ami w^si^ anilt^y at ^ifae «;kief -ipynfMiin in. zSm dunnficv.' 
THit^ 3UttTuaini»fi ^^exr out kdteGkioil in !;&« Xunn.^ 
p«7p#^fnr:in«t iiTxmi^Ans iTitra<E» ami xnoixAy iiiyfal dv 
"if itui ErltSitfi Armj bi£irv( Deiln. Acisaimne tsa db^^nxxeic TOatoim . 
<^f Hofi enimtrj fiii«» an i» aa TmdeszaUe ryrglrfwiir — 

'* Tlu^ ^r.<; vcA niie <!ac. tdie G:ijar ami tfe B imeftagy if Aa» fijor 

Ckmrs ekwrm jkar hiTiifm. £mr. 
"^ Whim ^ Dom made friemis widi tifas Gspv k waa idbbfli of 

Ti** Gi;ar ^iioneJi in poptilar estimai&bii 
w"lt;fi nlift J4c ia ^^ niTuih, inferj-.r to him in 

ffaq/^a, rmkka, knrkani, G-ij^r ^-mr JSl^ 



"* Pipe, ror^u^no, coorteian, the Cdjar ami the Jit ave aQ 
lib^ nhe hne of Ja^annadi ^ tiempie winckail eastes majraUto fe e thci .*^ 

i he G 11 jar Ls in £a«!t mi:re a man of docks ami hezdi> than tbe Jat, 
whr. ..4 one of the most indnstnijtzs and skilled eoltDraton in the 
pro^-: riru>. TlieT will tirlnk fprrita and eat mutton, p*^^ soii fiTwIa. 
Thev f^an in mr.fet piact^ »>at, tirink. and smi:>ke witb Aliin and Jita. 
Iq Brianpr.r the K^are Gijars are i2i£erii3r to the Laar, 
pnQi:ipaii7 engrae^i in makiii:; butter and ^fai. which their 
Aeii, and whii:h. is 'Li:<>ke<i ^n by the tTtfaers as deroeatorj. Thej 
have a «:Tirl»}rL'» cuifC<}ni <:f making a cow of cowdnng*, corerin^ it 
with •:ott«..n an«i grin^ throt^jh the prxrew of k^] Hti g it^acnstom 
wh:4:h •>eem.<* ti') ihi>w that the reverence for the cow which thej ik>w 
pr y£ft4:4 may *>» of •2t>mparativeiT m*jdem growth,* 






449 QtjAU. 

IS. The Musalmln G&jani are most numerous in Oudh and 

the Meerut Division. I'hey were apparently 
Maialmin 06jar.. converted to IsUm at various times ; but their 
tradition in Oudh attributes this to tlie compulsion of Tirour when 
he attacked Delhi and converted all the people in the neighlx)urhood 
by force. Some of them still maintain their Hindu sections and 
reflate their marriapres by them as their Hindu brethren do ; but 
in some places this is beiuf^r replaced by the Muhammadan law of 
prohibiteil de^ri^s. 1 hey arc mostly Sunnis, and Sunni will not 
intermarry with Shiah families In spite of their conversion they 
retain a number of their old tribal practices. When the bride 
arrives at the house of her husband her mother-in-law does the wave 
ceremony {parackkam) over her head to scare evil spirits, and then 
takes her into the household chapel {deopkar), where she worshipe 
the puirdian deities of the family, for whom they still retain respect. 
After this the husband's mother is allowed to see the face of the 
bride for the first time, and f^^^ ^^ ^ present. Widows marry by 
the nihH rite, and the levirate is allowed. Some families retain 
the rule that the elder brother cannot marry the widow of his 
youn^r brother, but this is violated by some of the tribe in Oudh. 

1 k When a baby is bom the Chamirin is called in and bathes 
the child in n broken earthen pot {kkaprti) : in this the father puts 
two pice (kkaprf ka iaka)^ which are the fee of the midwife. Then 
the Pan«lit is asked t) fix a lucky time for the first bathin^^ [nakdn) 
of the mother, and he aptin has to fix a time, ^nerally on the 
twelfth «lay, when she leaves her room. When a boy is four or five 
years of a^e he is cinnimcisetl in the UHual way. 

15. Betrothal is done on a lucky day fixeil by the Pandit, and 
the only rite is that the fathers exehanj^e cups of spirits. When 
the pro<'esi(ion arrives at the house of the britle the usual door rite 
(liuiir ka rk,ir) is perfurmtt)| and after the document fixing: the dower 
(fli«if } i>ayable on divorce is drawn up, the Qazi rtmds the mttJi 
in the f»nlinary way. 

10. TI117 bury their deail. When the burial is over they make 
a fire ofTirini; {^9^dn) by buminf; incense in the name of the dead, 
and after waitings a i^hort time they upnet a pitcher of water near 
the (rrave. 

17. Ihey riMt the shrine of (thssi Miyin at Dahraich, and offer 

there sweet cakes (sM/tWn). Ihey alflo venerate \*arians local sainta 

and martyrs, such as Ali-ud-din Shahid, MaiUr ShUi, and Buddhi 
Vol. II. as 



otJAIU 



460 



Chandra B&ba. They employ Sarwariya and Sanidh BrftlimaDS 
to give them omens and propitiate the &mily gods. Tbey so &r 
observe the Holi and Nsigpanchami festivals that on those days they 
do not work. On Fridays they make offerings of food to their 
deceased ancestors^ and when a death occurs in their fiunily tbejr 
feed beggars in the hope that the food will throagfa them reach the 
dead man in the world of the dead. 

18. They observe the ordinaiy Muhammadan rules about food, 
and will eat with any Musalm&n except a Dhobi, Dhuniya^ or 
Mehtar. 





Gifar Sections » 




Snlt&npnr. 


Balandahahr. 


Sir H. M. Rlliai. 




Adh&na. 


AdhAoa. 


Akija. 






Amota. 


Anbaota. 




Awana. 


Badbnrd. 


Badkina. 


Bagri 


Bahk. 




Paj&r. 


Bahrana. 
Bais&ho. 




l^nja. 


Baislo. 


Bailie. 


Barakat. 


B&sakta. 


Baletar. 




Bharaila. 


BanoL 


Bokan. 


Bh&ti. 


BhatAr. 




Bukar. 


BbattL 


Chauh&n. 


Chandela. 


ChamAyan. 


Clihanchhi. 


Chaprana* 


CheobL 


Ckhokar. 


Chh^chhi. 


Cbhokmr. 




ChhAort\ 


Cbotkand. 




Chhokar. 




Dhuiulhar. 


Dahariya. 


Dedd. 




Dhanga. 





461 



0<^JAft. 



Of^ar S0efiM#— •ontd* 



BolUnpar. 


Bolandahahr. 


Sir H. M. EUloi. 




DhatrewiL 






Dohb. 






DoaqU. 






Gborariip. 






Goni. 


OOTM. 




Hon. 




J&ngar. 




JAtli. 


Jsuhar. 


Jaabar. 


Jindbar. 


JhabftDKha. 


JawAra. 




Joja. 






KakArt 


KaUrA. 


KadAhaa. 


Kiraa. 


Kaithtriya. 


KaksjAa. 


KaUriya. 


KaljAaa. 

KapAtija. 

Kaimbioa. 


KanAna* 




KatAaa, 


Kaa«Qiil« 




KbanAaa. 


KbarA. 


KbnUkiui. 


KbatAaa. 


KkatAoa. 


Kliokar. 


Kbogar. 


KbAbar. 


KorL 


LoboMaiA. 


KaOaA. 




MA^L 


MabaiBM. 


Mewili 


ModAr. 


MolA. 


M UiUo. 


ModlMM. 

Mannra. 


MAndaa. 


Paii'idpi&ta. 


NAc«rA. 


NA«.iA. 

••• 


Fwuir. 


PatAow 


nuiB. 



Sou II. 



tvB 



ot^JAS. 



462 



Oujar Seetioni — ooncld. 



SnlUnpor. 


Bnlandahahr. 


Sir H. M. Kllioi. 


Phagna, 


Phagna. 


Pt^rbar. 


Phnlar. 


PuswAr. 




B4tbi. 


R&thi. 


R4thi. 




Baanso. 


Baosd. 


8akarw&r. 




B&wal. 


Sardawa* 


8ar&ndbina. 


SukuL 


Sarwan. 




SnrAdnd. 




Tomar. 


TWohar. 


TJntw&r, 


Tangar. 





Distribution of OHjarn according to the Census of 189 U 



DiBTBICTB. 


Hindaa. 


MfilifLTtHfnn« 


TOTAI.. 


Dehra DAn 








527 


439 


966 


Sab^raDpnr 








67,053 


18,454 


75,507 


Mazaffarnagar < 








27,856 


13^39 


41,066 


Meerut 








69.387 


66 


69.458 


Balandshabr 








46.632 


• • • 


46,638 


Aligarh 








11.397 


11 


11.408 


Mathura • 








7,430 


23 


7.468 


Agra 








13.238 


1 


13.839 


Farrnkh&blid 








83 


88 


111 


Mainpnri . « 








111 


••• 


111 


EUwah 








3.113 


••• 


8.118 


Etah 








9 


82 


81 


Bareilly 


1 






7.361 


• • t 


7,361 



468 



Of^JAR. 



IHsirihution of Q